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THF    mrfVPTTON    OF    TTTF    MASTER    OF    TTTF    FAT  T  t 

On  the  26tli  of  Jaiuiary  1857,  the  Master  of  the  Rolls 
submitted  to  the  Treasury  a  proposal  for  the  publication 
of  materials  for  the  History  of  this  Country  from  the 
Invasion  of  the  Romans  to  the  Reign  of  Henry  VIII. 

Tlie  Master  of  the  Rolls  suggested  that  tliese  materials 
should  be  selected  for  publication  under  competent 
editors  without  reference  to  periodical  or  chronological 
arrangement,  without  mutilation  or  abridgment,  prefer- 
ence being  given,  in  the  first  instance,  to  such  materials 
as  were  most  scarce  and  valuable. 

He  proposed  that  each  chronicle  or  historical  docu- 
ment to  be  edited  should  be  treated  in  the  same  way  as 
if  the  editor  were  engaged  on  an  Editio  Princeps ;  and 
for  this  purpose  the  most  correct  text  should  be  formed 
from  an  accurate  collation  of  the  best  MSS. 

To  render  the  work  more  generally  useful,  the  Master 

of  the  Rolls  suggested  that  the  editor  should  give  an 

accoimt  of  the  MSS.  employed  by  him,  of  their  age  and 

their  peculiarities;  that  he  should  add  to  the  work  a 

brief  account  of  the  life  and  times  of  the  author,  and  any 

remarks  necessary  to  explain  the  chronology ;   but  no 

other  note  or  comment  was  to  be  allowed,  except  what 

might  be  necessary  to  establish  the  correctness  of  the 


a  2 


The  works  to  be  published  in  octavo,  separately,  as 
they  were  finished  ;  the  whole  responsibility  of  the  task 
resting  upon  the  editors,  who  were  to  be  chosen  by  the 
Master  of  the  Eolls  with  the  sanction  of  the  Treasury. 

The  Lords  of  Her  Majesty's  Treasury,  after  a  careful 
consideration  of  the  subject,  expressed  their  opinion  in  a 
Treasury  Minute,  dated  February  9,  1857,  that  the  plan 
recommended  by  the  Master  of  the  HoUs  ''  was  well 
calculated  for  the  accomplislmient  of  this  important 
national  object,  in  an  effectual  and  satisfactory  manner, 
within  a  reasonable  time,  and  provided  proper  attention 
be  paid  to  economy,  in  making  the  detailed  arrange- 
ments, without  unnecessary  expense." 

They  expressed  their  approbation  of  the  proposal  that 
each  chronicle  and  liistorical  document  .should  be  edited 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  represent  mth  all  possible  cor- 
rectness the  text  of  each  writer,  derived  from  a  collation 
of  the  best  MSS.,  and  that  no  notes  should  be  added, 
except  such  as  were  illustrative  of  the  various  readings. 
They  suggested,  however,  that  the  preface  to  each  work 
should  contain,  in  addition  to  the  particulars  proposed 
by  tlie  Master  of  the  Rolls,  a  biographical  account  of 
the  author,  so  far  as  authentic  materials  existed  for  that 
purpose,  and  an  estimate  of  his  historical  credibility  and 

Bolls  House, 

Deremher  IHoT. 

ixy  U  ftLil  yvAi'elpfc  Voti  xtvecp  -j  p'  jrav  ■S-p  eft 
"T  if  l^^'^^^^^^'  |^oTi-mxe&''iic  vipHe--^IIf<fr][ve-' 
-]p-yp^lwlo'^>on|>a  hot-cu  j^'uchoman  'Tip 

IftiP-arv  Ha^  onprtjii?-  "itf-Wmi^  njiKnucl  n  lol'o 

e  _  ^ ^ 

lortvvn  '^^|iiipe-^n"li'a  TO&^Toyonmt-  m.\K.  -ipic 

ir,rnwciii¥-^  Wile  Urn  ^nim  nii^lnnimciA.^cnil'lim 
\  -1  ncvne  roftcu)  •  ^ip-hti  ptfem  Tmvro  o  bjvfn  i^va. 

MS.    RE<3.    12.  D.XYIX.    fol    .'53d 








i;y  TIIK 


VOL.  II. 







V.  2 

,  Trill  ted  by 

EiKli  and  Spottiswoode,  Her  Majesty's  Prinlefj 
For  Her  Majesty's  Stationery  Office. 



Preface          -           -  -            -             -            -        vii 

Leech  Book.    Book  I.  -            -            -            -          1 

Book  II.  ......       158 

Book  III.  -            -            -            -      300 

Glossaky        -             -  -            -             -            -361 

Index  of  Pkoper  Names  -            -            -            -      415 



No  historical  records  are  complete  without  the  usual 
chapter  on  Manners  and  Customs ;  and  the  true  scholar 
never  feels  himself  well  in  possession  of  the  I'equisite 
knowledge  of  the  past  age,  till  he  has  so  learnt  its 
time  honoured  tale,  as  to  apprehend  in  a  human  and 
practical  sense  those  feelings  which  made  its  super- 
stitions plausible,  its  heathenism  social,  its  public 
institutions  tend,  in  the  end,  to  the  general  welfare. 

The  Saxons  have  not  been  more  fortunate  than  others 
in  their  appreciation  by  us,  self  satisfied  moderns.  They 
have  been,  and  still  .are,  I  believe,  commonly  regarded 
as  mangy  dogs,  whose  success  against  the  Keltic  race 
in  this  country  was  owing  chiefly  to  their  starved 
condition  and  ravening  hunger.  The  children  protest 
that,  positively,  as  they  know  from  their  most  reUable 
handbooks,  these  roving  savages  stuffed  their  bellies 
mth  acorns,  and  the  enlightened  literati  and  dilettanti 
begrudge  them  any  feeling  of  respect  for  their  queens 
and  ladies,  or  any  arts  such  as  befit  our  "  Albion's 
"  glorious  isle  "  under  an  Encflish  kino-. 

The  work  now  published  for  the  first  time,  and 
from  a  unique  manuscript,  will,  if  duly  studied,  afford 
a  large  store  of  information  to  a  very  difierent  effect, 
and  show  us  that  the  inhabitants  of  this  land  in 
Saxon  times  were  able  to  extract  a  very  fair  sliaie 
of  comfortable  food,  and  healing  medicines,  and  savoury 
drinks  directly   or   indirectly   from   it.      Many   readers 


will  be  glad  to  see  drawn  together  into  one  the  scat- 
tered notices  which  occur  most  plentifully  here,  and 
occasionally  elsewhere,  upon  this  matter. 

At  his  noon  meat  or  dinner,  at  the  Itova  nona,  or 
ninth  hour  of  the  day,^  for  the  word  noon  has  now 
changed  its  sense,  the  Saxon  spread  his  table  duly 
and  suitably  with  a  table  cloth.^  He  could  place  on 
it  for  the  entertainment  of  his  family  and  household, 
the  flesh  of  neat  cattle,*'  now  Normanized,  as  Sir  Walter 
Scott  has  made  familiar  to  all,  into  beef,  the  flesh  of 
sheep,*  now  called  mutton,  of  pig,  of  goat,*"  of  calf,^  of 
deer,  especially  the  noble  hart,*^  of  wild  boar,"  the  pea- 
cock,  swan,  duck,'  culver  or  pigeon,^  waterfowl,  barn- 
door fowl,'^  geese, '°  and  a  great  variety  of  wild  fowl, 
which  the  fowler  caught  with  net,  noose,  birdlime, 
birdcalls,  hawks,  and  traps  ;'^  salmon,  eels,  hake,  pil- 
chards, eelpouts,^-  trout,  lampreys,  herrings,  sturgeon, 
oysters,  crabs,  periwinkles,  plaice,  lobsters,  sprats,^^ 
and  so  on.^* 

The  cookery  of  these  viands  was  not  wholly  contemp- 
tible. It  was  entrusted  to  professors  of  that  admired 
art,^'^  who  could,  though  their  accomplishments  have 
been  neglected  by  the  annalists,  put  on  the  board 
oyster  patties,  ^*^  and  fowls  stuffed  with  bread  and  such 
worts  as  parsley.''^     Weaker  stomachs  could  have  light 

'  Horn.  II.  256.  Also  Seo  vunne 
aJjyjTjiobe.vpam  mibbaej;^'  o'iS  non, 
JI.II.  158  a,  The  mm  was  darkened 
from  midday  tdl  noon.  Even  here 
our  dictionaries  blunder. 

-  Beobcla'5,  vE.G.  8,lincol.  Myj'c 
hjiBegel,  I>ye. 

*  Lb.  II.  vii.,  etc. 

'  Coll.  Monasticon,  p.  •!{). 

■-  Lb.  II.  xvi. 

"  Coll.  Mon.  p.  ±1. 

■  Lb.  IL  xvi. 

"■■  Lb,  II.  XXX.  2. 

'  DD.  504  ;  Lb.  II.  xvi.  2, 

'"  Lb.  II.  xvi.  2, 

"  Coll.  Mon.  p.  25. 

'-  Young  eels  (Kersey). 

'■'  Sppoccas  not  in  the  dictionaries. 
JJcsides  two  passages  in  which  it 
occurs,  reserved  for  reasons  which 
readers  of  the  Shrine  will  under- 
stand, it  occurs  Coll.  Mon.  p.  23. 
See  French  Celerin,  Selerin ;  the 
MS.  has  Salin. 

' '  Coll.  Mon.  pp.  23,  24. 

''  Coll.  Mon.  p.  29. 

'"  Lb.  II.  xxiii. 

"Lb.  HLxii. 



food,  chickens,'  giblets,  pigs  trotters,^  eggs,  broth, 
various  preparations  of  milk,  some  of  the  nature  of 

From  some  of  their  drawings,  their  cookery  of  meat 
seems  to  have  been  more  Homeric^  than  Roman  or 
modern  English,  for  we  see  portions  of  meat  brought 
up  on  small  spits,  all  hot,  to  the  table.  All  food  that 
required  it  was  sweetened  with  honey,  before  men  had 
betaken  themselves  to  sugar.  For  fruits,  we  know 
they  had  sweet  apples,'''  which  are  not  indigenous  to 
England,  pears,  peaches,*^  medlars,  plums,  and  cherries. 

Saxons,  thus  well  provided  with  eatables,  could 
satisfy  thirst  with  not  a  few  good  and  savoury  drinks ; 
with  beer,  with  strong  beer,  with  ale,  with  strong  ale, 
with  clear  ale,  with  foreign  ale,  and  with  what  they 
called  twybrowen,  that  is,  double  brewed  ale,  a  luxury, 
now  rare,  and  rare  too  then  probably.''  These  ales 
and  beers  were,  of  course,  to  deserve  the  name,  and 
as  wo  learn  from  many  passages  of  the  present  publi- 
cation, made  of  malt,  and  some  of  them,  not  all  pro- 
l>ably,  were  hopped.^  I  have  sufficiently,  in  the  Glos- 
sary,^ established  that  tlie  hop  plant  and  its  use  were 
known  to  the  Saxons,  and  that  they  called  it  by  a 
name,  after  which  I  have  inquired  in  vain  among 
hop  growers  and  hop  pickers  in  Worcestershire  and 
Kent,  the  Hymele.'"  The  hop  grows  wild  in  our  hedges, 
male  and  female,  and  the  Saxons  in  this  state  called 
it  the  hedge  hj^mele ;  a  good  valid  presumption  that  they 
knew  it  in  its  fertility.     Three  of  the  Saxon  legal  deeds 

'  As  before. 
-  Lb.  II.  i. 
^  Gl.  ylecan. 

••  Kai  a./x(p'  o^eXoKTiv  tQrjKav. 
'  Mylsee  asppla,  Lb.  II.  xvi. 
"  Persocas,  Lb.  p.  176  ;  Lacn.  89  ; 
AiSa|.  .31. 

•  Lb.  T.  xlvii.  .1. 

^  Hb,  Ixviii. 

"  See  also  Preface,  Vol.  I.  p.  Iv. 

'"  I  find  Ymele,  fem.,  gen -an,  for 
a  roll,  scroll,  volumen.  The  Ilymele 
is  in  glossaries  frequently  Voliihilis  ; 
and  the  two  suggest  a  derivation  for 
either  from  Ymbe  =  'Aficpi,  so  that 
Ilvmele  means  coiler. 


extant  refer  ^  to  a  liide  of  land  at  Hymel-tim  in  Wor- 
cestershire, tlie  land  of  the  garden  hop,  and  as  tun 
means  an  enclosure,  there  can  he  not  much  doubt  that 
this  was  a  hop  farm.  The  bounds  of  it  ran  down  to 
the  hymel  brook,  or  hop  plant  brook,  a  name  which 
occurs  about  the  Severn  and  the  Worcestershire  Avon 
in  other  deeds.  One  of  the  unpublished  glossaries 
affords  the  Saxon  word  Hopu,  Hojos,^  and  Hopwood  in 
Worcestershire  doubtless  is  thence  named.  Perhaps, 
to  explain  some  testimonies  to  a  more  recent  impor- 
tation of  hops,  it  may  be  suggested  that,  as  land  or 
sea  carriage  of  pockets  of  hops  from  Worcestershire  to 
London  or  the  southern  ports  was  difficult,  the  use  of 
the  hop  was  long  confined  to  that  their  natural  soil, 
while  the  Kentish  hops  may  be  a  gift  from  Germany. 

A  table  is  well  enough  furnished  where  the  flagons 
are  filled  with  good  malt  liquor ;  it  is  flat  heresy,  they 
say,  to  discover  mischief  in  University  "  particular :" 
but,  notwithstanding,  the  Saxons  drank  also  mead,  an 
exhilarating  beverage,  which  from  its  sweetness  must 
have  been  better  suited  to  the  palates  of  the  ladies, 
and  which  was  of  an  antiquity  far  anterior  to  written 
or  legendary  history.  They  had  also  great  store  of 
wines,  which  they  distinguished  by  their  qualities,  as 
clear,  austere,  sweet,  rather  than  by  their  provinces  or 
birth.  They  made  up  also  artificial  diinks,  oxymel, 
hydromel,  mulled  wines,  and  a  Clear  drink,  or  Claret/"^ 
of  the  nature  of  those  beverages  which  are  now  called 

Salt,  which  is  an  indispensable  condiment  to  civilized 
man,  they  obtained  from  Cheshire  and  Worcestershire, 
where    they  had   furnaces   for   the   evaporation  of  the 

'  CD.  209,  080,  lOGG.  1  lleve  them  to  be   the   hloKSoms  of 

-  "  Lygistra    hopu,"    Gl.  Cleop.      privet. 
f.  57  a.     Ligustra,  though  known  to         ^  See  the   Glossary   in   jMuttoji 
every  ear,  by  the  line  Alba  ligustra      bpenc. 
caduut,  were  long  doubtful  ;  we  be-   I 



brine.^  Salt  fm*  salted  meats,-  which  also  were  quite 
familiar  to  them,  might  be  got  from  the  saltpans  on 
the  sea  shore. 

The  dishes,  on  which  their  meats  were  served,  were 
sometimes  of  silver,^  nor  was  this  esteemed  a  high 
distinction.'^  The  vessels  from  which  they  drank  were 
sometimes  of  glass  f  and  those  they  had  also  transpa- 
rent in  quality.'^'  The  supply  upon  the  tables  of  a  chief- 
tain, who  had  many  retainers,  was  abundant,  and  not 
over  studious  of  luxury  and  refinement.'  When  not 
engaged  in  war  or  hunting,  the  princes  thought  a  good 
deal  of  their  gormandize.^  Festive  assemblies  were  more 
frequent  than  among  other  races  of  men  ;  they  were 
duly  ordered,  and  attended  by  gleemen,  from  whose 
lips  the  honeysweets  of  song  flowed  readily  and  freely, 
and  whose  reward  came  from  the  munificence  of  the 
prince.  The  feasts  not  rarely  lasted  through  the 

In  the  monastic  colloquy,  an  exercise  for  students, 
who  were  to  be  "bilingues,"  capable  of  conversing  in 
their  own  language  and  in  that  of  Rome,  which  is, 
therefore,  quite  destitute  of  artifice  or  ambition,  a  boy 
is  asked  what  he  has  to  eat.  His  reply  i^^,  worts  (that 
is,  kitchen  herbs),  fish,  cheese,  butter,  beans,  and  flesh 
meats.  He  drinks  ale,  and,  if  he  cannot  get  that,  water, 
for  he  cannot  afford  wine.  This  is  the  daily  diet  of 
a  boy  under  education  in  a  monastery. 

Altogether,  if  the  comfortable  prejudices  of  modernism 
do  not  shut  out  trustworthy  and    contemporary  testi- 

'  CD.  451. 

-  Lb.  p.  234,  etc. 

^  Discus  argenteus  regalibus 
epulis  refertus,  Becla,  III.  vi. 

*  Est  videre  apud  illos  argentese 
vasa,  legatis  et  pi'incipibus  eorum 
muneri  datse,  non  in  alia  vilitate 
quam  qua;  bumo  finguntur.  Tacitus, 
Germ.  5. 

■'  Calicem  is  translated  slsej-yaer, 
Beda,  p.  618,  line  12. 

«  C.E.  78,  ult. 

■  Epiilffi  et,  quanquam  incompti, 
largi  tamen  adparatus,  Tacit.  Germ. 

*  Dediti  somno  ciboque.  Tacit. 
Germ.  15. 

'■'  Tacit.  Germ.  22. 



mony  the  Saxons  must  be  concluded  to  be  very  far 
removed  from  that  pasturage  upon  the  lierb  of  the 
field  whicli  was  the  regale  of  human  innocence,  and 
that  feeding  upon  grass  which  was  the  doom  of  an 
arrogant  Oriental  king.  They  seem  to  dine  like  Eng- 

The  Saxon  imported  purple  palls,  and  silk,  precious 
gems,  gold,  rare  vestments,  drugs,  wine,  oil,  ivory,  ori- 
chalclium  (a  very  fine  mixed  metal  of  gold  and  silver), 
brass,  brimstone,  glass,  and  many  more  such  articles.^ 
Tin  came  by  water  from  Cornwall.  Their  enterprise  by 
sea  was  distinguished  ;  the}^  pursued  the  dangerous 
whale,  and  were  known  for  their  adventurous  hostile 
landings  upon  the  Gallic  coasts  before  they  had  settled 
in  this  country.^ 

When  the  Saxons  got  possession  of  Britain,  they 
found  it,  not  such  as  Julius  C?esar  describes  it,  but 
cultivated  and  improved  by  all  that  the  Romans  knew 
of  agriculture  and  gardening.  Hence  rue,  hyssop,  fennel, 
mustard,  elecampane,  southernwood,  celandine,  radish, 
cummin,  onion, '"'  lupin,  chervil,  flower  de  luce,  flax 
probably,  rosemary,  savory,  lovage,  parsley,  coriander, 
olusatrum,  savine,  were  found  in  their  gardens  and 
available  for  their  medicines.  Among  the  foreign  drugs, 
or  the  like,  which  are  mentioned  in  this  volume,  we  find 
mastich,  pepper,  galbanum,  scamony,  gutta  ammoniaca, 
cinnamon,  vermilion,  aloes,  pumice,  quicksilver,  brim- 
stone, myrrh,  frankincense,    petroleum,'*  ginger. 

The  Saxons  and  Engie  for  the  supply  of  their  tables, 
thus,  as  we  have  seen,  abundantly  supplied,  kept  herds 
of  cattle.  The  agriculture  was  in  great  measure,  with 
alterations  adapted  to  the  moister  climate,  and  with 
improvements  from  lapse  of  time  and  from  other  coun- 

'  Col.  Mon.  p.  27. 

■-'  Ainmianiis  Marcellinus,  xxviii. 

^  Ynneleac  has  for  its  first  ele- 
ment a  Latinism,  unionem,  onion. 

'Lb.  pp.  53,  .'iT,   01,   101,    125 



tries,  Roman.  Among  them  arable  land  was  excellently 
cared  for,  much  on  the  same  method  as  we  observe  on 
the  downs  of  Kent,  the  garden  of  England.  By  throw- 
ing a  thousand  small  allotments  into  one  great  field, 
they  were  well  rid  of  the  encumbrance,  the  weeds,  the 
birds,  the  boys  going  a  birdnesting,  and  the  repair  of 
hedges  or  other  fences.  But  the  pasture  land  was  not 
so  well  managed.  The  Romans,  who  had  an  elaborate 
machinery  of  aqueducts  and  irrigation,  grew  hay  in  their 
prata,  or  meadows,  which  were  artificially  supplied  with 
water,  and  to  get  two  crops  a  year,  or  three  or  four,' 
gave  a  large  flow  of  that  element  to  the  soil.  This, 
of  course,  had  its  inconveniences,  herbs  that  thrive  in 
wet  came  up  stronger  than  the  grass,  especially  horse- 
tail, and  a  "  nummulus  "  with  pods.  They  had  an  awk- 
ward inefiicient  way  of  cutting  the  grass  with  a  hook, 
held  in  the  right  hand  only,  and  this  was  followed 
by  a  second  operation,  called  sickling,^  to  cut  what  the 
hooks  had  left.  They  tedded  the  hay,  as  is  done  now, 
by  hand,  with  forks, ^  took  care  it  should  be  dry  enough 
not  to  ferment,  leaving  it  in  cocks,*  and  when  ready 
carried  it  off  to  the  farm,^  and  stored  it  in  a  loft.^ 

Our  forefathers  here  were  able,  from  the  frequent  Hay. 
rains,  to  dispense  for  the  most  part  with  irrigation. 
They  cut  the  hay  with  sithes,'  the  pattern  of  which 
was  probably  borrowed  from  the  continental  Kelts, '^  and, 
most  naturally,  by  the  subdued  British  before  the  settle- 
ment of  the  English,  since   they  were   relatives,    spoke 

'  Interamnse  in  Umbria  quater 
anno  secantur  etiam  non  rigua, 
Plin.  xviii.  67=2S. 

2  Sicilire  ;  Plin.  as  above,  Varro, 
E.R.  i.  19. 

8  Furcillis. 

*  Meta;. 

*  Villa. 

"  In  tabulate.  Sub  tecto,  Colu- 
mella, II.  xix. 

VOL.  II. 

'  Horn.  II.  p.  162.  Also  a  Saxon 
drawing  in  MS.  Cott.  Tiber.  B.  v., 
where  the  painter  has  given  straight 
handles  to  the  sithes  ;  and  has  cer- 
tainly committed  an  error  in  draw- 
ing haymaking  for  August,  and 
reaping  for  June. 

**  Galliarum  latifundia  maioris 
compendii,  Plin.  as  above. 



tlie  language,  and  were  in  frequent  communication  with 
Gaul.  They  stored  the  hay  in  ricks  ^  and  mows,-  where 
it  was  less  likely  to  get  mouldy  than  in  the  half  close 
lofts  of  the  Romans. 

But  according  to  the  Roman  system  little  hay  was 
prepared  thus,  there  were  legal  impediments  to  ex- 
tending widely  the  formation  of  inclosed  pasturage^,  and 
we  read  often  enough  of  feeding  the  cattle  upon  leaves, 
or  rather  on  foliage.^  The  man  employed  in  procuring 
small  boughs  for  his  cattle  was  called  Frondator.^  The 
greater  part,  by  far,  of  Italian  pasture  land  was  common, 
overspread  by  bushes  and  trees,  where  the  employment 
of  herdsmen  and  shepherds  was  indispensable,  and  im- 
provement was  almost  impossible. 
Cattle  thieves.  In  the  same  way,  in  early  England,  a  grass  fiekP  is 
rarely  heard  of,  while  the  law  books  are  full  of  pre- 
cautions against  cattle  thieves,  whose  bad  business  was 
made  easy  by  the  threadmg  commons  and  wide  moors, 
along  which  a  stolen  herd  could  be  driven,  j)icking  up 
subsistence  on  its  way,  and  evading  observation  by 
keeping  off  the  great  roads.  So  much  were  the  farmers 
pestered  with  cattle  thefts,  that  the  legislature  required 
responsible  witnesses  to  the  transfer  of  such  property, 
and  would  have  it  transacted  in  open  market;  it  also 
invented  a  team  ;  that  is  to  say,  when  Z,  who  has  lost 
his  oxen,  found  them  and  identified  them  in  possession 
of  A,  the  said  A  was  bound  by  trustworthy  witnesses 
to  show  that  he  had  them  lawfully  from  B ;  B  was 
then  compelled  to  go  through  the  same  process,  and  to 

'  This  word  is  not  in  the  Saxon 
dictionaries,  and  I  will  not  at  pre- 
sent indicate  the  passage  where  it  is 

to  he  found.  Sa^  l^jL^juie^  eicXia. 
•-.x.'J  /  ...'I.    />  ^  .   hre^c  ,  Oi^t^d.  £ 

■"^'Mugan,  Exodus  xxii.  6 

"  Quid  maiora  sequar  ?    Salices 
"  humilesque  genistae 

"  Aiit  ilia;  pecori  frondem  aut 

"  pastoribus  umbram 
"  SufEciunt." 

Virgil.  Georgic.  II.  434. 
"  Hie  ubi  densas  agricola;  strin- 
"  gunt  frondes." 

Id.  Eel.  ix.  60. 
'  Virgil.  Eel.  I.  57. 
^  Gaejjj^un. 


sliow  that  lie  gave  honest  money  for  them  to  C  ;  thus 
a  team  or  row  of  successive  owners  was  unravelled  till 
it  ended  in  P,  who  had  neglected  to  secure  credible 
witnesses  to  his  bargain  ;  or  in  Q,  who  bought  them 
at  a  risky  price  from  the  actual  thief  Then  Z  recovered 
his  cattle  or  their  value.^  Under  this  legislation  the 
chief  difficulty  of  a  loser  was  to  trace  the  direction  in 
which  his  cattle  had  been  driven  off,  and  the  skill  of 
the  hunter  in  tracking  the  slot  of  the  deer,  helped  to 
follow  the  foot  prints  of  horse  or  sheep  or  ox.^  The 
less  fertile  parts  of  England  are  still  patched  by  strips 
of  common,  or  ways  with  grassy  wastes  skirting  them, 
and  the  wanderer  may  often  ramble  by  hedgerow  elms 
mid  hillocks  green,  among  the  primroses  and  violets, 
by  ups  and  downs,  through  quagmires  and  over  gates, 
from  his  furthest  point  for  the  day,  till  he  nears  the 
town  and  his  inn.  Elwes,  the  famous  miser,  could  ride 
seventy  miles  out  of  London  without  paying  turnpike. 
The  Saxon  herdsman  watched  the  livelono-  nie^ht.^ 

The  Saxons  also,  like  the  Romans,  fed  their  cattle,  Cattle  fed  on 
sometimes,  so  as  to  make  the  notion  familiar,  with  the  ^^aves. 
foliage  of  trees.  In  his  life  of  St.  Cu6berht,  the  venerable 
Beda  gives  an  account  of  a  worthy  Hadwald  (Eadwald), 
a  faithful  servant  of  ^Iflced,  abbess  of  Whitby,  who  was 
killed  by  falling  from  a  tree.^  ^Ifric  three  hundred 
years  afterwards  telling  the  same  story,  gives  us  either 
from  some  collateral  tradition,  by  writing  may  be,  may 
be  by  word,  or  from  his  judgment  of  what  was  naturally 
the  mans  business  at  tree  climbing,  an  account  that  this 
tree  was  an  oak,  and  that  he  was  feeding  the  cattle 
with  the  foliage,  so  that  he  was  killed  in  discharge 
of  his  duty  as  herdsman.-'^     In  the  summer  of  18G4<  this 

'  DD.  in  many  passages. 

^  Ho^pec,  Focppop. 

3  Coll.  Mon.  p.  20.  Tota  nocte 
sto  super  eos  vigilando  propter 

■*  Incautius  in  arborem  ascen- 
dens  deciderat  deorsiun,  Beda,  256, 

5  Horn.  II.  150. 

b  2 



poor  resource  is  said  to  have  been  used  in  some  counties 
of  England,  notwithstanding  the  "  great  strides  science 
"  has  made." 

Sheep.  Sheep  were  driven  to  pasture  by  their  shepherd  with 

his  dosrs.  and  at  nis^ht  were  taken  back  home  and  fokled.' 
With  goats,  sheep  provided  most  part  of  the  milk  and 
cheese  consumed  in  early  times ;  cow  butter  is  fre- 
quently named  in  this  volume  by  way  of  distinction  ; 
these  smaller  beasts  were  robbed  of  their  milk  from  the 
teats  between  the  hind  legs.  A  Saxon  calendar  heads 
the  month  of  May  with  a  painting  representing  sheep  and 
goats  under  the  shepherds  care. 

Swine.  Swine  w^ere  entrusted  to  the  swineherd,  who  pastured 

them  in   his   masters   woods,    or   on  a  customary  per- 
centage of  the  stock,-  in  the  woods  of  some  other  pro-. 
prietor.    He  had  a  perquisite,  a  sty  pig  out  of  the  farrow, 
with   another  for   his  comrade  or  deputy,    besides   the 
usual  dues  of  servitors.^ 

Boar  hunting.  A  drawing  of  a  purely  Saxon  type,  in  a  Saxon  manu- 
script, represents  the  hunting  of  the  wild  boar ;  a  thane, 
or  as  we  say  gentleman,  on  foot,  has  some  wild  pigs, 
bristly  and  yellowish  brown,  in  view ;  he  carries  a  long 
boar  spear,  and  his  left  hand  rests  on  the  hilt  of  his 
sword,  which  is  to  save  his  life,  if  the  boar  charges ; 
he  is  followed  by  an  unarmed  attendant,  with  a  pair 
of  dogs  in  a  leash,  and  a  hunting  horn.  The  painter 
has  probably  assigned  this  drawing  to  the  wrong 

Ilawliing.  The  same  artist  has  drawn  a  Saxon  gentleman   out 

a  hawking  on  horseback,  with  an  attendant  on  foot, 
each  provided  with  a  haAvk;  the  wild  fowl,  ducks  or 
teal,    are    in    the    picture,   these   the   hawk   dispatched 

'  Coll.  :\ron.  20. 

-  One  tliirrl  of  very  fat  ones,  one 
fourth,  and  one  fifth  of  less  fat. 
DD.  p.  58. 

'DD.  p.  187. 

■•  September.  To  say  this  painting 
represents  herding  swine  is  a  strange 
inaccuracy.  No  hand  is  raised  to 
shake  down  mast. 


quicldy,  splitting  their  skulls  with  a  stroke  of  his  beak, 
A  large  bird,  perhaps  a  heron,  is  introduced  into  the 

Feather  beds,  with  bolsters  and  pillows,  were  in  use 
in  Saxon  times.  ^ 

It  seemed  necessary  to  pave  the  way  for  an  examina-  England 
tion  of  the  work  now  published  by  some  such  remarks  ^^^'  ^^^  ' 
as  these,  which  are  not  all  trite  or  matters  of  course  ; 
in  order  that  the  minds  of  readers  not  very  familiar 
with  these  early  times  might  give  the  rest  of  our  facts 
a  readier  acceptance.  The  entire  scope  and  tenor  of 
all  that  we  possess  in  the  way  of  home  literature,  laws, 
deeds,  histories,  poems,  regarding  these  Angles  and 
Saxons,  implies  a  tolerable  degree  of  civilization  ;  and 
many  modem  writers  have  persistently  misrepresented 
their  customs,  and  pretended  to  unloose  the  very  bonds 
of  society  among  them.  I  take  leave  to  touch  on  one 
or  two  points,  tending  still  to  prepare  us  for  the  facts 
on  the  face  of  the  present  volume. 

Tacitus  says  that  the  German  races  were  well  pleased  Coins, 
with  Roman  money,  and  that  such  coins  as  were  of 
approved  value,  the  milled  edged,  and  the  pair  horse 
chariot  stamped,^  had  currency  among  them.  In  Eng- 
land the  kings,  great  and  small,  learned  to  imitate  on 
their  own  account  the  currency  of  Eome.  Writers  on 
the  subject  dwell  upon  this,  and  we  are,  in  our  mended 
age,  ourselves  guilty  of  this  want  of  originality.  Saxon 
pennies  are  common  enough,  but  the  numismatists  say 
that  they  coined  no  gold,  because  no  gold  coins  have 
been  turned  up.  Saxon  gold  mancuses  are  mentioned 
in  twenty  different  passages  of  manuscripts  :  they  were 
not  money  of  account,  for  we  read  of  mancuses  by 
weight ;  and  a  will,  nov/  in  the  hands  of  a  zealous 
editor,  settles  the  question  by  the  following  words  : 
"  Then  let  twenty  hundred  mancuses  of  gold  be  taken 

'  Gl.  Soiun.  p.  60  b,  line  40.  |      -  Serratos  bigatosque. 




"  and  coined  into  mancuses  ;"  ^  that  is,  there  was  a  gold 
coin  of  a  determinate  weight  called  a  mancus,  and  coined 
in  England.  Suppose  when  the  document  is  fairly  be- 
fore us  that  this  will  turn  out  suspect ;  suppose  it  be 
pronounced  a  forgery ;  still  we  have  Saxon  authority 
for  coininof  wold  mancuses,  and  at  home.  All  works 
that  touch  the  subject,  know  that  there  were  in  those 
times  royal  mints  and  royal  moneyers. 

The  Glossary  appended  to  this  work  exhibits,  from 
among  a  still  wider  list,  a  large  number  of  names  of 
herbs  ;  and  materials  exist  for  determining  most  of  these 
to  full  conviction.  The  change  of  residence  produced 
doubtless  some  confusion,  by  depriving  the  Saxons  of  spe- 
cimens of  the  trees  and  plants  answering  to  their  names. 
The  Germanic  races  had  not  before  their  arrival  here 
pushed  down  upon  the  Mediterranean  ^hores,  but  we 
all  know  historically  that  they  had  not  been  confined 
to  cold  climates,  and  one  very  curious  proof  exists 
that  in  some  instances  the  name  they  fixed  on  a  plant 
was  appropriate  only  to  its  aspect  in  warmer  countries.^ 
It  is  true  that  the  oak,  beech,  birch,  hawthorn,  sloe- 
thorn,  bore  native  names,  but  elm,^  walnut,  maple, 
holly,*  are  equally  native  names ;  and,  except  the 
walnut,  native  trees.  The  cherry  was  brought  to  Italy 
by  Lucullus,  from  Kspatrouj,  Cerasus,  a  city  of  Cappadocia, 
where  it  was  plentiful,  and  it  has  ever  borne  the 
same  name.  The  students  of  nature  learn  that  many 
species  of  its  Fauna,  and  also,  though  less  so,  of  its  Flora, 
can  be  traced  to  a  single  spot.     Thus  the  peach,  peppoc, 

'  panne  mmpe  (read  nime)  man 
tpencij;  hunb  mancufa  golbep  -] 
gemynerige  to  mancujan,  HID.  fol. 
21  a.  The  transcript  is  not  by  any 
means  cotemporary. 

2 1  regret  I  cannot  here  explain 
this  fully. 

^  Not  a  Latinism. 

*  Holen,  which  is  originally  an 

adjective,  Hole5n,HoleSen,  and  even 
now  so  applied  to  Holn  Wood  on 
the  banks  of  the  Dart,  near  Ash- 
burton.  Holej,  Holly,  is  the  ori- 
ginal substantive,  C.E.  437,  line 
19.  The  old  Latin  name  is  Aqui- 
folius  :  the  Ilex  was  glandiferous, 
the  evergreen^  oak. 

PREFACE.  '  xis 

Malum  Persicum,  was   from    Persia ;  there  is  no  other 
name  for  it  but  "  the  Persian  apple/'     For  such  as  these 
it  was  impossible  to  have  any  other  name  ;  they  were 
fruit   trees    foreign  to  all  but   their   own   countrymen. 
The  plum  is  a  better  sloe  ;  can  be  raised  only  by  graft- 
ing, for  seedlings   are   found   to    degenerate;   which   is 
also  the  case  with  the  pear,  having  its  native  equivalent 
in  the  Pirus  domestica,  of  Bewdley  Forest.     The  syca- 
more, which    has    been   alleged  to  prove   the  Latinism 
of  the    Saxons,  is    merely    a    maple.     Yet    the    great 
influence  which  a  Latin  education,  and  scarce  any  in- 
struction in   old   English,  has  upon  ourselves,  is  trace- 
able even  among  the  Saxons  :  the  true  signification  of 
some    native  names  was  passing  away,  and  the  plants 
supposed  once  to  have  borne  them  began  to  be  known 
by  some  Roman  denomination.     For  so  common  a  plant 
as  mint,  seen  in  every  running  ditch,  on  every  watery 
marge,  there  seems  to  be  no  name  but   that   which    is 
Hellenic,  and  Latin.      The  Germanic  races,  on  the  con- 
trary, were  the    original    patrons  of  hemp  '  and   flax,^ 
as  against  wool.     It  is,  however,  with  their  reach  over 
the   material  world,  and   their   proficiency  in  the   arts 
which    turn    it   to    mans    convenience,    after,   and    not 
before,  their  arrival  in  England,  that  we  are  now  deal- 
ing ;  and  we  maintain  that  a  great  part  of  what   the 
Roman  could  teach,  the  Saxons,  their   successors,    had 

The  most  cursory  examination  of  the  work  now  Book  learning, 
before  us  will  show  that  we  are  reading  of  a  civiliza- 
tion such  as  the  above  details  would  lead  us  to  ex- 
pect. Here  a  leech  calmly  sits  down  to  compose  a 
not  unlearned  book,  treating  of  many  serious  diseases, 
and  assigning  for  them  something  he  hopes  will  cure 
them.      In   the  Preface  to  the  first  volume  it  was  ad- 

*  Vol.  I.  p.  X.  note. 

^Feminae  saepius  lineis  amictibus  utuntur.     Tacitus,  Germ.  17. 



The  maau- 

mitted  that  Saxon  leeches  fell  short  of  the  daring  skill  of 
Hellas,  or  the  wondrous  success  of  the  leading  medical 
men  of  either  branch  in  London  or  Paris.  Notwith- 
standing that  this  is  a  learned  book,  it  sometimes  sinks 
to  mere  driveling,  The  author  almost  always  rejects 
the  Greek  recipes,  and  doctors  as  an  herborist.  It 
will  give  any  one  who  has  the  heart  of  a  man  in  him 
a  thrill  of  horror  to  compare  the  Saxon  dose  of  brook- 
lime  and  pennyi'oyal  twice  a  day,  for  a  mother  whose 
child  is  dead  -within  her,^  with  the  chapter  in  Celsus 
devoted  to  this  subject,  in  which  we  read,  as  in  his 
inmost  soul,  an  anxious  courageous  care,  and  a  sense 
of  responsibility  mixed  with  determination  to  do  his 
utmost,  which  is,  even  to  a  reader,  agitating.^ 

The  volume  consists  of  two  parts ;  a  treatise  on 
medicine  in  two  books,  with  its  proper  colophon  at 
the  end,  and  a  third  of  a  somewhat  more  monkish 
character.  The  book  itself  probably  once  belonged  to 
the  abbey  of  Glastonbury,  for  a  catalogue  of  the  books 
of  that  foundation,  cited  by  Wanley,^  contains  the  entry 
"  Medicinale  Anglicum,"  which  is  rightly  interpreted, 
"  Saxonice  scriptum ;"  and  this  book,  rebound  in  1757, 
has  preserved  on  one  of  the  fly  leaves  an  old  almost 
illegible  inscription,  "  Medicinale  Anglicum."  Search 
has  been  made  for  any  record  of  the  books,  Avhich,  on 
the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries,  might  have  found 
their  way  from  Glastonbury  to  the  Royal  Library,  but 
in  vain. 

An  earlier,  the  first,  owner  is  pointed  out  in  the 

Bald  habet  hunc  librum,  Gild  quem  conscribere  iussit. 

'  Lb.  p.  331. 

*  Adhibenda  curatio  est,  quce 
numerari  inter  difficillimas  potest. 
Nam  et  summam  prudentiam  mo- 
derationemque  desiderat,  et  maxi- 

mum periculum  affert.  Celsus,  VII. 

=*  Hickes,  Tliesaur.  Vol.  II.  Pra;f. 
ad  Catalogum. 

*  P.  298. 


In  this  doggrel,  Bald  is  the  owner  of  the  book ;  we 
have  no  right  to  improve  him  into  iESelbald ;  Cild  is, 
probably,  the  scribe ;  some  will  contend,  the  author. 
In  classical  Latin  no  doubt  would  exist,  conscribere 
would  at  once  denote  the  composing  of  the  work  : 
but  in  these  later  dciys,  when  millions  of  foreigners 
learnt  the  Latin  language  as  a  means  of  interchange  of 
thoughts,  occasionally  intruding  their  own  "Gothic  words, 
all  such  niceties  of  the  ear  went  for  nothing ;  Cild 
might  well  be  the  mere  penman.  But  then  the  mar- 
ginal tokens,  and  private  memoranda,  show  that  the 
work  so  written  had  passed  either  through  the  hands 
of  the  author,  which  from  the  use  of  private  marks 
is  probable,  or  through  those  of  another  leech,  who  was 
able  to  discover  the  sources  of  the  authors  information. 
Bald  anywise  may  have  been  the  author  himself 

Let  us  give  a  few  touches  to  the,  as  yet,  bare  outline  q[\^_ 
of  the  penman  Cild.  The  famous  Durham  book  is  a 
charming  work  of  ancient  Saxon  art ;  those  who  cannot 
inspect  the  original  may  see  a  copy  of  a  piece  of  the 
ornamentation  in  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew,  edited 
by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Stevenson,  and  published  by  the 
Surtees  society.  According  to  an  entry  of  a  later  age 
in  the  book  itself,  not  of  doubtful  authenticity,  this 
exquisite  piece  of  pattern  work,  which  is  a  part  of 
the  writing,  was  the  performance  of  EadfriS,  bishop 
of  Lindisfarne,  who  occupied  that  see  from  698  to  721. 
It  is  of  Irish  tone,  and  like  many  other  dignitaries  this 
prelate  had,  very  likely,  completed  his  Christian  educa- 
tion in  the  Isle  of  Saints.  Cild  was  certainly  not  of  the 
make  and  metal  of  a  bishop,  for  the  words  "  conscribere 
"  iussit "  forbid  it ;  Dunstan  forefend !  It  would  be 
somewhat  speculative  to  say,  that  in  JSTorthumbria, 
A.D.  700,  the  art  of  writing  was  at  a  higher  premium 
than  afterwards.  I  will  not  venture  to  say  it,  but 
proceed  upon  surer  data.  One  of  the  poems  in  the 
Exeter  book,    of  uncertain   date,   but   before  the   end 

xxii  PREFACE. 

of  the  tenth  century,  mentions  as  a  valued  accomplish- 
ment the  art  of  writing  in  fair  characters.^ 

One  can  cunningly 

word  speech  write. 

w^lfric  also  himself  in  a  sermon  on  Midlent  Sunday, — 
"  Oft  one  seeth  fair  letters  awritten ;  then  extoUeth  he 
"  the  writer  and  the  letters,  and  wotteth  not  what  they 
"  mean.  He  who  kenneth  the  diflference  of  the  letters, 
"  he  extolleth  the  fairness,  and  readeth  the  letters, 
"  and  understandeth  what  they  mean."  Tlie  honour 
remained  to  beautiful  writing,  but  the  writer  did  not 
stalk  in  so  lofty  a  station.  On  the  top  margin  of  a 
page  ^  of  the  Oxford  copy  of  the  Herd  Book,  or  Liber 
Pastoralis,  of  King  Alfred  may  be  read  these  words, — 

piUimoc  ppio  ]?uf  ob^e  bet, 

that  is,  Willimot,  lurite  thus  or  hetter.  A  little  further 

ppic  ]?uf  o^Se  bet  oS8e  ];me  hybe  poplet, 

Write  thus  or  hetter,  or  hid  good  hye  to  thy  hide,  that 
is,  get  a  good  hiding.  In  an  Harleian  MS.^  there  is 
a  bit  of  nonsense,  but  the  same  idea  of  a  hiding  is 
uppermost ; 

ppit  ]?uf  o'S^e  bet  pibe  apeg. 

seljinseppattap ox  ]>u  Jjilc  ppmjan  selppic  cilb ; 

Write  tlius  or  hetter;  ride  away;  ^Ifiiwrpattafox;  thou 
wilt  siuinge  child  uElfric.  From  these  marginal 
scribblings  it  is  plain  that  the  penman  had  descended 
from  his  episcopal  throne,  to  be  a  tipsy  drudge,  kept 
in  order  by  the  whip.  Gild,  "  quem  Bald  conscribere 
"  iussit,"  was  nearer  the  whip  than  the  crooked  staff. 
^^^^-  The  owner  of  the  book,  Bald,  may  be  fairly  presumed 

to   have    been  a  medical   practicioner,  for  to  no  other 

•  "  Summse^  j-eapolice, 
"  \>0]\b  Cj'ibe  jijiican." 


2  Fol.  53  a. 

3  Fol.  55  b. 

'  Harl.  55,  fol.  4  b. 

PREFACE.  xxiii 

could  such  a  book  as  this  have  had,  at  that  time,  much 
interest.  We  see  then  a  Saxon  leech  here  at  his  studies; 
the  book,  in  a  literary  sense,  is  learned ;  in  a  professional 
view  not  so,  for  it  does  not  really  advance  mans  know- 
ledge of  disease  or  of  cures.  It  may  have  seemed  by 
the  solemn  elaboration  of  its  diagnoses  to  do  so,  but  I 
dare  not  assert  there  is  real  substance  in  it.  Bald, 
however,  may  have  got  some  good  out  of  it,  he  may 
have  learned  to  think,  have  begun  to  discriminate,  to 
take  less  for  granted.  Thus  we  see  him  in  his  study, 
among  his  books  becoming,  for  his  day,  a  more  ac- 
complished physician ;  and  he  speaks  with  a  genuine 
philosophs  zeal  about  those  his  books.  "  nulla  mihi  tam 
"  cara  est  optima  gaza  Quam  cari  libri :"  fees  and  stored 
wealth  he  loved  not  so  well  as  his  precious  volumes. 
If  Bald  was  at  once  a  physician  and  a  reader  of  learned 
books  on  therapeutics,  his  example  implies  a  school  of 
medicine  among  the  Saxons.  And  the  volume  itself 
bears  out  the  presumption.  We  read  in  two  cases  ^  that 
"  Oxa  taught  this  leechdom  ;"  in  another  ^  that  "  Dun 
"  taught  it ;"  in  another  "  some  teach  us  ;"  ^  in  another 
an  impossible  prescription  being  quoted  ;^  the  author,  or 
possibly  Cild,  the  reedsman,  indulges  in  a  little  facetious 
comment,  that  compliance  was  not  easy.  I  assume  that 
Oxa  and  Dun  were  natives,  either  of  this  country  or 
of  some  land  inhabited  by  a  kindred  people.  Any  way, 
we  make  out,  undoubtedly,  a  bookish  study  of  medicine; 
the  Saxon  writers,  who  directly  from  the  Greek,  or 
through  the  medium  of  a  Latin  translation  studied 
Trallianus,  Paulus  of  ^gina,  and  Philagrios,  were  men 
of  learning  not  contemptible,  in  letters,  that  is,  not  to 
say  in  pathology.  Some  of  the  simpler  treatment  is 
reasonable  enough  ;  the  cure  of  hair  lip^  contains  a  true 

>  Lb.  p.  120. 
2  Lb.  p.  292. 
^Lb.  p.  114. 

*  Ibid. 

*  Lb.  L  xiii. 

xxiv  PREFACE. 

element;  the  application  of  vinegar  with  prussic  acid^  for 
head  ache  is  practical ;  the  great  fondness  for  elecampane, 
Inula  lieleniiiin,  is  parallel  to  the  frequent  employment, 
at  the  present  day,  of  Arnica.  But  it  would  be  vain  to 
defend  the  prescriptions,  some  are  altogether  blunders, 
and  the  fashion  of  medical  treatment  changes  so  much 
that  the  prescriptions  of  Meade  and  Radcliffe  are  now- 
condemned  as  absurd.  It  suffices  that  Saxon  leeches 
endeavoured  by  searching  the  medical  records  of  foreign 
languages  to  qualify  themselves  for  their  profession. 

Age.  The  character  of  the  writing  fixes,  as  far  as  I  venture 

on  an  opinion,  this  copy  of  the  work  to  the  former  half 
of  the  tenth  century ;  some  learned  in  MSS.,  who  have 
favoured  me  v/ith  an  opinion,  say  the  latter  half,  960 
to  980.  My  own  judgment  is  chiefly  based  upon  com- 
parison with  books  we  know  to  have  been  written  about 

KingiElfred.  The  inquisitiveness  of  men  at  that  period  about  the 
methods  in  medicine  pursued  in  foreign  countries  is 
illustrated  by  the  very  curious  and  interesting  citation 
from  Helias,  patriarch  of  Jerusalem.^  The  account  given 
has  strong  marks  of  genuineness.  We  will  assume  that 
King  iElfred  had  sent  to  Jerusalem  requesting  from 
the  patriarch  some  good  recipes  ;  for  it  would  be  not 
in  the  manner  of  mens  ordinary  dealings  for  the  head 
of  the  church  in  the  Holy  Land  to  obtrude  upon  a 
distant  king  any  drugs  or  advice  of  the  kind.  He 
returns  then  a  recommendation  of  scamony,  which  is  the 
juice  of  a  Syrian  convolvulus,  of  gutta  ammoniaca,  a 
sort  of  liquid  volatile  salts,  of  spices,  of  gum  dragon, 
of  aloes,  of  galbanum,  of  balsam,  of  petroleum,  of  the 
famous  Greek  compound  preparation  called  S>jpajt»j,  and 
of  the  magic  virtues  of  alabaster.^  These  drugs  are  good 
in  themselves,  and  such  as  a  resident  in  Syria  would 
naturally   recommend    to    others.     The   present   author 

>  Lb.  I.  i.  10  and  12.  I       »  On  the  Phoenician  origin  of  this 

2  Lb.  p.  290.  I  -(vord,  see  SSpp.  p.  285. 



drew  his  information,  we  may  fairly  suppose,  from  that 
handbook  which  tlie  king  himself  kept,  in  which  were 
entered  '•  flowers,  culled  from  what  masters  soever," 
"  without  method/'^  "according  as  opportunity^-  arose/' 
and  which  at  length  grew  to  the  size  of  a  psalter;  whence 
also  most  likely  came  in  due  time  the  voj^age  of  0th- 
here.  It  is  very  much  the  custom  of  the  jiresent  swarm 
of  critics  to  drag  up  every  old  author  to  their  modern 
standard  of  truth,  to  peer  into  dates,  to  sift,  and  weigh, 
and  measure,  and  in  short,  to  put  an  old  tale  teller  into 
the  witness  box  of  a  modern  court  of  justice,  and  there 
teaze  and  browbeat  him  because  they  cannot  half  under- 
stand his  simple  talk,  nor  apprehend  how  small  mat- 
ters, in  a  truthful  story,  the  exact  day  of  the  week 
and  the  twentieth  part  of  a  mile  become.  When  one 
writer  of  the  Middle  Ages  copies  another  there  com- 
monly arises  a  want  of  clearness  in  marking  the  tran- 
sitions from  the  text  of  the  old  author  to  the  words 
of  him  who  cites  him.  But  in  this  case  all  seems  smooth ; 
the  man  named  was  patriarch  of  Jerusalem ;  he  was 
contemporaneous  with  King  Alfred,  and  the  drugs  he 
recommended  were  sold  in  the  Syrian  drug  shops,  or 
apothek^.  I  am,  therefore,  well  pleased  to  claim  for 
this  volume  the  publication  in  type  of  a  new  fact 
about  the  inquiring  watchfulness  of  that  illustrious 

Thus,  Oxa,  Dun,  perhaps  some  others  of  the  same  Many  sources, 
sort,  and  Helias,  patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  are  sources 
of  some  of  the  teaching  in  this  book.  To  these  we 
may  add  a  mixture  of  the  Hibernian,'-  and  of  the 
Scandinavian.^  Some  of  the  recipes  occur  again  in  the 
Lacnunga  and  in  Plinius  Valerianus,  who,  from  his 
motion*  of  the  physician  Constantinus,  was  later  than 

'  Flosculos  undecunque  collectos 
a  quibuslibet  magitris,  et  in  corpore 
unius  libelli,  mixiim  quamvis,  sicut 
tunc  suppetebat  recligerc,Asser. p.  57. 

-  Lb.  p.  10, 1,  xlv.  .5. 
3  Lb.  L  xlvi.,  J.  Ixx.  Ixxi.,  IIL 

•Fol.  14  b.  1.5  a. 


this  work.  Larsfe  extracts  and  selections  are  made 
from  the  Greek  writers.  It  is  not  to  be  expected  that 
many  will  soon  travel  over  the  field  of  research  which 
the  present  edition  required,  and  it  will  be  but  fair  to 
those  who  are  examining  the  facts,  to  present  them  with, 
at  least  one  passage  as  a  specimen. 

Hep]  Xvyi/.Sv.  'O  \vyf/.o<;  ylvtrai  v;  Zia.  irX'/j  pec  a- ii/^  '/j  5*a  Kevuo'iv,  '/j 
^pt[A,euv  y^vjAuv  ^aKvovroiv  tov  (TTOjWaj^ov.  dii/  e'ji^efievTwy  navercci.  'KOAA.ot  Se 
Kot  TO  ^icc  rZv  Tpiuv  neitepeuv  /aovov  Xa/3ovTe?,  iav  evOeat;  iirnvici)(7iv 
olvov  Xvtfivcnv.  oti  Se  /cat  iiacjiOeipovTei;  Tjve?  rpo(priv  Xv'CiOvutv  ruv 
yivuaKOfjiiveov  io-Ti.  kou  piyuaravTeq  Ze  itoXXo)  Xv^oticrjy.  tjOteTov  f^ev  ovv 
evp'/i<ro[A€v  ainapKii;  ia/xa  tSv  Sta  ttX^So^  vj  S^gtv  Xv^ovrav.  OepyMciacv 
8e  Tuv  Ztcc,  ^pv^iv.  orav  te  ^tito  wXy^pwerew?  iiypuv  yeuyjrai  Xvy[j.oi;, 
^ixia(;  ZeTrai  Kiviaeuq.  toZto  Se  o  TnapiAoi;  ipyaX^eTui.  tovi;  8e  iiu 
K€i/uer€i  XvyfAOvq  ovk  Icctooi  iirccpjj.oq.  AtZovcci  Se  t&^j  Xv'^ova'iv  Tir^yavov 
[a€t'  ctvov  vj  vixpov  eV  i^eXiKpaiaj  vj  o"eo"£?it  '/j  OavKOV  vj  kv[a,iv(iV  vj 
"^lyytSep  v;  KaXa.i/.ii/O'rjv  vj  vdpCiov  KeXriK-^v.  TOvTce,  tuv  ewt  Ziac^Oopa 
aniuv  75  iiii  ^pv^ea-iv  ')}  eVi  itXyjpuuei  /So'jj^vjjMaTa.  To7q  8e  viio  ntX-^Oovi; 
Xv'^ov(7ty   iiii  xf/vy^^polq  koi  yXi<Ty^poii    y^vfAoT^;    Kacnopiov    Tpiu^oXov    S/Soii 

Ttiveiv  S'  o^vKodrov,  k.t.X.  Paulus  -^gin.  lib.  ii.  cap.  56. 

Of  hiccupings.  Hiccup  comes  on  either  by  reason  of  re- 
pletion, or  of  emptiness,  or  of  austere  juices  biting  upon  tlie 
stomach,  and  when  these  are  vomited  forth  it  ceases.  Many 
also  by  only  taking  the  medicine  called  "  by  the  three 
"  peppers,"  if  immediately  on  that  they  swallow  wine,  hiccup. 
It  is  also  a  recognized  fact,  that  some  turning  their  food  sour, 
hiccup  ;  and  many  also  hiccup  after  shivering.  We  shall  find 
then  that  a  vomit  is  a  sufficient  cure  for  those  who  liiccui^ 
from  repletion  or  irritation  ;  and  the  application  of  warmth 
for  those  that  do  so  from  chill.  But  when  the  hiccup  comes 
on  by  fulness  of  moistures,  it  needs  a  violent  evacuation  ; 
and  this  sneezing  produces  ;  but  sneezing  does  not  cure  the 
hiccups  which  depend  on  emptiness.  Give  the  sufferer  from 
hiccup  rue  with  wine,  or  nitre  in  sweetened  wine,  or  seseli,  or 
carrot,  or  cummin,  or  ginger,  or  calamintha,  or  Keltic  valerian. 
These  arc  proper  for  the  cases  in  which  food  turns  sour  on 
the  stomach,  or  for  chill,  or  for  emptiness.  But  for  those  that 
suffi^r  by  repletion  Avith  cold  and  viscid  humours,  give  cas- 
toreum,  three  obols  worth,  and  to  drink  some  oxymel,  etc. 



This  is  to  be  compared  with  Lb.  I.  xviii.  The  cor- 
respondence is  so  close  as  to  leave  no  doubt  but  that 
the  work  before  us  drew  from  Paulus,  or  from  one 
of  the  Greek  authors,  from  whom  he  compiled  his 
work.  The  number  of  passages  the  Saxon  thus  draws 
from  the  Greek  is  great ;  they  would  make  perhaps  one 
fourth  of  the  first  two  books,  and  the  question  of  course 
occurs  strongly  to  the  mind  whether  they  came  direct 
from  the  study  of  Greek  manuscripts. 

At  first  sight  a  passage  ^  which  says  that  the  ficus  Internal 
in  the  eyes  is  called  *' on  Iseben"  chymosis,  may  seem  *^^''^°^°°^' 
to  resolve  the  question  as  that  this  author  copied  Latin 
works.  So  it  may  have  been ;  but  the  place  is  not 
conclusive,  those  words  may  come  from  Oxa,  Dun,  or 
other  writers  of  the  native  school  of  medicine  ;  or  Iseben, 
leben,  may  be  used  as  it  often  is  in  a  loose  sense  for 
language,^  foreign  language.  It  is  not  at  this  point, 
that  it  will  repay  our  trouble  to  stay  for  consideration : 
we  shall  much  more  profitably  form  an  opinion  whether 
the  Saxon  leeches  in  general  had  access  to  the  sense 
of  the  Greek  authors,  than  whether  in  particular  the 
author  of  these  books  knew  anytliing  of  them.  If  the 
best  men  among  our  leeches  of  the  tenth  century  could 
avail  themselves  of  what  Paulus  of  /Egina,  Alexander 
of  Tralles,  and  Philagrios  wrote,  that  will  suffice  to 
raise  our  estimate  of  that  day  into  approbation. 

M.  Brecliillet  Jourdain  ^  has  shewn  that  in  those  Greek 
early  days,  before  the  invention  of  printing,  the  wise  beaming, 
men  of  the  middle  ages  possessed  Latin  translations  of 
Aristoteles.  There  was  therefore  no  reason  for  their  not 
possessing  other  authors.  Some  them  were  able 
to  translate,  some  to  speak  Greek.  The  Byzantine 
authors  in   our  own  hands  come  down  to  a  late  date. 

'  Lb.  p.  38. 

-  Ealle  his   rpjieca'S    an    lyben, 
Genesis  xi.  6. 

'  Recherches  critiques  sur  Page 
et  origine  des  traductions  Latines. 
d'Aristote.    Paris.  1819. 

XXVI]  1 


Now  if  an  Italian  or  a  Frenchman  could  acquire  Greek, 
and  translate  into  Latin,  a  Saxon  might  do  the  same. 
Beda'  tells  of  Theodorus  the  archbishop,  and  abbot 
Hadrianus,  that  they  collected  pupils,  taught  them  ver- 
sification, astronomy,  and  the  ecclesiastical  arithmetic 
of  the  computus,  and  some  remained  while  Beda  wrote 
who  were  acquainted  with  the  Greek  and  Latin  lan- 
sruaeres  as  well  as  with  their  own.^  Further  on  ^  Beda 
gives  an  example  of  one  of  these  disciples,  Albinus, 
who  understood  Latin  not  less  than  his  own  language, 
English,  with  not  a  little  Greek.  Of  Tobias,  bishop  of 
Rochester,  another  of  these  pupils,  he  saj^s  *  that  he 
knew  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages  as  familiarly  as 
his  own. 

King  /Elfred  and  .zElfric  both  lament  the  decay  of 
learning  consequent  upon  the  invasions  of  the  Danes. 
Of  the  works  translated  from  the  Latin,  by  order  of 
Alfred  and  by  his  confidential  servants  or  by  himself, 
some  are,  in  scattered  passages,  turned  rather  literally 
than  correctly  ;  some  are  executed  with  great  spirit,  and 
even  improved  in  the  version.  ^Elfric  himself  is  a  very 
pleasing  translator,  he  kept  his  own  faculties  alive  in 
the  execution  of  his  tasks ;  thus  he  translates  dactyli, 
dates,  as  finger  apples,  plainly  shewing  that  Greek  words 
were  known  to  him  ;  it  is  also  striking  to  find  him  cor- 
recting Bedas  error,  "lutr?e,"^  otters,  the  quadrupeds 
out  of  the  sea,  which  came  and  warmed  St.  Cu"Sberhts 
feet  with  their  breath,  into   "  seals."  ^ 

I  have  shown,  by  the  curious  pieces  published  in  the 
preface  to   the  first  volume  of  the  Leechdoms,  that  in 

•  Beda,  Hist.  Eccl.  IV.  ii. 

*  Latinam  Grcccamque  linguam 
aeque  ut  propriam  in  qua  nati  sunt 
norunt.  The  Saxon  interpreter 
gives  a  full  emphasis  to  seque  ut  ; 
that  ■will  bear  softening  down  in  this 
late  Latin. 

^  Beda,  V.  xx.,  p.  209,  line  11. 

*  Beda  V.  xxiii.  Ita  Grsecam 
quoque  cum  Latina  didicit  linguam, 
ut  tarn  notas  ac  familiares  sibi  eas, 
quam  nativitatis  suje  loquelam 

*  Beda,  p.  237. 
«  Hom.  I.  138. 


a  fair  practical  sense,  for  tlie  purpose  they  had  in  view, 
pupils  in  old  England  receive!  instruction  in  Greek, 
and  though  learning  decayed  in  times  of  distress,  still 
there  existed  some  who  wished  to  acquire  this  know- 
ledge, and  some  who  were  willing  to  give  it.  Some  day 
the  monstrous  compounds,  and  the  absurd  spellings  of 
our  scientific  nomenclature,  pretending  to  be  Greek,  and 
a  dozen  other  weak  points  of  the  day  on  this  subject, 
will  be  regarded  as  proofs  of  barbarism. 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  the  leeches  of  the  Angles 
and  Saxons  had  the  means,  by  personal  industry  or  by 
the  aid  of  others,  of  arriving  at  a  competent  knowledge 
of  the  contents  of  the  works  of  the  Greek  medical 
writers.  Here,  in  this  volume,  the  results  are  visible. 
They  keep,  for  the  most  part,  to  the  diagnosis  and 
the  theory ;  they  go  back  in  the  prescriptions  to  the 
easier  remedies ;  for  whether  in  Galenos  or  others 
three  was  a  chapter  on  the  svTrogio-Ta,  the  "parabilia," 
the  resources  of  country  practitioners,  and  of  course, 
even  now,  expensive  medicines  are  not  prescribed  for 
poor  patients. 

On  the  margin  of  the  pages  are  some  private  marks,  I'rivate  marks, 
such  as  may  be  observed  on  the  facsimile  page.  The 
pm'port  of  these  marks  is  evident  at  fol.  56  a.,  chap. 
Ixxv.,  which  has  something  near  a  H  with  "  totum "  ; 
again,  at  Ixxvi.  with  "  totum,"  at  fol.  5Q  b.,  chap.  Ixxx., 
the  figure  in  the  middle  of  the  facsimile  margin  with 
"  uotum,"  fol.  57  a.,  top  line  of  Ixxxiii.  an  I.  nearly, 
with  "  corum."  These  were  plainly  memoranda  secretly 
indicating  the  author  from  whom  the  passages  so 
marked  were  taken,  and  "  totum  "  means  that  the  whole 
article  was  taken  from  that  source.  The  token  nearly 
an  I.  occurs  at  fol.  9  b.,  at  the  beginning  of  ii. ;  again 
at  fol.  31  a.,  at  the  end  of  the  folio  ;  again  at  I.  Ixxxiii. 
with  "  totum  "  and  the  Roman  numeral  xviii.  twice  ; 
again  at  fol.  94  b.,  line  8,  eye  to  milre  feocum  men  ; 
again  at  fol.  126  b.,  to  chapter  Ixvii.  These  references 
VOL.  IT.  c 


contain  a  problem,  which,  in  our  imperfect  knowledge 
of  the  works  of  the  physicians  of  the  lower  empire,  is, 
it  seems,  beyond  solution.  If  the  prescription  of  celan- 
dine for  the  eyes,  Lb.  I.  ii.  be  supposed  to  have  been 
derived  from  Marcellus  272  g.,  then  the  other  passages 
cannot,  as  far  as,  after  repeated  examination  I  see,  be 
discovered  in  that  author.  A  mark  which  comes  near 
to  F.  is  set,  in  the  MS.,  over  against  the  words  pi^ 
eajna  mifre,  fol.  10  b.,  line  3,  and  it  does  not  occur 
again ;  compare  Marcellus  272  b.  It  adds  to  the  diffi- 
culty of  the  investigation,  that  recipes  became  a  tradi- 
tion passing  from  one  author  to  another.  A  cypher 
rather  differing  from  H.,  which  I  will  call  h.,  occurs  at 
fol.  10  b.  at  the  words  6j:t  piS  'Son  ilcan  cele]?onian : 
nearly  the  same  on  the  same  folio,  towards  the  end,  at 
Gyt  finolej'.  That  this  prescription  is  found  in  Plinius 
Valerianus  does  not  help  us.  Another  like  a  plummet 
line,  sometimes  as  in  the  facsimile,  and  at  fol.  30  b. 
for  angnail,  with  a  ring  at  top,  sometimes  with  a  cross 
line,  as  at  fol.  30  b.,  line  4.  Tip  nsejl  fie,  is  so  much 
like  that  called  I.,  that  it  may  be  meant  for  the  same 
name.  There  is  another  like  F.  reversed,  occurring  at 
ol.  11  a.  6]:t  pyj-laj',  also  at  fol.  32  a.,  towards  the 
end  of  the  leaf,  J^onne  Ipu  j:yp,  at  fol.  55  b.  as  in  the 
facsimile,  twice  with  a  shght  difference,  at  fol  56  b.  top 
line,  with  another  small  variation,  at  fol.  57  b.  at  last 
line  but  one ;  at  fol.  94  a.,  ejzt  jenim  ipiep  leap ;  at  fol. 
125  b.,  by  the  third  line  of  chapter  Ixiiii.,  with  these 
words,  "  quia  omni  potu  et  omni  medicinfe  maleficia- 
"  torum  et  demoniacoi-um  a[d]miscenda  est  aqua  bene- 
"  dicta,  et  psalmis  et  orationibus  vacandum  est,  sicut 
"  in  hoc  capitulo  plene  docetur."  At  fol  31  b.  by  the 
word  eallunja  is  a  mark  with  a  blot,  meant  probably 
for  I.  At  fol.  55  h.  jip  ]7u  pdle,  at  55  b.,  as  in  fac- 
simile, at  56  a.,  chapter  Ixxv.  Ixxvi,  is  a  sign  like  H., 
with  legs  of  varied  length,  thus  running  into  re- 
versed F.     At  folio  5G  b.,  chapter   Ixxxii,,  is  an  orna- 


mented  cross ;  this  occurs  but  once.  At  fol,  94  a.,  chapter 
xli.,  the  mark  I.  is  three  times  repeated  III.  The 
marginal  bimitce,  fol.  108  b,,  means  that  the  scribe  was 
gettingf  his  task  done :  he  was  not  aware  of  the  ad- 
ditional  book  III.  If  these  signs  refer  to  native  treatises, 
unknown  to  us,  and  now  irrecoverable,  they  go  to  illus- 
trate the  existence  of  an  English  school  of  teaching 
medicines ;  as  do  the  expressions  "  as  leeches  ken,"  not 
of  rare  occurrence. 

Besides  these   marks   and  signs  as  given  above,  we  More  cypher, 

find  at  fol.  30  b.  by  the  end  of  the  sentence,  bo  plytan 

ro,  etc.,  in  chapter  xxxiv.,  some  writing  in  cypher, 
thus : — 

and  again  at  fol.  89  b.,  chapter  xxxiv.,  thus : — 

■l.fM  pJMIf'- 

!  /- 

The  key  to  writing  of  this  sort  has  never  been  pub- 
lished, and  now  for  those  who  are  skilled  in  such 
matters  an  account  of  it  shall  be  given, 

The  letters  were  divided  into  groups,  and  these,  of  The^iaw  of  this 
course,  were  at  the  discretion  of  every  man  severally, 
as  regarded  their  number  and  how  many  letters  they 
miglit  contain.  The  groups,  first,  second,  third,  and  so 
on  were  commonly  denoted  by  dots ;  the  upstrokes 
shewed  by  their  number  what  place  in  the  group  each 
letter  held.  Thus,  to  spell  Oxa,  if  the  first  gi-oup 
began  at  A,  and  contained  six  letters,  then  the  second 
would  begin  at  H,  and  if  it  contained  eight  letters, 
omitting  J  as  not  ancient,  then  the  third  gToup  would 
begin  at  Q,  and  might  go  on,  combining  U  and  V,  to 
the  end ;  so  that  Oxa  would  be  thus  spelt : — 

.'///////    -••//////■/ 


and  ]Juii  would  he,  thus  : — 

•////  //////. 7///// 

Some  of  the  first  letters  in  the  specimens  before  us 
have  no  dot,  and  may  perhaps  be  reckoned  from  the 
beginning;,  A. 

Another  method  employed  a  line  of  dots  instead  of 
upstrokes,  so  that  Oxa  appeared,  if  the  groups  of 
letters  remained  the  same,  thus  : — 

and  Dun  thus 

In  his  Thesaurus,  Hickes  and  his  associate  Wanley  give 
other  methods  employed  by  the  Saxons,  of  which  a 
common  one  was  to  employ  the  next  following  letter 
to  that  meant,  so  that  Oxa  would  be  Pyb,  and  Dun, 
Evvo.  These  devices,  which  have  in  them  something 
of  the  quality  of  riddles  and  conundrums,  were  as 
amusing  to  the  idle  mind  in  old  times  as  they  are 
now.  When  among  the  varied  accomplishments  with 
which  men  are  gifted,  we  read  in  the  Codex  Exoniensis, 

yum  bi]?  life  lienbij  to  apjiitanne  popb  jejij^no, 
(hie  is  cunning  handy  to  awrite  ivord  mysteries, 

we  have  an  allusion  to  this  art  of  secret  writinsr,  or 
to  its  kindred  riddle  puzzles. 

There  is  but  little  encouragement  to  unravel  these 
marginal  marks  of  the  Leechbook,  since  the  two  speci- 
mens afford  us  but  a  very  scant  basis  for  inductive 
reasoning.  But,  doubtless,  when  laid  before  the  inqui- 
sitive eyes  of  restless  men,  they  may  naturally  give 
rise  to  some  unhappy  conjectures. 

Norse  clement.  Perhaps  in  dissecting  the  curious  mosaic  work  of 
this  Leechbook,  we  may  be  as  much  struck  by  the 
Old  Dansk,  or  as  people  now  sa^'^,  Norse  element  in 
the   words  Torbegete,    Rudniolin,    0ns    woi'm,   and  the 

PREFACE.  xxxiii 

herb  .Foniots  palui,  as  by  its  Irish  admixture,  or  its 
Greek  and  Latin  basis,  or  its  fran'raents  from  Kinji" 
iElfreds  handbook. 

The  third  book  of  tlie  volume  is  a  separate  produc-  Third  book, 
tion  from  the  two  former.  This  is  evident  by  the 
colophon  at  the  end  of  the  second,  declaring  who  owned, 
and  who  wrote  the  book,  and  by  the  word  "  dimitte  "  in 
the  margin  of  the  last  section,  indicating  the  approach 
of  a  close.  This  other  l)Ook,  then,  is  generally  of  the 
same  tone  as  the  preceding  ;  a  marginal  mark,  as  men- 
tioned above,  is  the  same  as  stands  by  the  side  of  some 
recipes  given  earlier,  and  the  monkish  habit  of  saying 
some  good  words  over  the  sick  is  as  ready  to  show 
itself.  We  may  therefore  conclude  it  to  be,  at  least,  of 
the  same  age ;  possibly  by  the  same  hand  as  the  other 

On  the  whole,  this  work  brings  into  a  clear  strong  light, 
the  plentiful  supply  of  good  English  food  for  the  brave 
appetites  of  the  AngulSeaxe,  the  large  importation  of 
foreign  wine  and  ale  and  plenteous  brew  of  potent  homo 
beer  and  ale  and  mead,  the  mulled  and  honeyed  drinks 
for  weaker  palates ;  the  colleges  of  leechcraft,  the  Greek 
and  Latin  medical  studies  of  the  most  eminent  teachers, 
the  wide  and  far  back  traceable  herboristic  traditions, 
the  far  and  wide  inquiries  of  King  ..Alfred  and  men 
of  his  time  like  him,  and  it  will  prove  every  way  a 
most  valuable  work  to  the  student  of  English  an- 

In  the  preface  to  Vol.  I.  a  few  pages  were  devoted 
to  an  examination  of  some  points  of  grammar ;  these 
were,  of  course,  to  some  extent  a  precaution  against 
idle  cavils  and  ignorant  criticism  of  the  translation. 
The  same  considerations  make  it  desirable  to  set  forth 
a  few  more  simple  observations  and  to  support  them 
by  examples. 

It  seems  clear   enough    that   the   modern   system  of  Long  vowels, 
marking   long  vowels  by  an  accent  is  not  in  harmony 



with  ancient  authorities ;  a  long  syllable  often  gets  the 
accent,  Ijut  a  short  vowel  also  is  frequently  found  to 
take  one.^  The  manuscripts  have  a  method  unexcep- 
tionable, and  discriminative,  of  showing  that  a  vowel 
is  long  by  writing  that  vowel  twice,  and  in  some  words 
that  mode  of  spelling  prevails  now.  They  give  us,  oc- 
casionally, 300b,  good,  boom,  doom,  "  aam,  cautere,"^ 
(whence  we  may  conclude  that  the  cognate  Oman,  will 
have  O  long,^)  aac,  oal;  pus,  ^vise,'^  and  so  forth.  The 
information  contained  in  this  device  of  our  forefathers 
has  not  yet  attracted  a  due  share  of  notice  ;  for  example, 
tlie  word  Si8,  a  fcdli,  deriving  itself  probably  from  the 
same  source  as  Semita,  becomes  in  the  Moesogothic 
Sinjj-,  and  has  been  supposed  to  exhibit  a  vowel 
necessarily,  as  before  two  consonants,  short  by  nature ; 
thus  producing  a  short  I  in  the  old  English.  But  Si5 
we  know  to  have  a  long  vowel  by  the  spelling  SiiS.^ 
It  is  not  true  that  a  Teutonic  or  Old  English  vowel 
before  two  consonants  is  necessarily  short.  Some  glos- 
saries throw  the  alphabet  into  confusion  for  the  sake 
of  giving  short  A  first,  then  long  A.  Mislead  by 
accentual  marks,  the  compilers  presume  that  the  prefix 
A  must  be  long,  whereas  the  tradition  of  our  language, 
as  in  Afraid,  Abroad,  Abased,  and  the  short  vowel  of 
the  particles  which  it  generally  represents,  prove  that 
in  those  instances  it  is  short.  Where  A  represents  An, 
one,  as  in  Ajiaeb  for  Anjiseb,  constant,  the  case  may  be 
different.  In  the  parallel  case  of  Un-  the  prefix,  the 
Greek  Av-,  the  Latin  In-,  the  vowel  is  undoubtedly 
short,  but  in  pronunciation  it  has  an  accent,  as  in 
Unknown,  and  it  is  frequently  found  accented  in  the 
MSS.     Nothing   but   a   notion    that   the    language   of 

•  Vol.  I.  pp.  xciv.,  xcv. 

2  Gl.  C. 

'  See  also  the  Glossary. 

•"  Beda,  .547.  16. 

''Beda,  571.  34.     See  Layamon, 

25836,  25837.  In  Bir,  Moritz, 
Heyne  has  marked  the  vowel  long, 
rightly.  We  have  also  Gesii'S,  but 


iElfric  and  Alfred  is  dead  could  encourage  a  foreigner 
to  such  experiments. 

It  is  said  by  those  who  had  opportunities  of  know-  Accents, 
ing,  that  the  painful  accentual  system  devised  by  the 
late  J.  M.  Kemble  was  abandoned  by  him  before  his 
death.  It  was,  indeed,  opposed  to  the  elementary  laws 
of  vocalization ;  for  it  is  known  to  all,  who  have  gone 
fully  into  the  subject,  that  a  prefix,  if  accented  itself, 
affects  the  accentuation  and  the  vocalization  of  any 
word  with  which  it  is  compounded.  The  subject  might 
be  largely  illustrated  and  its  essential  laws  developed 
from  the  Oriental  languages  ;  but  I  will  confine  my- 
self to  that  which  is  now  before  us.  There  can  be  no 
reasonable  doubt  but  that  'pilbe,  wild,  and  Deep,  deer, 
were  pronounced  with  the  vowels  long,  and  the  ridiculous 
theory  that  a  vowel  before  two  consonants  is  short 
by  nature,  can  mislead  but  few  ;  it  amounts  to  this, 
that  we  never  could  say  Beast,  Least,  but  must  pro- 
nounce those  words,  Best,  Lest.  These  two  words  pdbe, 
Deop,  being  compounded  and  formed  into  one,  retained 
the  accent  and  full  sound  on  the  syllable  most  impor- 
tant to  the  sense,  and  may  be  found  in  the  genitive 
singular  under  the  form  pilbpey.^  Thus  the  aflix  Deoji 
lost  its  proper  accent  because  a  more  powerful  claim- 
ant had  become  it  close  neighbour.  Another  example 
is  found  in  pitan,  to  vepvoacli,  which,  as  appears  from 
Layamon,"  had  its  vowel  by  nature  long.  This  word 
is  often  compounded  with  the  preposition  Mc,  which 
by  defect  of  grammatical  knowledge  among  the  old 
penmen  commonly  appears  as  eb- ;  Layamon  ^  exhibits 
the  compound  still  retaining  the  long  vowel ;  but  the 
Paris    Psalter  ^   spells   ebpitt:,  where,  according    to  the 

CE,  258,  line  10. 
Layamon,  21311. 

*  Ofte  heo  heom  on  smiten, 
Ofte  heo  heom  atwiten. 

Layamon,  2G584. 
'  Psalm  cxviii.  39. 





Gorman  way  of  talking,  the  second  t  is  "  inorganic," 
and  serves  only  to  mark  the  shortness  of  the  vowel. 
Under  this  form  the  word  is  our  Twit. 

Enough  has  been  said  to  show  that  the  length  of 
the  vowels  in  Saxon  English  is  a  very  wide  subject, 
and  to  justify  the  postponement  of  any  decisions  in 
the  Glossary. 

In  our  oldest  manuscripts  jwjin  often  occurs  where 
it  is  the  custom  to  print  T.  Rejp'S,  led,  rest,  Luj-^, 
'pleasure,  lust,  and  a  hundred  others  are  examples : 
the  superlatives  end  in  J^orn,  as  ^  ag^eley^e  mseben, 
the  very  noble  maiden,  the  participles  also.  In  the 
Codex  Exoniensis  the  editor  removed  these  features 
of  antiquity ;  they  offended  him ;  and  wore  not  ac- 
cording to  Rask.^  If  any  such  occur  in  the  present 
volume  they  are  preserved ;  they  are  not  dialectic, 
but  archaic. 

In  genders  the  glossaries  are  untrustwortliy ;  thus, 
the  most  recent  is  found,  as  regards  the  few  words 
common  to  both,  much  wrong,  when  compared  with 
the  citations  in  that  at  the  end  of  this  volume.  It 
is  unsafe  to  trust  compounds  with  je-,  for  the  gen- 
ders of  the  simples,  for  Ge-  being  a  form  of  Con-  and 
collective,  its  com])ounds  are  found  to  have  a  tendency 
to  run  into  the  neuter."  Simples  cannot  always  be  relied 
on  for  the  gender  of  the  compound  ;  all  moderns  take 
poppyjib  for  a  feminine,  after  pyj^^,  but  in  a  wide  scope 
of  unpublished  materials  I  have  always  found  it  neuter.^ 
Occasionally  a  new  principle  comes  in,  and  by  attrac- 
tion the  article  agrees  with  the  former  element  in  the 
compound,    instead    of   the    latter  ;    hence    pserejieebpe 

'  For  example,  Gebiej-jaS,  Gepel-  1       •'  Tja  cncoj>holen,  Lb.  I.  xlvii.  .3, 

Sa'S,  p.  .358;  I'cob',  p.   3.57.     Ahpe- 
ol'eS,  p.  :r.)7  ;  Blse'S,  p.  .",10. 

-  Thus  Sp)i£ec  is    feminine,    fJe- 
I'ppxc,  neuter. 

perliaps  makes  kneeholly  neuter  ; 
or  else  Tpa,  is  tivo  parts.  This 
remark  slioukl  have  appeared  in  the 


appears    as    neuter ;    Sibpsejic,'    feminine.      Hence    the 
Codex  Exoniensis  prefers  to  write  J?  jrlsej'cliojib.- 

Numorals  admit  of  a  substantive  in  the  sino-ular,  so  Numerals  with 
tliat  our  traditional  expressions,  Twelvemonth,  a  Six  ''  ^'°''"  ^'"" 
foot  rule,  he  weighs  Twelve  stone,  are  correct  accord- 
ing to  ancient  usage."'  Distinction  must  be  drawn  be- 
tween masculineSj  which  had  a  plural  in  s,  and 
feminines,  as  Night  in  Fortnight,  or  neuters,  as  in 
Five  pound  note.  Twelve  horse  power,  for  these  had  in 
ancient  time  no  s  in  the  plural.  Thus  xii.  mona];,'* 
]?pie  cuclep;'  did  not  require  remark  :  similarly  rpejen 
fsetel]"  yull  ealaS,*"'  nijantyne  pmreji  "j  cjwjen  mona]?," 
iv.  mona]),^  and  the  MS.  reading  in  Beowulf,  4342," 
may  stand. 

Examples  are  not  very  rare  in  other  works  beside  Idiomatic 
this  Leeclibook,  when  of  a  set  of  words  under  one  opposition, 
regimen,  those  that  come  last  in  order  appear  in  the 
nominative,  that  is,  in  no  regimen  at  all.  Thus 
fopSpepbum  Deuj'bebit;  j-e  Ajicebij'ceop,  defuncto  Deus- 
dedit  archieiyiscopo}'^  Fejibe  |>a  fi^San  •  -j  jejretce 
senne  mpej'j'eppeoj'C  policajipup  jehaten  •  halij  peji  -j 
jfnocop,^^  which  would  be  literally,  Deinde  'pTofectus 
attulit  'pmshyterii')n,  'policarpus  appellatus,  vIt  sanctus 
atque  prudens.  ba  seteopbe  j-ebaj-tianup  on  ypgepne 
anjie  pubepan  •  lucma  jecijeb  ppi^e  jepjzsefc  man,'-  which 
would  ])e  equivalent  to,  Tvmc  apparuU  Sehastianus 
in  somnio  viduro  cuidam,  Lucina  nominata,  homo 
valde  ndigiosa.  This,  when  it  comes  to  be  acknow- 
ledged generally,  may  be  called  Idiomatic  ap])Osition. 

Harsh  transitions    in    pronouns  from   plurals  to  sin- 
gulars, and  back  again,  are  not  peculiar  to  this  work  ; 

'  Lb.  p.  260,  line  1.  "  OT,  256. 

-  CE,  373,  line  3. 
■'  So  in  Gemian. 
'  Lib.  ni.  xviii. 

'  Lb,  I.  xvi.  2.    Tpybsel,  Lb.  T. 
i.  3,  viii.  2,  is  a  compound. 

Beda,  539.  23. 
■*  Beda,  564.  13. 
■'  Thorpe,  4355. 
'"  Beda,  p.  503.  line  6, 
"  MFT.  32  a. 

VOT-.  Tf.  d 


tliey  are  found   in  others    of  an   earlier  date,  bearing 
episcopal  names  for  their  authors. 

I  desire  again  to  acknowledge  many  courtesies  and 
kindnesses  at  Cambridge,  Oxford,  the  Corpus  Library, 
and  that  of  the  British  Museum. 

0.  C. 

December,  180  4. 


*'  Page  60,  sect,  xviii.,  line  2.  for  cican  read  cilian. 

Page  130,  sect.  Ix.,  line  l.for  fealye  read  j-ealj-e. 

Page  1 74,  line  24.  for  momse  read  momse. 

Page  194,  line  W.for  Taen  read  Tacn. 
'  Page  210,  line  18. >•  blobejj  read  blobej-.      '  (^^^i^^■•'' i£B^  $y^-\c^r^  ;  «?&  a^^^-^^  ye^ia.... 
'  Page  224,  sect,  xxviii.,  line  \.for  ugepjie  read  uj-ejijie. 

Page  292,  note  2.  add,  "  they  are  possibly  a  corrupt  representation  of 
•'  i€pa  fioravt]." 

Page  324,  sect,  xxx.,  line  4.  pubupeaxaii  is  one  word. 

Page  349,  line  29.  07401. 

Page  391,  glossary,  v.  IJeaji.  Cf.  |^elanb  gepojic  ne  sefjuccS  monna 
aenigum  Sajia  '5e  mimmins  can  heapne  gehealban.  (Fragments  printed 
by  Prof.  Stephens.)  The  Wieland  work  will  fad  no  man,  who  kennelh 
to  wield  biting  Mimming,  where  the  editor  reads  heapne  as  hoar. 


VOL.  II. 

[L^CE     BOC.]^ 

fol.  1  a.  .1.  L^EE    DOMAS  -    piD    eallum    untjiymnej-j-um 

heapbef  "j  hpanan  ealley  je  liealfej'  heajrbef  ece  cume  • 
•j  clsepnunja  -j  fpilmj  pi  5  hjium  -j  jillifejium  to  heapbej' 
heelo  •  -j  liu  mon  pcyle  jebpocenep  heapbey  tihgean  "j 
jip  'past  bpsejen  ut  fie.  :• 

.II.  Lsecebomaj' piS  eallum  tiebejinej'j'um  eajena  •  piS 
eajna  mifce  je  ealbey  je  jeonjep  mannep  "j  hpanan  f 
cume  -j  pi]?  pile  "j  piS  eajna  teapum  -j  pi8  pemme  on 
eajum  •  pi5  repmselum  •  -j  pp  mon  fupeje  pie  •  pi^ 
poccef  on  eajum  'j  piS  jepijom  -j  pij?  pyjvmum  on 
eajum  -j  eajpealpa  selcef  cynnep. 

.ni.  Lsecebomaf  piS   eallum    eapena   ece  -j  fape  •  yip 
eapena  beape  •  "j  piS  ypelpe^  hlyfre  •  ^  jip  pyjimap  on 
eapan   pyn  -j  pi]?  eajiptcjan^  "j  jip  eajian  bynien  -j  ea]i 
pealpe  asleep  cyimep. 
fol.  1  b.  .nil.  Lsececpseptap   pi]?    healpjunbe   -j    hu    J7U    meaht 

jecunman  hp?e]?eji  hit  liealpjunb  fie  -j  f  fio  abl  ip 
tpejea  cynna  oj^ep  on  ]?am  ^eajle  o]?ep  on  ]?8e]ie  Spotan 
pyptbpenc  -j  pealp  pi}?  ]?on  •  'j  ]n]?  ceacena  fpyle  -j  pi^ 
fpeojico]?e  -j  jeajlep  fpyle. 

'  See  II.  xlii.  contents.  |       '  Wanley  reads  eappicgaj-.    The 

-  This  first  page  of  the  MS.  has  I  text  seems  to  my  eyes  to  be  as  I 

suffered  somewhat  fi-om  time  and  use.      have  given  it;   picsjan   occurs  I. 

^  This  reading  makes  hlyfc  femi  •  I  Ixi,  2. 

nine.    See  the  text.  ' 

MS.  Reg.  12.  I),  xvii. 


i.  Leeclidoms  against  all  infii-mlties  of  the  head,  and     Contents. 
whence  comes   ache  of  all  or  of  the  half"  head,^   and 
cleansings  and  swilling  against  filth  and  ratten  to  the 
health  of  the  head  ;  and  how  one  must  tend  a  broken 
head,  and  liov)  if  the  brain  be  out. 

ii.  Leechdoms  against  all  tendernesses  of  the  eyes, 
against  mist  of  the  eyes,  either  of  an  old  or  of  a  young 
man,  and  whence  that  comes,  and  against  white  spot 
and  against  tears  of  eyes,  and  against  speck  on 
eyes,  against  imminutions,  and  if  a  man  be  blear- 
eyed,  against  pocks  on  eyes,  and  against  "figs/'*  and 
against  w^orms,  or  insects;  and  eye  salves  of  every  kind. 

iii.  Leechdoms  against  all  ache  and  sore  of  ears, 
against  deafness  of  ears,  and  against  ill  hearing,  and  if 
worms  be  in  the  ears,  and  against  earwigs,  and  if  the 
ears  din,  and  ear  salves  of  every  kind. 

iv.  Leechcrafts  against  neck  ratten,^  and  how  thou 
mayest  ascertain  whether  it  be  neck  ratten,  and  that 
the  disease  is  of  two  sorts,  either  in.  the  jowl  or  in  the 
throat,  and  a  wort  drink  and  a  salve  for  that,  and  for 
swellings  of  the  jaws  and  for  quinsy,  and  for  swelling 
of  the  jowl. 

'  See  II.  xlii.  contents.  I       '  A  disease  so  called,  sties,  wisps. 

■  Or  megrim  (piniKpavia).  i       '  Probably  from  scrofula. 


A    2 

4  LiECE   BOC. 

.V.  Lsecebomaj"  5  if  mannej'  mu8  ]"a]i  jne  je  tybjieb 
"j  pi]?  jeblejnabpe  tunjan  mu]>  fealj:  pi|>  ]?oii  ilcan. 
Pi8  fultim  opoSe  •    III.  l?ecebomap. 

.VI.  Liecebomal"  piS  toj^psepce  •  "j  ^'ly  pypni  to]?  ete 
-j  to]>pealpa  •  ept  pi8  ]?ain  iipejian  ro]?  ece  -j  piS  ]7am 
ni]jeppan.  :• 

.VII.  Lsecebom  jip  mon  blob  lipsece.  :• 

.VIII.  Lsecebomap  piS  bloBce  on  -jphtan  •j  bpip  pi]? 
j7on  ilcan  -j  pealp  ealpa  peopep.  :• 

.vim.  Lsecebomap  jip  men  ypne  blob  op  nebbe  ept 
blobpetena  je  on  to  bmbanne  je  on  eape  to  bonne  je 
liopfe  je  men  ealpa*   X.  :• 

.X.  Lfecebom  pi]?  jefnote  •  'j  yip  jepoftim. 

.XI.  Lsecebomap  pi]?  pajium  peolopum.  :• 

.XII.  Lsecebom  piS  peam^  mu]?e  -j  piS  ceolan  fpyle* 
fol.  2  a.  ]7py  Isecebomap.  :• 

.XIII.  Lsecebom  pi]?  hseppceapbe. 

[XIV.]  Lsecebom  pi]?  j-eaban.^  :■ 

[xv.]  Lsecebomap  piS  lipol'ran  hu  he  mi]"penlice  on 
man  becymS  -j  hu  hip  man  tilian  fcyle  ^j  pyptbpencaf 
pij?  hpofran  -j  jn]?  anjbpeofce  *j  bpyjum  hpofcan  enb- 
lepan  C]ise}:tap.  :• 

[xvi.]  .xiiii.  Lsecebomaf  pi6  bpeof-c  psepce  •  iiii. 

[xvii.]  .XV.  Lsecebomap  pi]?  heoptpsepce  •  v.  cpaep- 
taf.  :• 

[xviii.]  .XVI.  Lsecebomap  pi]?  ]?am  miclan  5ic]?an -j  hu 
he  cymS  op  acolobum  majan  o]?]?e  to  fpi"Se  hatum  o^Se 
op  to  micelpe  pylle  o]?}?e  Isepnepj-e  o]?]?e  op  ypelpe 
psetan  plitenbpe  -j  hu  hif  mon  tilian  pcyle  piS  selc 
]?apa.  :• 

'  In  text  jjouum,  for  jiohum.  [      -  j-ea'San  ;  text. 

LEECH    BOOK.    T.  5 

V.  Leechdoms  if  a  mans    moutli    be    sore   or  made     Contents. 
tender,  and  for  a  blained    tongue,  a  mouth    salve   for 
tlie  same.     For  foul  breath  ;  three  leechdoms. 

vi.  Leechdoms  for  tooth  ache,  and  if  a  worm  eat  the 
tooth,  and  tooth  salves.  Again  for  tlie  upper  tootli 
ache  and  for  the  nether. 

vii.  Leechdom  if  a  man  break  up  blood. 

viii.  Leechdoms  for  a  blotch  on  the  face,  and  brewit' 
for  the  same,  and  a  salve.     Four  in  all. 

ix.  Leechdoms  if  blood  run  from  a  mans  nose.  Again 
blood  stoppings,  either  to  bind  on  or  to  put  on  the 
ear  ;  either  for  horse  or  man.     Ten  in  all. 

X.  Leechdom  for  snot  and  for  poses.^ 

xi.  Leechdoms  for  sore  lips. 

xii.  Leechdom  for  wry  mouth  and  for  swelling  of 
tlie  gullet.     Three  leechdoms. 

xiii.  A  leechdom  for  hair  lip. 

[xiv.]  A  leechdom  for  xx6dcuv;c,  watery  fluctuations.'^ 

[xv.]  Leechdoms  against  host  ;*  how  it  variously 
comes  on  man,  and  how  a  man  shall  treat  it ;  and 
wort  drinks  for  host  and  for  oppression  on  the  chest 
and  dry  cough.     Eleven  receipts. 

[xvi.]  xiv.  Leechdoms  for  breast  wark.^  Four  re- 

[xvii.]  XV.  Leechdoms  for  heart  wark.  Five  re- 

[xviii.]  xvi.  Leechdoms  for  the  great  hicket,  and  how 
it  arises  from  a  chilled  stomach,  or  a  much  too  hot 
one,  or  of  too  much  fullness,  or  of  leerness,^  or  of  evil 
wet '  wounding,  and  how  a  man  shall  treat  it ;  against 
each  of  them. 

'  The  lomeiituin  of  the  Roman 
women,  a  paste  of  pulse,  generally 
of  lentils  ;  women  used  it  to  im- 
prove their  complexions,  and  it  was 
eatable  though  unsavoury. 

^  See  II.  xxxix. 

'  Host,  couyh.  pronounced  with  o 

•  Wark  is  pain. 
"  Einpline-is. 

-  Colds  in  the  head.  i        '  Humour^ 


[xix.]  .XVII.  Lfeceboma)-  ]>ij;  pla3tan  -pejen  sejjele.    :• 
.XX.  Lsecebomaj'  yip  j'culboji  psepce  •  iii.  cpreftaf. 

.XXI.  LaBcebomaf  pi^  j^sejie  fpiSpan  )'iban  fape  -j  Jjsepe 
pmefrjian  pyx  cjiseptaj".  :■ 

.XXII.  La3cebomap  pi8  lenbenece  peopep.  :• 

.XXIII.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  ]7eoliece   tpejen  -j  an  pi]?   ]?on 
■^ly  ]?eoli  plapan. 
fol.  2  b.  .  xxiiii.  Lsecebomap  pi]?  cneop  psepce  *j  jip  cneop  fap 

lie.  r. 

.XXV.  Lseceboma)'  pi]>  fcancena  j-ape  -j  jip  fcancan 
popabe  fynb  o]?]?e  o]>ep  I'lm  peopep  cp^eptaf  'j  hu  mon 
fpelcean  pcyle.  :• 

^Eeadfino.  .XXVI.  LsBcebomaf  pp  fma  pcpmce  -j   septep  J»am  fie 

pap  oSSe  fpelle  oSSe  jip  monnep  pot  ro  hommum 
fcpimme  "j  fcpmce  "j  jip  fmo  clseppette  -j  cpacije  eallep 
peopep  cpfepraf.  :• 

.XXVII.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  potece  o}?]?e  o]?pep  limep  o]?]?e 
pota  jefpelle  pop  miclan  janje  •  VI.  cpa3p[ta]'].  :• 

.XXVIII.  Lac?eboma]'  pi]?  ban  ece  "j  pealp  "j  bpenc  }?py 
cpseptap  }?8ep  pynb.  :• 

.xxviiii.  Lsecebomaf  jip  mannej'  jerapa  beo]?  fape 
o]?]?e  a}>unbene  ]?py  cpseptap.  :• 

.XXX.  Lsecebomaf  pi}>  secelman  -j  pi]?  Son  Se  men 
acale  ]?se'c  pel  op  ]?am  pottim.  :• 

.XXXI.  Lsecebomap  pi}?  selcum  lieajibum  J'lnje  o})]?e 
fpyle  o]?]?e  jefpelle  -j  pi]?  selcpe  ypelpe  fpellenbpe  psetan 
■j  pi]?innan  jepyjifmebum  jefpelle  ]?am  ]?e  pyp'S  op  pylle 
oSSe  op  pleje  o]?]?e  op  hpypca^  hpilcum  -j  pi]>  fpiSe 
fol.  3  a.  pseplicum    fpylurn   'j    pi]?    beabum   fpyliim    "j    pealpse   -j 

bpencaf  -j  fpe\>m^e  -j  bse}?  pi}?  eallum  lichoman  fpylum 
ealpa  Iseceboma  tpam  Isep  ]?piti3.  :• 

'  Text  hpicj-ca :  read  hpicj-a  ? 

LEECH   BOOK.     \.  7 

[xix.]  xvii.    Leechdoms   against   nausea.     Two  noble     Contents. 

XX.  Leechdoms  against  shoulder  wark.  Three  re- 

xxi.  Leechdoms  for  sore  of  the  right  side  and  of  the 
left.     Six  receipts. 

xxii.  Leechdoms  for  loin  ache.     Four. 

xxiii.  Leechdoms  for  thigh  ache,  two ;  and  one  in 
case  the  thighs  be  benumbed.^ 

xxiv.  Leechdoms  for  knee  wark,  and  if  the  knee  be 

XXV.  Leechdoms  for  sore  of  shanks,  and  if  shanks  be 
broken,  or  another  limb.  Four  receipts,  and  how  a  man 
shall  apply  splints  to  it. 

xxvi.  Leechdoms  if  a  sinew  shrink,  and  after  that  be 
sore  or  swell,  or  if  a  mans  foot  shram ^  to  the  hams 
and  shrink,  and  if  a  sinew  have  pulsation  and  quake. 
In  all  four  receipts. 

xxvii.  Leechdoms  for  foot  ache  or  swelling  of  another 
limb  or  of  the  feet,  by  reason  of  much  travel.  Six 

xxviii.  Leechdoms  for  leg  ache,  and  a  salve,  and  a 
drink.     There  are  three  receipts  for  it. 

xxix.  Leechdoms  if  a  mans  tools  be  sore  or  swollen. 
Three  receipts. 

XXX.  Leechdoms  against  chillblain,  and  in  case  that 
for  a  man  the  skin  of  the  feet  be  chilly. 

xxxi.  Leechdoms  for  every  hard  thing  or  swelling 
or  tumour,  and  for  every  evil  swelling  humour  and 
tumour  purulent  within,  such  as  groweth  of  a  fall  or 
of  a  blow  or  of  any  crick,  and  for  very  sudden  swellings 
and  for  dead  swellings  without  sensation,  and  salves 
and  drinks  and  swathings  and  baths  for  all  swellings 
of  the  body.  Of  all  these  leechdoms  thirty  less  by  two 

'  Exactly,  incapable  of  rmiscular  ]      '■'  Be  drmvn  up. 
actiov.  I 

8  L^CE   BOC. 

.XXXII.  Lsecebomaf  picS  J;am  yj-'lan  blaece  hu  man  ]?a 
fealjra  -j  ba})u  ^j  bpencay  pi];  Son  pypcean  pcyle  -j  pij; 
hpeopum  lice  *j  piS  abeabebum  lice  bpej?  "j  fealpa  pi  J? 
]jon  •  btej?  -j  pealpa  "j  bpencaf  pi)?  I^am  miclan  lice  -j 
fpile  eallep  piptyne  Isecebomaf. 

.XXXIII.  LEecebomap  ^  bjiencaf  -j  yealpa  *j  [onjlejua 
pi]?  fppmje  je  abeabebum  je  unbeabebum  •  viii.  cptep- 

.XXXIV.  Lsecebom  jip  nsejl  fy  op  lianba  -j  pi]?  an^- 
nsejle  -j  pi]?  peapjbjiseban.  :• 

.XXXV.  Lsecebomap  micle  *j  sepele  be  afpeajitebum  "j 
abeabebum  lice  "j  hpanan  fio  abl  cume  *j  bu  hi]'^  mon 
rilian  pcyle  jTp  f  lie  to  ]?on  lpi]?e  abeabije  f  ]?8e]i 
jepelnep  on  ne  fy  •  -j  liu  mon  ]?  beabe  blob  apej 
penian  pcyle  •  -j  jip  litm  mon  Itm  opceojipan  fcyle  oSSe 
pyji  onpecran  hu  f  mon  bon  scyle  •  bjupaj-  ^j  bpenceaj' 
■j  pealpa  pi]?  ]?8e]ie  able.  :• 

.  XXXVI.  Lsecebomap  piS  ]?8ejxe  able  ]?e  mon  hast  cipcul 

fol.  3  h.    bpip  "j  bjiencaf  *j  pealpa  ]>8et  ip  fpi]?e  pjieonu"  abl  *j 

hep   pej]?    hpilcne    mete    oJ?]?e    bjiincan    mon    fcyle    on 

]?8epe  able  popjan.  :• 

.XXXVII.  LtEcebomap  pi]?  Son  jtp  mon  ne  mseje  hip 
micjean  jehealban  -j  ]??epe  ^epealb  naje  'j  jip  he  ^e- 
mijan  ne  mseje  *j  jip  he  blobe  vai-i^e  •  -j  jlp  ptp  on  ]?on 
tebpe  fie  •  Xllll.  Isecebomaf  :• 

.XXXVIII.  Lsececpgeptap  -j  boljpealpa  -j  bpencaf  pi]? 
eallum  punbum  -j  clfenfunjura  on  telce  pipan  je  piS 
ealbpe  punbe  tobpocenpe  *j  jip  ban  bpyce  on  heapobe 
fie  •  "j  piS  liunbep  j'lite  •  "j  boljfealp  piS  lunjen  able  -j 
pi]?  mnan  punbe  pealp  •  -j  pealp  jip  ]?u  paSe  piUe  lytle 
punbe  lacnian  -j  jtp  mon  mib  ipene  jepunbob  fie  •  oJ?J?e 
inib  tjieope    jeplejen  •  o]?pe  inib  frane  -j  ept  fealpa  jTp 

'  111]-  refers  to  lie.  |      -  Read  ipecnii. 



xxxii.  Leeclidoms  against  the  evil  lilotcli,  how  a  man  Contents. 
shall  work  salves  and  baths  and  drinks  against  it,  and 
for  a  leprous  body  and  for  a  deadened  body,  a  bath 
and  salves  for  them.  Baths  and  salves  and  drinks  for 
the  mickle  body,  elephantiasis,  and  swelling.  In  all 
fifteen  loechdoms. 

xxxiii.  Leeclidoms  and  drinks  and  salves  and  ap- 
plications for  pustules,  either  deadened  or  undeadened. 
Eight  receipts. 

xxxiv.  A  leechdom  if  a  nail  be  off  a  hand,  and  against 
angnails,  and  against  warty  eruptions. 

XXXV.  Leeclidoms  mickle  and  excellent  for  a  swarth- 
ened  and  a  deadened  body,  and  whence  the  disease 
Cometh,  and  how  a  man  shall  treat  it,  if  the  body  be 
deadened  to  that  decjree  that  there  be  not  feelinsf  in 
it ;  and  how  a  man  shall  wean  the  dead  blood  away, 
and  if  it  be  desired  to  cut  off  a  limb  from  the  sick 
man  or  apply  fire,^  how  it  shall  be  performed.  Brewits'- 
and  drinks  and  salves  for  the  disease. 

xxxvi.  Leechdoms  for  the  disease  which  is  called 
circle  addle  or  shmgles ;  brewit  and  drinks  and  salves. 
This  is  a  very  troublesome  disease,  and  here  saith 
(our  book)  what  meat  or  drink  a  man  shall  in  this 
disease  forego. 

xxxvii.  Leechdoms  in  case  a  man  may  not  retain  his 
mie,*  and  have  not  command  of  it,  and  if  he  may  not  ^  Urine, 
mie,  and  if  he  mie  blood ;  and  if  a  wife   (woman)   be 
tender  in  that  respect.     Fourteen  leechdoms. 

xxxviii.  Leechcrafts  and  wound  salves  and  drinks 
for  all  wounds  and  all  cleansings  {discharges)  in  every 
wise,  and  for  an  old  broken  wound,  and  if  there  be 
bone  breach  on  the  head,  and  for  a  tear  by  a  dog  ; 
and  a  wound  salve  for  disease  of  the  lungs,  and 
a  salve  for  an  inward  wound  ;  and  a  salve  if  thou 
wilt  cure  a  little  wound  quickly,  and  if  a  man  be 
wounded  with    iron,    or    struck   with    wood,    or   with 

The  cautery. 

I      -  See  viii 

10  L^CE   BOC. 

men  ym  lim  oj:  lime  opaylejen  finjeji  o]j]7e  j:6r  o]>\)e 
hanb  •  oSSe  j'l}:  meaph '  u~e  fie  "j  jij:  bolh  fulije  ealpa 
}:]iam  pjiuman  yeopep  'j  J'pi'ciS  Iteceboma. 

.xxxvilll.   Lsecebomaf    piS    selcep    cynnej-    omum    "j 

fol.  4  a.  onpeallum    -j    banco]?um  •  pi]>   ur   ablejnebum    omum  ^j 

pi]?    omena    jebepfce  •  "j  piS   omum   o]:ep  hatum  -j  piv3 

peonbum    omum  f  ly  pc  •    bpencaf  "j  pealpa  pi]?  eallum 

omum  ealpa  trpani  Itep  J'pi'ciS-  :• 

.XL.  Lsecebomaf  *j  bpencaf  -j  pealpa  pi]?  poc  able  ealpa 
lyxe.  :■ 

.XLI.  Lsecebomap  })py  9e]?ele  pi]?  mnan  onpealle  "j 
omum.  :■ 

.XLii.  Lfecebomaf  pi]?  'Stepe  jeolpan  able  "j  franbse]? 
•j  pi}?  jeal  able  fio  cymiS  op  )?{epe  jeolpan  able  •  fio  bi}? 
abla  picufc  abirepaS  pe  liclioma  eall  'j  ajeolpa}?  fpa 
50b  jeolo  feoluc.  :■ 

.XLiii.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  p?etep  bollan.  :• 

.XLilil.  Lsecebomaf  pi'^  cancep    able    ]>gst:    ip    bice   "j 

fmepenej'pa  -j  j"ealp  peopep  cpsepca]'.  :• 

.XLV.  Lsecebomaf    -j    bpencaf   pi]?    selcum    attpe    pi^ 

nsebpan  j'leje  -j  bite  'j  plire  •  -j  pi]>  ]?on  jtp  mon  attep 

3e]?iC5e  •  "j  \)SdY  baljan   cpifrep   ]?e5nej'  lohannej-   jebeb 

-j  jealbop  "j  eac  o}?ep  fcyctifc  jecofc  jealbo-^  jehpsej^eji 

])i]?    selcum    attpe  •    pi]?    pleoi;enbum    attjie    'j    fp3^1e   -j 

beopum    boljum  •    jip   lipa   jebpmce   pypm  on    psetepe 

fol.  4  b.  pij?  J'on  lsecebomaf  •  -j    pp    mon   po-^bopen    fie    callep  • 

XX.  cjisepta  piS  attpe.  :• 

.XLVI.  Lsecebomaf  jip  ana  pypm  on  men  peaxe  fealp 
bpenc  -j  clam  pij?  ]?on  •  v.  lsecebomaf  J?8ep  fint.  :• 

'  meah,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    T.  11 

stone ;    and   further  salves    if  for   a    man    a    limb    be     Coxtexts. 
struck  off  from  a  limb,  finger  or  foot   or   hand,    or   if 
the  marrow  be  out,  and  if  a  wound  get   foul.     Of  all 
from  the  beginning  four  and  thirty  leeclidoms. 

xxxix.  Leechdoms  against  erysipelas  of  every  kind 
and  fellons,  and  bone  diseases,  for  erysipelatous  affec- 
tions accompanied  by  external  blains,  and  for  the 
bursting  of  erysipelatous  cysts,  and  for  excessively  hot 
erysipelatous  attacks,  and  for  running  erysipelas,  that 
is  the  disease  called  "fig.'  Drinks  and  salves  for  all 
sorts  of  erysipelatous  affections.     Thirty  less  by  two. 

xl.  Leechdoms  and  drinks  and  salves  for  pock  disease. 
In  all  six. 

xli.  Three  excellent  leechdoms  for  inward  tubercles 
and  erysipelas. 

xlii,  Leechdoms  for  the  yellow  disease,*  and  a  stone ''•T^''i""'l'<^f- 
bath,*  and  for  the   gall   disease   which   cometh    of  the 
yellow  disease.     This  is  of  diseases  the  most  powerful, 
the  body  becometh  quite  bitter  and  turnetli  yellow,  as 
good  yellow  silk. 

xliii.  Leechdoms  for  dropsy. 

xliv.  Leechdoms  for  the  disease  cancer,  that  is,  "  bite," 
and  smearings  and  a  salve.     Four  receipts. 

xlv.  Leechdoms  and  drinks  against  every  poison, 
against  stroke  and  bite  and  rend  of  snake ;  and  in 
case  a  man  swallow  poison,  and  a  prayer  of  the  holy 
thane  of  Christ,  lohannes,  and  an  incantation  and 
also  another  Scottish  approved  incantation,  in  Gaelic 
or  Erse,  either  of  them  against  eveiy  poison,  against 
flying  poison  and  swelling  and  deep  gashes.  If  any 
one  drink  a  worm^  in  water,  leechdoms  against  that ; 
and  if  a  man  be  tied  with  a  magic  knot.  In  all 
twenty  receipts  against  poison. 

xlvi.  Leechdoms  if  King  0ns  worm  wax  on  a  man, 
a  salve,  a  drink,  and  a  plaster  for  that.  There  are  five 
leechdoms  of  it. 

*  A  stone  bath  was  a  vapour  bath,  water  being  thrown  on  heated  stones. 
-  Reptile. 

12  l.MCE  EOC. 

.XLVII.  Lascebomaf  *j  bjiencaf  -j  yealjra  pi]?  }>eopablum 
momjej'  cynnej"  pa  becfcan  pi]:*  j^eoppypme  on  pet  • 
XII.  ealpa  pi]>  peoji  ablum.  :• 

.XLVIII.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  J^am  pyjimum  ]?e  mnan  ejlaS 
monnum  •  "j  pi}>  pypmum  ]7e  on  cilba  mnojje  beoj?  *j 
]>iS  cilba  mnoS  pape  ealjia  cjifepta  •  XII.  pi]:*  J>am.  :• 

.XLVIIII.  L?scebom  on  funbpon  anlipij  pi]?  ]?am  fmalan 
pyjime.  :■ 

.L.  Lsecebomaf  pij>  lianb  pypmum  -j  heap  pyjimum  ^ 
;^iy  I'yjim  hanb  ete  •  peaxpealp  pi]?  hanb  pypme  fyx 
cjiseptap  ealpa  •  nil.  pifan.  :• 

•  LI.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  pyjimum  ]?e  monnej-  pltepc  eta]?.  :• 
.Lil.  Lsecebomap  tpejen  pi]?  lufum.  :• 
.Liii.  Lseceboma]'  tpeten  pi]?  fmoeja  pypmum.  :• 
.Lliii.  Lpecebomaj'  piS  pyjimsetum  lice  -j  cpelbehtum.  :• 

.LV.  Lsecebom  pi]?  aj-lejeniim  lice.  :• 

.LVI,  Lfecebomaf  pij?  aplapentim'  lice  -j  bne]?  fealp,     :• 

.LVii.  Lfecebomaf  'j  bpencaf  ^  j-ealpa  pi]?  pice.  :• 

•  LVill.  Lsecebomaj'  to  pen  pealpe  •  "j  to  pen  bylum.  :• 
fol.  5  a.                .LViill.   Lsecebomaj-    pi^S    papalifm    ]?    ij-    on    enjlipc 

lypt  abl  "j  pi]?  neujiij-ne  ]?piy.  : 

.LX.  Lsecebomaj-  pi^  bpyne  ^j  fealpa  •  Vlii.  ealpa.      :• 

.LXi.  Lsecebomap   pi]?  liS  paepce  'j  piS    lij?peape  *j   jip 

li]?feap   fio^   "j    lio]?ole    titpypne    ealpa   cpaepta    peopep- 

tyne.  :• 

.LXii.  Lrecebomai'  pi]?  pepepable  to  haelanne  bpencaj* 
pi^  j?an  •  pi}?  ]?pibban  bsejef  psepe  -j  peop}?an  bsejef  psepe 
•j  pi^  ji'lcep  bsejel"  pepe  -j  pi]?  lencten  able  f  ip  pepep  * 
•j  liu  man  fceal  pi]?  ]??epe  able  on  liuj-1  bipce  pone  haljan 

'  The   passage   of   the   text   lias  i       -  For  fiohe,  subjunctive. 
arlej;enuin.  | 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  13 

xlvii.   Leechdoms   and    drinks   and   salves   lor   "  dry     OoMEMt 
diseases " '  of  many  a  kind,  the  best  ones   for    "  dry  " 
worm    on    the   feet.      Twelve    in    all    against    "  dry " 

xlviii.  Leechdoms  for  the  worms  which  vex  men 
inwardly,  and  against  worms  which  be  in  the  inwards 
of  children,  and  children  s  inwards  sore.  In  all  twelve 
receipts  against  them. 

xlix.  A  leechdom,  single,  separately,  against  the  small 

1.  Leechdoms  again  hand  worms  and  dew  worms, 
and  if  a  worm  eat  the  head ;  a  wax  salve  against  the 
hand  worm.     Six  receipts  ;  four  sorts  in  all. 

li.  Leechdoms  against  worms  which  eat  mans  Hesh. 

Hi.  Two  leechdoms  against  lice. 

liii.  Two  leechdoms  against  penetrating  worms. 

liv.  Leechdoms  for  a  worm  eaten  body  and  a 

Iv.  A  leechdom.  for  a  stricken  body. 

Ivi.  Leechdoms  for  a  paralyzed  body,  and  a  bath 

Ivii.  Leechdoms  and  drinks  and  salves  against  tlic 
disease  called  "  fig." 

Iviii.  Leechdoms  for  a  wen  salve  and  for  wen  boils. 

lix.  Leechdoms  for  paralysis,  that  is  in  English,  lyft 
addle,  and  for  "  neurisn."  ^     Three. 

Ix.  Leechdom  for  a  burn ;  and  salves.     Eight  in  all. 

Ixi.  Leechdoms  for  a  pain  in  the  joints,  and  for  the 
lubricating  secretion  at  the  joints,  called^  synovia,  and 
if  the  synovia  leak  and  the  joint  oil  run  out.  Of  all 
(these)  receipts  fourteen. 

Ixii.  Leechdoms  for  fever,  to  heal  it ;  drinks  for  that ; 
against  a  tertain  fever,  and  a  quartan  fever,  and  a 
quotidian  fever ;  and  against  lent  disease,  that  is 
{typhus)   fever,   and   how   against   the  disorder  a  man 

'  A  sort  of  dry  rot :  see  the  glos-  I      '  Possibly  vevpuv  vipfffis  ;  a  kind 

sary.    Vlapa<Tn6s.  \  of  irapiXvais. 

14  LiECE   BOC. 

"j  ]7one  iniclan  jobejp  naman  ppitan  --j  on  J;one  bpenc 
mib  halijpajtjie  Spean  -j  halij  jebeb  on  upan  linjan  -j 
cpebo  -j  pateji  noptep  •  x.  Isecebomap. 

.LXIIL  LcTScebomap  piS  peonb  j-eocum  men  bpencaf  to 
Jpon  *j  hii  moil  fcyle  mppj-pan  -j  jebebu  -j  pealmaf  opeji 
l^one  bjienc  j-injan  -j  op  cijucbellum  bjimcan  •  y  yip 
bjisecfeocum  men  •  "j  pij?  peben  heojite  -j  pi8  ]7on  eal- 
lum  fax  cpseptaj-.  :• 

.LXilii.  L^cebomap  pi]?  aelcjie  leobnunan  -j  selpfibenne 

ol.  5  b.  J?   !]■   pepejicynnep   jealboji  'j  bufc  -j  bpiencap  *j    pealp  -j 

jip   pto   abl   netnum    fie  •  -j  jip  fio  abl  pypibe  mannan 

o^Se  mape  pibe  -j  pypbe  feopon  eallep  cpsepta.  :• 

.LXV.  Lsecebomaj'  ept  piS  lencten  able  -j  j^apa  peopep 
jobfpellepa  naman  •  *j  jeppitu  "j  jebebu  -j  fpijenbe 
Iceal  mon  fum  ^eppit  ppitan  •  v.  cpteptaf.  :• 

.LXVI.  Lsecebomap  unjemynbe  *j  pi]?  byfijum.  :■ 

.LXVii,  Lsecebomap  -j  bpencap  pi^  jenumenum  mete 
•j  jtp  eala  pie  apepb  o]>\>e  meolcen  mete  |;py  cp?eptas.       :■ 

.LXViii.  Lsecebomap  pi]>  ]7on  jip  liunta  jebite  man- 
nan  f  fpiSjie  o]?pe^  naman  janjelpeppa  pex  bujenbe 

.LXVIIII.  Ljecebomap  pi]?  pebe  hunbep  plite  ^  yi^ 
liiinbe]-  bolje  •  VII.  Isecebomaj-.  :• 

.LXX.  Lsecebomaj*  jip  mon  fie  to  pjisene  o]>])e  to 
unppsene.  : 

.Lxxi.  Lseceboma)-  pij?  jiseje  peofau  fajie  -j  jip  lioh 
fmo  popob  pie,  :• 

.LXXI.  Lsecebomap  on  lipilce  tib  blob  pie  to  pojijanne 

fol.  6  a.  on    hpilce    to     poplsetenne   -j    hu    fie     attpej-    pul    fio 

lypt   on    hlapm^eppe   tih  •    -j    be    bpenctim    -j    utpojium 

on   ]?am   monj^e  -j   ■JJte   pypta   on   J)am   monSe   fmb  to 

pyjicanne.  :• 

'  C!ompare  the  chapter,  and  read  ^  ij-  i'yi^]^:  -j  oJ?e]i. 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  15 

shall  write  vipoii   the   eucharistic   paton    the   holy  and     Contunts. 
the  great  name  of  God,  and  wasli  it  witli  lioly  water  in 
to  the  drink,  and  sing  a  holy  prayer   over  it  and  the 
Credo  and  the  Paternoster.     Ten  leechdoms. 

Ixiii.  Leechdoms  for  a  fiendsick  man  {or  demoniac), 
drinks  for  that,  and  how  a  man  shall  sing  masses  and 
prayers  and  psalms  over  the  drink,  and  drink  out  of 
church  bells,  and  for  a  lunatic  man,  and  for  the  wood 
heart  or  frenzy,  and  for  them  all ;  six  receipts. 

Ixiv.  Leechdoms  against  every  pagan  charm  and  for 
a  man  with  elvish  tricks  ;  that  is  to  say,  an  enchant- 
ment for  a  sort  of  fever,  and  powder  and  drinks  and 
salve,  and  if  the  disease  be  on  neat  cattle ;  and  if  the 
disease  harm  a  man,  or  if  a  mare  ride  him  and  hurt 
him.     In  aU  seven  crafts. 

Ixv.  Leechdoms  again  for  typhus,  and  the  names  of 
the  four  gospellers  and  writings  and  prayers ;  and  in 
silence  shall  one  write  some  writing.     Five  receipts. 

ixvi.  Leechdoms  for-  the  idiot  and  the  silly. 

Ixvii.  Leechdoms  and  drinks  for  meat  taken,  and  if 
ale  be  spoilt  or  milken  food.     Three  receipts. 

Ixviii.  Leechdoms  in  case  a  hunting  spider^  bite  a 
man,  that  is,  the  stronger  sort,  and  if  another  by  name 
gangweaver,^  bite  Jdm.     Six  capital  receipts. 

Ixix.  Leechdoms  for  a  rent  of  a  mad  dog  and  for 
wound  of  hound.     Seven  leechdoms, 

Ixx.  Leechdoms  if  a  man  be  too  lustful  or  too  un- 

Ixxi.  Leechdoms  for  sore  of  the  dorsal  muscles,  and 
if  the  heel  sinew  be  broken. 

Ixxii.  Leechdoms  declaring  at  what  time  blood  is  to 
be  foregone,  and  at  what  to  be  let ;  and  how  the  air 
is  full  of  venom  at  Lammas'^  time,  and  of  drinks  and 
evacuations  on  that  month,  and  that  worts  on  that 
month  are  to  be  worked. 

'  Now  Salticus  scenicus.    Aranea   |       -  Aranea  viatica. 
venatoria  is  American.     But  here  ^  August  1. 

the  tarantula  was  meaut. 

16  L/ECE   BOC. 

Romane  -j  eall  luS  yolc  pojihron  htm  eopJ>  1ml"  pi8 
|?8epe  uiil3''}:ce  •  -j  hu  mon  pcyle  blobl?efe  on  jjsejia  j-ex 
pijra  selcon  on  J^pej-  monan  elho  popjan  on  l^pit^jum' 
nihta  -j  hponne  betfc  to  la^tanne  •  'j  jip  blob  bolj 
yjrelije  •  "j  jip  J?u  pille  on  fnibe  blob  p ojilsetan  oJ>]je  on 
cBbpe  .  o^^e  jip  J»u  ne  mseje  blob  bolj  appi]?an  •  o]>]>e 
^ly  })u  ne  mseje  jeotenb  eebpe  appiSan  o5Se  jip  mon 
on  fmpe  beplea  a^t  blobl?etan.  :• 

,j  .LXXIII.  Lsecebom  jip  men  hpilc  Inn  cme,  :• 

.LXXllii.  Lsecebom  pi5  peajitum  -j  peappum  on  lime.   :• 

.Lxxv.  Lsecebom  pi}?  pcujipebum  naejle.  :• 

•  LXXYI.  Lsecebom  piS  jicj^an.  :• 

.LXXVii.  Lsecebom  jip  |?n  pille  f  ypel  Ipyle  -j  jetepno 

psere  ut  bejifce.  :• 

.LXXVIll.  Lsecebom  jip  men  unlnfc  lie  jetenje.        :• 

.LXXVIIII.  Lsecebom  jip  mon  on  lanjiim  peje  teojnje.  :• 

foi.  6  b.  .Lxxx.  Lsecebom  pi6  ];on  ]?e  mon  lime  popbjimce.     :■ 

.Lxxxi.  Lsecebom  piS  miclum  cyle.  :• 

.  Lxxxii.  Lsecebom  -^ip  men  fie  psepmja  to  micel  psecEO 


.Lxxxili.  Lgecebom  to  mannep  ftemne. 
.Lxxxilil.  Lsecebom  piS  ];on  jip  mon  j^unj  ete. 

.LXXXV.  Lsecebom  piS  )7on  ]?e  mon  punbije  piS  hif 
peonb  to  5epeolitaime. 

.'XXXVI.  Lsecebom  pi]?  miclum  janje  opep  lanb  J>y 
Ivey  he  teopije.  :• 

.Lxxxvii.  Ltecebom  jip  mannep  peax  pealle  fealp  pi]? 
]?on  "j  jtp  man  calu  fie. 

.Lxxxvili.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  hojipep  hjieople  -j  jip  hopf 
^eallebe  fie  •  -j  jip  hopf  fie  opfcoten  o]>]>e  o]>e]\  neat. 

'  h)iicij;um  was  written  ;  now  partly  erased. 

LEECH   EOOK.    T.  17 

The  Romans  and  all  the  people  of  the  south  Contents. 
wrought  for  themselves  houses  of  earth  against  the  ill 
air ;  and  how  a  man  shall  forego  bloodletting  on  each 
of  the  six  fives  ^  of  the  moons  age  in  the  thirty  nights, 
and  when  best  to  let  blood,  and  if  the  incision  for 
bloodletting  take  an  ill  turn,  and  if  thou  will  let 
blood  on  an  incision  or  on  a  vein,  or  if  thou  may  not 
staunch  the  bleeding  incision,  or  if  thou  may  not  bind 
up  the  flowing  vein,  or  if  one,  in  bloodletting,  cut 
down  on  a  sinew. 

Ixxiii.  A  leechdom  if  any  limb  of  a  man  be  chapped. 

Ixxiv.  A  leechdom  against  warts  and  callosities  on  a 

Ixxv.  A  leechdom  for  a  scurfy  nail. 

Ixxvi.  A  leechdom  for  itch. 

Ixxvii.  A  leechdom  if  thou  will  that  an  ill  swelling 
and  the  venomous  humour  should  burst  out. 

Ixxviii.  A  leechdom  if  loss  of  appetite  befall  a  man. 

Ixxix.  A  leechdom  if  a  man  tire  on  a  long  journey. 

Ixxx.  A  leechdom  in  case  a  man  overdrink  himself. 

Ixxxi.  A  leechdom  against  much  cold. 

Ixxxii.  A  leechdom  if  suddenly  too  much  watching 
befall  a  man. 

Ixxxiii.  A  leechdom  for  a  mans  voice. 

Ixxxiv.  A  leechdom  in  case  a  man  eat  something- 

Ixxxv.  A  leechdom  in  case  a  man  try  to  fight  with 
his  enemy. 

Ixxxvi.  A  leechdom  for  much  travel  over  land  lest 
he  tire. 

Ixxxvii.  A  leechdom  if  a  mans  hair  fall  oft',  a  salve 
for  that,  and  if  a  man  be  bald. 

Ixxxviii.  Leechdom  for  swelled  legs  in  a  horse,  and 
if  a  horse  be  galled,  and  if  a  horse  or  other  neat 
cattle  be  elf  shot. 

'  Though  a  sidereal  revolution  of  I  the  moon  often  attains  the  thirtieth 
the  moon  be  but  27*321  days,  yet  |  day  of  her  age. 

VOL.  II.  B 

18  LiECE   BOC. 

Alex.  Trail.  On  ]n]')nim  fBjiefran  laececjireftum  jepjiitene  fint  Itece- 

"^•'"  bomai'  piS  eallum  heapbej'  untjiymnepj^uni. 

ClDuppa  hattre  pypt  jejiiib   on    moptepe  fve  penmj 

jepeje  •  bo   fceap   pulne   pmep  to  pofe  fmype  Jjonne   f 
fol.  7  a.  heapob  mib  -j  bpiince  on  nilit  neptij.     PI'S  heapob  psepce 

Cf.  Galen.  jentm  puban  -j  pejimob  jecnupa  'j  menj  pi]?  eceb  -j  ele 
^o'-^ij;P'^°0'afeoli  jniph  claS  fmipe  mib  ^  heapob-  o^5e  clam  op 
K(ct:a\a\yia.      |?am  ilcau  pjpc  leje  on  ^  heapob  'j  befpej^e  pel  jjonne  ]>u 

to  jiefte  pille. 

Lacn.  1.  pj^  j^Qj^  ilcan  jentm  betomcan  -j  pipop  je^mb  fpi"Se 

tojsebepe   laet   ane   niht  hanjian  on  claSe    fmipe    mib. 

» Plinius  Vale- pi-S     heapob    pfepce^-    betan    pypttpuman    jecnupa    piS 
rianus,  de  re       i  <      v  y  ■>  ^  n 

Medicafol.i4b  hunij    appmj  bo  p  peap  on  neb  *j  onjean   lunnan   up- 

for  clearing       peapb  licje  •  -j  J>8et  heapob  ho  op  bune  f  ye^  peap  mseje 

J,  „      .  "  f  heapob  jeonb  ypnan  •  heebbe   him   sep    on   mu|7e    ele 

o])]>e    butepan  "j  ]7onne  uplanj   afitte  hnijie  popS  laete 

plopan  op  J?am  nebbe  J7a  jilliftpan  bo  fpa  ^elome  ojjjjset 

hit  clsene  fie.  :• 

PI'S  heapob  psepce  jenim  hampypt  ni)>epeapbe  je- 
cnupa  leje  on  cealb  psetep  jnib  fpiSe  o]>f  eall  jelej^peb 
fie  bejpe  mib  j5  heapob.  :• 

Lacn.  1.  ipip    heapob    pjepce    jemm    heah    heoloJ?an  -j  jpunbe 

fpeljean  -j  pencepfan  -j  jitpipan  pel  on  psetepe  Iset 
peocan  on  ];a  eajan  ]?onne  hit  hat  fie  "j  ymb  ^a  eajan 
jnib  mib  Jjsem  pyptum  fpa  hatum.  :• 

Pi^  heapob  ece  jemm  pealh  -j  ele  bo  ahfan  ^epypc 
J?onne  to  plypan  bo  to  hymlican  "j  eopop  ]?potan  -j 
"Sa    peaban   netlan    jecnupa  bo  J;onne    on   ]?one  plipan 

fol.  7  b. 

LEECH   BOOK.    r.  19 

1.  In  these  first  leechcrafts  are  written  leechdoms  for      Book  I. 
all  infirmities  of  the  head. 

2.  A  wort  has  been  named  mnrra,*  rub  it  in  a  mortar  ""  Scaiidix 
as  much  as  may  make  a  pennyweight,  add  to  the  ooze 

a  stoup  full  of  wine,  then  smear  the  head  with  that 
and  let  the  patient  drink  this  at  night  fasting.  For 
head  wark,  take  rue  and  wormwood,  pound  them  and 
mingle  with  vinegar  and  oil,  strain  through  a  cloth, 
smear  the  head  with  it ;  or  work  a  paste  of  the  same, 
lay  it  on  the  head  and  swathe  it  up  well,  when  thou 
will  to  bed. 

3.  For  the  same,  take  betony  and  pepper,  rub  them 
thoroughly  together,  let  them  hang  one  night  in  a 
cloth,  smear  with  theon.  For  head  wark,  pound  some 
roots  of  beet  with  honey,  wring  them,  apply  the  juice 
to  the  face,  and  let  the  patient  lie  supine  against  the 
sun,  and  hang  the  head  adown  that  the  juice  may  run 
all  over  the  head.  Let  him  hold  before  that  in  his 
mouth  oil  or  butter,  and  then  sit  up  and  lean  forward 
and  let  the  matter  flow  off"  the  face.  Let  him  so  do 
often  till  it  be  clean. 

4.  For  head  wark,  take  the  lower  part  of  homewort,''  '•  Sempen-iimm 
pound   it,    lay  it  in  cold  water,   rub  it  hard  till  it  be  ''^^^o''"'"- 

all  in  a  lather,  bathe  the  head  with  it. 

5.  For  head  wark,  take  elecampane °  and  groundsel*' '' /«M?a //e/e- 
and  fen  cress  ^  and  gitrife,^   boil  them  in  water,   T^^^QTseneciovul- 
them  steam  upon  the  eyes,  when   it   is   hot,   and   rubi/ar/s. 
about  the  eyes  with  the  worts,  so  hot. 

6.  For  head  ache,  take  willow^  and  oil,  reduce  to 
ashes,  work  to  a  viscid  substance,  add  to  this  hem- 
lock^ and  carline^   and    the  red  nettle,"   pound   them, 

'  Nasturtium  officinale.  I       ■•  Conium  maculatum. 

-  Agrostemma  githago.  ^  Carlina  acaulis.. 

^  Saliz.  I       "  Lamium  purpureum. 

B   2 


L^CE   BOO. 

'  HfUKpai'ia. 

fol.  8  a. 

be];e  mib,      pij?    heajrob    ece   hunbe]'  lieajrob  jebsepn  Co 
alij'an  -j  fniS  ^  lieafob  le^e  on. 

Pi5  heayob  psepce  jemm  ejielafcan  jecnua  on  cealb 
poetrep  jnib  betrpeoh  hanbimi  -j  jecnupa  clupjpunj  bo 
]7sep'co  be|;e  mib.  pi]?  heapob  ece  jenim  hopan  *j  p'Tn 
•j  eceb    ^efpet   mib  ]iuni;j;e  -j  fmipe  mib.  :• 

'  Pi]?  heapob  ece  jentm  bilep  blofcman  feo5  on  ele 
fmipe  J?a  Jjunpanjan  mib.  -pi}>  J?on  ilcan  jemm  heojiocep 
liopnep  ahpan  menj  piS  eceb  -j  pofan  feap  bmb  on  ■^ 
pgenje.  pij;  ]?on  ilcan  jemm  pset;  pul  jpenpe  puban 
leapa  "j  penepep  piebep  cuclep  puhie  ^ejnib  tojsebepe 
bo  sejef  f  hpire  to  cucleji  pulne  •  f  fio  pealp  pie 
|?icce   fmipe  nub  pej^ejie  on  ]7a  liealpe  J^e  pap  ne  fie.     :• 

Pi]>  healpep  heapbep^  ece  jemm  J?a  peaban  netlan 
anfcelebe  jerpipula  menj  piS  eceb  -j  fejef  p  lipite  bo 
eall  tojsebepe  fmipe  mib.  :• 

Pi];  healpep  heapbep  ece  laupep  cpoppan  jetpipula  on 
eceb  mib  ele  fmype   mib  \)y  J^aet;  pen;«;e.  :• 

Pi^  ];on  ilcan  ^ernin  jiuban  peaj'  pjiinj  on  f  nsep- 
})ypel  ];e  on  J^a  papan^  healpe  bi8.  :■ 

Pi]?  healpep  heapbep  ece  •  jemm  laujiep  cpoppan  biifc 
•j  lenep  men^  cojsebejie  ^eot;  eceb  on  fmipe  mib  ];a 
papan  healpe  mib  ]7y  •  o]>])e  menje  piS  p'Tn  J>8ep  laupep 
cpoppan  •  o]>])e  puban  fseb  jnib  on  eceb  bo  beja  empela 
jnib  Son*  hneccan  mib  ]>y. 

"  Tacnu  J^sepe  able  •  fio  abl  cymS  op  ypelpe  psetan  upan 
plopenbpe  oppe  te]?me  oJ»]?e  op  bam  •  ponne  pceal  mon  a^pefc 

'  Plinius,  XX,  73. 
-  Galenus,   vol.   xiv.   p.  ,".98,  ed. 
^  mapan,  MS. 

*  Read  «one. 
^Alex.    Trail,    lib. 
partly  word  for  word. 

i.    cap.    12, 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  21 

put  tliein  then  on  the  viscid  stutt',  bathe  therewith.  Book  I. 
Against  head  ache  ;  burn  a  dogs  head  '  to  ashes,  snip  ^^*  *• 
the  head  ;  lay  on. 

7.  For  a  head  wark,  talce  everlasting,-  }jound  it  in 
cold  water,  rub  it  between  the  hands,  and  pound 
cloffing,^  Ji^pply  it  thereto,  bathe  therewith.  For  head 
ache,  take  hove  ^  and  wine  and  vinegar ;  sweeten  with 
honey,  and  smear  therewith. 

8.  For  head  ache,  take  blossoms  of  dill,^  seethe  in 
oil,  smear  the  temples  therewith.  For  the  same,  take 
ashes  of  harts  horn,  mingle  with  vinegar  and  juice  of 
rose,  bind  on  the  cheek.  For  the  same,  take  a  vessel 
full  of  leaves  of  green  rue,  and  a  spoon  full  of  mus- 
tard seed,  rul>  together,  add  the  white  of  an  egg,  a 
spoon  full,  that  the  salve  may  be  thick  ;  smear  with  a 
feather  on  the  side  which  is  not  sore. 

9.  For  ache  of  half  the  head,"  take  the  red  nettle 
of  one  stalk,  bruise  it,  mingle  with  vinegar  and  the 
white  of  an  egg,  put  all  together,  anoint  therewith. 

10.  For  a  half  heads  ache,  bruise  in  vinegar  with 
oil  the  clusters  of  the  laurus,  smear  the  cheek  with 

11.  For  the  same,  take  juice  of  rue,  wring  on  the 
nostril  which  is  on  the  sore  side. 

12.  For  a  half  heads  tiche,  take  dust  of  the  clusters 
of  laurel,  and  mustard,  mingle  them  together,  pour 
vinegar  upon  them,  smear  with  that  the  sore  side. 
Or  mix  Avith  wine  the  clusters  of  laurel.  Or  vubjine 
in  vinegar  the  seed  of  rue,''  put  equal  quantities  of 
both,  rub  the  back  of  the  neck  with    that. 

13.  Tokens  of  the  disease.  The  disease  cometh  of 
evil  humour  flowing'^  or  evil  vapour,  or  of  both.     Then 

'  That  the  plant  called  "  hounds-  |       "  Megrim. 

head  "  in  Herb.  Ixxxviii.  is  meant,  '       '  liuta  graveolens. 

1  do  not  think.  "  I  hesitate  to  believe  that  njan, 

-  GnaphuUmn.  can  mean^'/-o»i  beloiv  upwards;  yet 

^  Ranunculus  scelenitufi.  Alexandros    says    Kara    av/j.-Tradeiw 

'-  Glcchoma  hederacea.  rod    ffrofj-ix""-     U)"an   means  from 

^  Anethum  qraoeolens.  above. 

22  L^CE  BOC. 

on  "Sa  able  pojiepeapbjie  blob  Isetan  oj:  sebjie  •  sefteji 
J)on  pceal  man  pyjit  bpenc  pellan  -j  lacnian  pijjj^an  ]?a 
j'ajian  fropa  •  jijr  feo  abl  fie  cumen  op  micelpe  liseto 
)7onne  pceal  man  mib  cealbum  Isecebomum  lacnian  • 
jip  liio  op  cealbum  Intmjan  cym^  •  J>onne  pceal  mon 
mib  hatum  Isecebomum  lacnian  jehpgej^ejiep  pceal  mon 
nyttian  -j  mifcian  f  J>one  Kchoman  hsele  -j  eepep  msejen 
hsebbe  •  Mm  beah  f  him  mon  on  eape  bpype  jeplsec- 
cebne  ele  mib  o]?pum  jobum  pyjitum.  :• 

fol.  8  b.  jentm   pi]?  tobpocenum   heapbe    betonican   jetpipula 

•j  leje  on  f  heapob  upan  j^onne  pamna^  hio  ]?a  punbe 
-j  hselS.  Gpc  pij>  ]?on  ilcan  ^emm  tuncepfan  fio  j^e  pelp 
peaxeS  -j  mon  ne  psep'S  bo  In  ]?a  nofu  f  pe  fcenc  maeje 
on  f  heapob  'j  pset  peap.  :• 

Pi]?  J»on  ilcan  ept  jenim  banpypt  -j  attopla}?an  -j 
bolhjiunan  •  -j  pubumejice  "j  bpiinpypt  "j  betonican  •  bo 
ealle  J^a  pypta  to  pyjit  bpence  'j  menje  ]?8eji  pi^S  J?a 
fmalan  clipan  -j  centaupian  -j  pe^bjiseban  •  ealpa  fpi]7uft 
betonican  -j  jip  ^  bpsejen  litpije  gemm  sejep  ]3  jeo- 
lupe  "j  menj  lythpon^  piS  hunij  -j  apyl  Sa  punbe  •  -j 
mib  acumban  befpeSe  "j  pojilset  fpa  ];onne  •  "j  ept  ymb 
jjpy  bajap  jefp^t  ]7a  punbe  •  *j  jip  pe  hala  pep]7e  pille 
habban  peabne  hpmj  ymb  ]7a  punbe  pite  ])u  J^onne 
f  ]>n  hie  ne  meaht  jehaslan.  piS  ]7on  ilcan  jernm 
pubupopan  *j  pubu  mepce  "j  hopan  ^j  pel  on  butejian   -j 

'  Lyhjion,  MS. 



shall  one  first  in  the  early  disease  let  blood  from  a 
vein  ;  after  that  shall  be  administered  a  wort  drink, 
and  the  sore  places  shall  be  cm-ed.  If  the  disease  be 
caused  by  mickle  heat,  then  shall  one  cure  it  with 
cold  leechdoms ;  if  it  cometh  of  cold  causes,  then  shall 
one  cure  it  with  hot  leechdoms,  of  either  shall  advan- 
tage be  taken,  and  they  shall  be  mixed,  into  a  imAxturc 
that  may  heal  the  body  and  have  an  austere  efficacy 
in  it.  It  is  well  for  him  that  one  should  drip  for  him 
in  his  ear  oil  made  lukewarm  with  "  other "  good 

14.  For  broken  head,  take  betony,'  bruise  it  and  lay 
it  on  the  head  above,  then  it  unites  the  wound  and 
healeth  it.  Again  for  the  same,  take  garden  cress,^ 
that  which  waxeth  of  itself  and  is  not  sown,'^  intro- 
duce it  into  the  nose^  that  the  smell  and  the  juice 
may  get  to  the  head. 

15.  For  the  same  again,  take  wallflower'^  and 
attorlothe''  and  pellitory  and  wood  marche^  and 
brownwort^  and  betony,  form  all  the  worts  into  a 
wort  drink,  and  mix  therewith  the  small  cleaver^  and 
centaury^''  and  waybroad,^^  of  all  most  especially 
betony,  and  if  the  brain  be  exposed,  take  the  yolk 
of  an  egg  and  mix  a  little  with  honey  and  fill  the 
wound  and  swathe  up  with  tow,  and  so  let  it  alone  ; 
and  again  after  about  three  days  syringe  the  wound, 
and  if  the  hale  sound  part^~  will  have  a  red  ring- 
about  the  wound,  know  thou  then  that  thou  mayest 
not  heal  it.     For  the  same,  take  woodrofie  and  wood- 

Book  I. 
Ch.  i. 

'  Betonica  officinalis. 

-  Lepidium  sativum. 

^  Self  sown  ;  but  a  garden  cress 

'  "Eppivov,  therefore  ;  but  these 
were  used  like  cephalic  snuff ;  and 
never  for  broken  head.  See  Nicolaos 
Myreps.  xv. 

*  Cheiranthus  cheiri. 

"  See  Herbarium,  xlv.,  to  which 
assent  is  not  easily  given. 

'  Apium  graveolena. 

*  Scrophularia  aquatica:  see  Herb. 

"  Galium  aparine. 

'"  Erythrma  centaureum. 

"  Plantago  maior. 

'-  The  sense  of  )e]i|je  is  doubtful  ; 
but  see  glossary. 

24i  L^CE   BOC. 

j-eoh  ]7Ujih  ha3penne '  cla^  bo  on  ^  heapob  Jionne  ^anja]? 
}?a  ban  tic. 

fol.  9  a.  Pi]?  Ian5um  j-ape  |;a3}'  heafbe)-  o]?]7e  Sapa  eapena  oS8e 

=»  \>a,  MS.,  but   j?apa  to]?a  J^a^  ]m]ili    hoph  oSSe   ]7uph  ynofl  tir  ateo  ^ 
erase  it.  y^^    ejle]^  •    jefeo}*    ceppillan    on   pserepe    pele    bpmcan 

j7onne  aCihS  f  ]?a  yjrelan  pietan  ut  o]?]?e  ]7uph  muS 
o-SSe  )7uph  nofu.  Opt:  J)up  ]?u  pcealc  J?a  ypelan  opfe- 
tenan  pgetan  utabon  j^ujih  fpatl  *j  hpaiicean  menj  pipop 
pi])  hpir  cpubu  fele  to  ceopanne  •  'j  pypc  him  co  fpil- 
lanne  pione  jeajl  -^  jemin  eceb  -j  pserep  -j  fenep  "j  hunij 
pyl  t058ebepe  lifcmn  •  "j  apeoh  bonne  Isec  colian  yele 
]70nne  jelome  f  jeajl  ro  fpillanne  f  he  ]7y  pel  mseje 
^  ypel  utahpseeean. 

Pypc  ]>u]'  fpihn^e   to    heapbep  clsenfunje   jentm  ept 
lenepep  pgebep  bsel  *j  nsepfaebep  -j  cepfan  psebep  •  fume  men 
hataS  lambep  cejij-an  -j  mejicep  fseb  -j  .  XX.  pipopcopna  • 
jefamna  eall  mib  ecebe  -j  mib  hunije  •  jehget  on  psetepe 
^  -j   habbe    on    muj^e    lanje    ]7onne   ypnS  f  jiUiftep   lit. 

•^6pt  o})pu  fpihnj  on  I'umepe  C£e]ienep  jobne  bollan  pulne  • 
fol,  Ob.  "j  ecebep  mebmicelne  -j  ypopum  hatte  pypt  hipe  leap  -j 

blofcman  menj  tojfebepe  -j  laet  ftanban  neahtepne  *j 
on  mopjen  on  cpoccan  opeppylle  -j  fupe  plsec  "j  ]3  jeajl 
Ipile  "j  \)yea  htp  mnS.  *  To  ]?on  ilcan  on  pmtpa  fenepef 
bultep  cuclep  pulne  'j  hunijef  healpne  cuclep  jebo  on 
calic  menje  J>onne  j^ptep  ])on  pi5  paetep  -j  htete  -j  peoh 
]7uph  Imenne  claS  -j  fpile  mi8  f  jeajl  •  septep  ]7am 
kecebome  jelome  mib  ele  IpiUe  ])a  hpacan.  ^  Gpt  pi]?  lf>on 
ilcan  jentm  mealpan  jejnib  on  phiec  pm  pele  to  fpil- 
lanne ]3  jeajl.      piS  tobpoeenum  heapbe  "j  fapum  jiube 

'  haejienne  suggests  itself. 
-  seasl  below  is  neuter. 
^  Plinius  Valerianus,  de  re  Med., 
fol.  14  a. 

^  Ibid. 

■'  Plin.  Val.,  fol.  13  b. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  25 

marche  and  liovo,  and  boil  in  butter  and  strain  tlirouirli       ^^""'^  ^• 

.  Ch   i. 

a  coloured  cloth,  apply  it  to  the  head,  then  the  bones 

come  out. 

16.  For  chronic  disorder  of  the  head  or  of  the  ears 
or  of  the  teeth  through  foulness  or  through  mucus,  ex- 
tract that  which  aileth  there,  seethe  chervil  in  water, 
give  it  to  drink,  then  that  drawetli  out  the  evil 
humours  either  through  mouth  or  through  nose.  Again, 
thus  thou  shalt  remove  the  evil  misplaced  humours  by 
spittle  and  breaking ;  mingle  pepper  with  mastic,  give 
it  the  'patient  to  chew,  and  work  him  a  gargle  to 
swill  his  jowl ;  take  vinegar  and  water  and  mustard 
and  honey,  boil  together  cleverly,  and  strain,  then  let 
cool,  then  give  it  him  frequently  to  swill  his  jowl, 
that  he  by  that  may  comfortably  break  out  the  ill 

17.  AVork  thus  a  swilling  or  lotion  for  cleansing  of 
the  head,  take  again  a  portion  of  mustard  seed  and  of 
navew  seed  and  of  cress  seed,  some  men  call  it  lambs 
cress,  and  of  marche  seed,  and  twenty  pepper  corns, 
gather  them  all  with  vinegar  and  with  honey,  heat 
them  in  water  and  have  them  long  in  the  mouth,  then 
the  fiegm  runneth  out.  Again,  another  swilling  in 
summer ;  mingle  together  a  good  bowl  full  of  wine 
boiled  down  with  herbs  and  a  moderate  one  of  vine- 
gar, and  hyssop,  so  the  wort  hight,  its  leaves  and 
blossoms,  and  let  the  mixture  stand  for  a  night,  and  in 
the  morning  boil  it  over  again  in  a  crock  (or  earthen 
pot),  and  let  him  sup  it  lukewarm  and  swill  his  jowl 
and  wash  his  mouth.  For  the  same  in  winter,  put  i]i 
a  chalice  a  spoon  full  of  the  dust  of  mustard  and 
half  a  spoon  full  of  honey,  then  after  that  mingle  this 
with  water,  and  heat  it  and  strain  it  through  a  linen 
cloth  and  swill  the  jowl  with  it;  after  that  leechdom 
frequently  swill  the  throat  with  oil.  Again  for  the 
same ;  take  mallows,  rub  them  into  lukewarm  wine, 
give  it  the  'patient   to   swill   the  jowl.     For  a  broken 

26  LMCE  BOC. 

jetjiijzelabu  miS  pealte  -j  mib  hunije  fmijie  ^  heajrob 
pojiepeajib  mib  ]7y  fe  cuj^ej'ta  Igecebom  bi]?  J^am  Jje  heajrob 
pylm  -j  lap  j^popiaS.  pi]?  J^on  ilcan  eye  jejiiib  jiuban 
on  pm  j-ele  bpmcan  *j  gemenj  eceb  pij>  puban  -j  ele 
bpype  on  f  heapob  -j  fmipe  mib. 

.1.  {read  .ii.) 

Alex,  Trail.  Lsecebomaf   pij)    eajna   milbe   jenim   celej^enian  yeap 

oy\>e  blofcman  jemenj  piS  bopena  liuni;^  ^e^o  on  sepen 

fol.  10  a.  F^"^  piece  lifcum  on  peapmum  jlebum  o]>f  hit  jefoben 

fie  •    ]7ip   biS   job    Isecebom   pi]?    eajna    bimneppe.     piJ? 

Cf.  Marcell.  Jjon  ilcan  ept  pilbpe  puban  jebeappe  -j  jetpipulabpe 
leap  •  jemenj  piS  afeopnef  humjef  em  micel  fmype 
mib  ]7a  eajan.  ]}!]>  eajna  mifre  monije  men  ]?y  Isep 
liiopa  eajan  ]?a  able  p>popian  lociaS  on  cealb  paetep  • 
•j  ]?onne  majon  pyp  jefeon  ne  pypt  f  ]?a  peon  •  ac 
micel  pm  jebjiinc  -j  o))pe  jefpette  bpmcan  'j  mettap  • 
•j  J?a  fpipopt  pa  Se  on  Saepe  upepan  pambe  jepunia^  -j 
ne  majon  melt  an  •  ac  jjsep  ypele  psetan  pypceaS  -j 
)?icce.  Pop  "j  capel  'j  eal  ])a  ]>e  fyn  fpa  apeji  fmb  to 
fleojanne  'j  ^  }>e  mon  on  bebbe  basjep  uppeapb  ne 
licje  -j  cyle  -j  pmb  -j  pec  -j  biij-t  •  J^aj-  J^inj  -j  Jpifum 
jelic  selce  bseje  fce)?]?a'S  Jjam  eajtim.  ^  pi]?  eajna  mifce 
jenim  jpenne  pmul  jebo  on  psetep  .xxx.  nihta  on 
?enne  cpoccan  ]7one  J^e  fie  jepicob  utan  jepylle  ]?onne 
mib  pen  psetepe  •  septep  jjon  apeoppe  op  ]?one  pmul  -j 
mib  J>y   psetepe  selce  bseje  ]?peaL    ]>a,   eajan   "j    ontyne. 

fol.  10  b.  -6ft  op  homena    sejjme    "j   ftieme  *j   op  plsetan    cym5 

'  Cf.  Galen,  vol.  xiv.  p.  499,  ed.  |       -  Plinius  Valerianus,  fol.  20  b.  for 
1827.  fourteen  lii^es. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I. 


and  sore  head ;  bruised  rue  ^  with  salt  and  honey ; 
smear  the  forehead  with  it,  the  most  approved  leech- 
dom  is  this  for  ]dm  whose  head  hath  burning  and 
paiuful  throes.  For  the  same  again ;  rub  rue  in  wine, 
give  it  to  drink  to  the  sufferer,  and  mingle  vinegar 
with  rue  and  oil ;  drip  it  on  the  head  and  smear 

Book  1. 
Ch.  i. 


1.  Leechdoms  for  mistiness  of  the  eyes  ;  take  juice  or 
blossoms  of  celandine,  mingle  \vith  honey  of  dumljle- 
dores,*  introduce  it  into  a  brazen  vessel,  half  warm  it  ^  Melle  Attico, 
neatly  on  warm  gledes,  till  it  be  sodden.  This  is  a 
good  leechdom  for  dimness  of  eyes.  For  the  same, 
mingle  the  juice  of  wild  rue,^  dewy  and  bruised,  mingle 
with  equally  much  of  filtered  honey,  smear  the  eyes 
with  that.  For  mistiness  of  eyes  many  men,  lest  their 
eyes  should  suffer  the  disease,  look  into  cold  water 
and  then  are  able  to  see  far  ;  that  harmeth  not  the 
vision,  but  much  wine  drinking  and  other  sweetened 
drinks  and  meats,  and  those  especially  which  remain 
in  the  upper  region  of  the  wamb  and  cannot  digest, 
but  there  form  evil  humours  and  thick  ones ;  leek  and 
colewort  and  all  that  are  so  austere  are  to  be  avoided, 
and  care  must  he  had  that  a  man  lie  not  in  bed  in 
day  time  supine  ;  and  cold  and  wind  and  reek  and 
dust,  these  things  and  the  like  to  these  every  day  are 
injurious  to  the  eyes.  For  mistiness  of  eyes,  take  green 
fennel,  put  it  into  water  for  thirty  days  in  a  crock 
{or  earthen  vessel),  one  that  is  pitched  on  the  outside, 
fill  it  then  with  rain  water ;  after  that  throw  off" 
the  fennel  and  with  the  water  every  day  wash  the 
eyes   and   open    them.     Again,    from    the   vapour    and 

'  The  verbs  are  often  suppressed. 

-  Wild  rue  is  a  Hellenism,  Tri)ya- 

vov  &ypiov,  Dioskor.  iii.  59,  op/udfei 

Trpus  oi/xfi\va>irias,  or  ruta  silvestris; 
Plinius,  XX.  51.  These  are  pega- 
iium  harmala. 

28  L^CE   BOC. 

eajna  imlr:  -j  fio  yceajipnep  *j  jfojoj^a  ]?  be]?  pi|?  J>on  ij* 
])\Y  tro  bonne.  pr6  eajna  milte  jenim  cile|7onian  j'eapey 
cucleji  fulne  oj^ejine  pmolef  •  jjpibban  appotanan  j^eapep  • 
■j  hunijep  reapep  tu  cuclep  mail  menj  to  jtebejie  •  "j 
|7onne  mib  pepepe  jebo  In  ]>aj  eajan  on  mopjenne  *j 
jjonne  mibbsej  fie  •  "j  ept  on  a^pen  a'pteji  |?on  ponne  f 
abjiujob  pie  -j  "cojoten  poji  ];9Bpe  pealpe  fceappnej-pe  • 
jentm  pipep  meoluc  ]>sey  ]>e  cilb  haebbe  bo  on  |>a 
eajan.  :• 

6ft:  ?e]7ele  cp^pt  gennn  balpami  -j  liunijep  treajief 
em  micel  jemenj  to5a?be]ie  -j  fmijie  mib  ]7y. 

Gpt  piS  j;on  ilcan  cele];onian  j-eap  "j  fepsetep  fmijie 
mib  J)a  eajan  -j  beSe.  bi]?  ]?onne  j-elefc  f  pu  nime 
jjsefie  cele]7onian  peap  "j  mucjpypte  'j  jiuban  ealpa  em 
pela  bo  liunij  to  "j  balbfamiim  ^tp  ]?u  hsebbe  •  jebo  on 
f  pset  pe  ])n  hit  mseje  on  mib  jepoje  jefeoj^an  -j  nytta 
pel  ]?£et  bet. 

^Pi]?  eajna  mifte  gebsepneb  j-eait  -j  jejmben  -j  yi]) 
bojiena  hunij  jemenjeb  fmipe  mib.  :• 

fol-  11  a.  2  6  ft  pmolep  "j  pol'an  "j  jiuban  peap  "j  bojian  liunij  -j 

ticceiiep  jeallan  tojtebepe  j^emenjeb  fmijie  mib  Jni 
eajan.  ''Gft  jpene  cellenbpe  jejniben  -j  pi])  pipej' 
meoluc  jemenjeb  aleje  opeji  ]7a  eajan.  :• 

»  Quad.       a^Qy-c  hapaii  jeallaii  jenirae  '-j  Imijie  mib.  :• 

''  Marcellus,  '*  6pt  cpice^  pme  pmclan  ^ebtejinbe    to    ahpan    "j    ]>a 

-'^'  ^-  alipan  jemenje  piS  bopena  Imnij.  : 

'  Pliu.  Val.  fol.  20  b.  i  ^  Por    veras    our     author     read 

-  Plin.  Val.  fol,  21  b.  !  vivas.      Or  Plinius  Valerianus,  fol. 

-  Plin.  Valerianus,  fol.  19  b.  ,  21   b,    whei'c   y/c    read   "  Cochlese 
'  Also    riinius    Valerianus,  fol.    I  vivae." 

20  b.,  21b.  I 

LEECH    ?,00K.    T. 


steam  of  ill  juices  and  from  nausea  cometli  mist  of  r,ook  l. 
eyes,  and  the  sharpness  and  corrupt  lunnour  causes  that, 
against  which  this  is  to  be  done.  For  mist  of  eyes, 
take  of  celandines  juice  a  spoon  full,  another  of  fennels, 
a  third  of  southernwoods  juice,  and  two  spoon  measures 
of  the  tear  of  honey  (^virgin  honey  that  drops  without 
"pressure),  mingle  tliem  together,  and  then  with  a 
feather  put  soms  into  the  eyes  in  the  morning  and 
when  it  be  midday*,  and  again  at  evening  after  that, 
when  it  is  dried  up  and  spent;  for  sharpness  of  the 
salve,  take  milk  of  a  woman  who  hath  a  child,  apply 
it  to  the  eyes. 

2.  Again,  a  noble    craft.     Take   equal    ({uantities   of- 
balsam  and  of  virgin  honey,  mix   together   and   smear 
with  that. 

3.  Again  for  the    same,  juice   of  celandine   and   sea  Cf.  Nicol. 
water  ;  smear  and  bathe  the  eyes  therewith.     It  is  then  xx^xvni  i  '>'> 
most  advisable  that  thou  take  juice   of  the   celandine  from  an  older 
and  of  mugwort^  and  of  rue,  of  all  equal  quantities,  add  ^"    "''•P*''' ^^P^- 
honey  to  it,  and  balsam,  if  thou  have  it,   put  it  then 

into  such  a  vessel  that  thou  may  seethe  it  with  glue- 
aud  make  use  of  it.     It  does  much  good. 

4.  For  mist  of  eyes,  salt  burnt  and  rubbed  fine  and 
mixed  with  dumbledores  honey  f  smear  therewith. 

5.  Again,  juice  of  fennel  and  of  rose  and  of  rue,  and 
dumbledores  honey,^  and  kids  gall,  mixed  together ; 
smear  the  eyes  with  this.  Again,  lay  upon  the  eyes 
green  coriander  rubbed  fine  and  mixed  with  womans 

6.  Again,  let  him  take  a  liares  gall  and  smear  with  it. 

7.  Again,  live  perriwinkles  burnt  to  ashes  ;  and  let 
liim  mix  the  ashes  with  dumbledores^  honey. 

'  Artemisia  vulyarlf;. 

-  Or  some  cement ;  the  original 
author  perhaps  meant  a  covered 
vessel  sealed  up  with  cement. 

^  Doubtless  from  "  melle  Attico," 
read  as  melle  attaci  ;  the  dumble- 
dore  is  apis  bomhinatrix. 



"  Plinius, 

xxxii.  24. 
272,  g. 

'  IMarcellus 
>72,  b. 

fol.  11  b. 

^Gfx:  jiyj-laf  ealjia  ea  fifca  on  fiinnan  jemylce  -j 
piS  huiii;^  jemenjbe  fmipe  mib. 

PiS  eajna  mifce  efc  betonican  j'eap  jebeatenjie  mib 
liijie  pypttjiuman  -j  appunjenpe  -j  jeappan  peap  -j  cele- 
]?onian  em  micel  ealjia  menj  trojsebejie  bo  on  eaje. 
''6pt  pmolef  pypttpum^n  jecnuabne  jemenj  pi's  hu- 
nijep  ]-eap^  feoS  Jjonne  set;  leohtum  pyjie  lifrelice  oj; 
liiim^ep  ])icneppe  •  jebo  ]7onne  on  sejiene  ampullan  -j 
]?onne  j^eapp  pie  fmijie  mib  J)ip  robjiip]?  ]?a  eahmifcaj* 
]:>eali  ]?e  liie  J^icce  fynb.  :• 

PiJ?  eajna  mifce  ept  celej'oman  peap  o])]>e  ]>ajm  blofc- 
mena  jepjimj  "j  jemenj  piS  bopena  hunij  jebo  on  sejien 
pffit:  piece  jponne  lifcum  on  peajimum  jlebum  opj^e  on 
ahpan  o]?  f  hit  jebon  pie  •  f  biS  anfpilbe  lyb  pi]?  eajena 
bimneppe.  :• 

<=  Marcellus, 
272,  a. 

■'  Marcellus, 
272,  c. 

Sume  jjsep  ]*eapep  anlipijef  nyttiab  -j  J>a  eajan  raib 
J)y  fmijiiaS.  Pi]?  eajena  mifce  ept  eopSipies  feap  -j 
pmolep  j'eap  ^ebo  bejea  em  pela  on  ampullan  bpije 
]?onne  on  hatjie  funnan  -j  ]?a  eajan  mnepeapb  mib  ]>y 
fmipe.  ^Pi]>  eajena  mifre  ept:  eojiSjeallan^  peap  ]?  ip 
hypbepypt  fmipe  on  ]?a  eajan  fio  pyn  bi}?  ]>y  pceapppe  • 
jip  ]?u  humj  to  befc  ]?  beah  •  jemm^^  ]?onne  ]?8e]ie  ilcan 
pypte  jobne  jelm  jebo  on  ceac  pulne  pmef  -j  jepeo]? 
opnete  tep  ]?]iy  bajaf  •  -j  ]>onne  hio  jepoben  fie  appm^ 
]?a  pypt  op  'j  ]?8ep  popep  jefpettep  mib  hunije  jebpmc 
?elce  baeje  neaht  neptij  bollan  pulne.  :• 

^  Cf.  Celsus,  e  Salbep  mannep  eajan  beo]?  unfceappfyno  }?onne  pceal 

29*    '■  he  ]?a  eajan   peccan  mib  jnibmjum  mib  jonjum  •  mib 

jiabum   o]>]?e  mib  ]>y  ]?e  hme   mon  bepe  o]?]?e   on  p?ene 

pepije  •  -j  hy  j-culan  nyttian  lytlum  'j  pophtlictim  metum 

-j  hiopa  heapob  cemban   -j   pepmob   bpmcan  sep  ]?on  J^e 

'  "  Tantundem  mellis  optimi  de- 
spumati  "  is  turned  "  juice  of 

-  Cf.  Alex.  Trail,  p.  46,  line  31, 
ed.  1548. 

LEECH   ROOK.    T.  31 

8.  Again,  the  fatty  parts  of  all   river   fishes   melted       Book  I 
in  the  sun  and  mingled  with  honey  ;  smear  with  that.         ' '"  "' 

9.  For  mist  of  eyes  again,  juice  of  betony  beaten 
with  its  roots  and  wrung,  and  juice  of  yarrow^  and  of 
celandine,  equally  much  of  all,  mingle  together,  apply 
to  the  eye.  Again,  mingle  pounded  root  of  fennel  with 
the  purest  honey,  then  seethe  at  a  light  fire  cleverly 
to  the  thickness  of  honey.  Then  put  it  into  a  brazen 
ampulla,  and  when  need  be,  smear  with  it,  this  drive th 
away  the  eye  mists,  though  they  be  thick. 

10.  For  mist  of  aj'^es  again,  wring  out  juice  of  celan- 
dine or  of  the  blossoms  of  it,  and  mingle  with 
dumbledores  honey,  put  it  into  a  brazen  vessel,  then 
make  it  lukewarm  cleverly  on  warm  gledes,  or  on 
ashes,  till  it  be  done.  That  is  a  unique  medicine  for 
dimness  of  eyes. 

11.  Some  avail  themselves  of  the  juice  singly,  and 
anoint  the  eyes  with  that.  For  mist  of  eyes  again  ; 
juice  of  ground  ivy  and  juice  of  fennel;  set  equal 
quantities  of  both  in  an  ampulla,  then  dry  in  the  hot 
sun,  and  smear  the  inward  part  of  the  eyes  with  that. 
For  mist  of  eyes  again,  smear  earthgalls  ^  juice,  that 
is  herdwort,^  on  the  eyes,  the  vision  will  be  by  it 
sharper.  If  thou  addest  honey  thereto,  that  is  of  good 
effect.  Further  take  a  good  bundle  of  the  same  wort, 
introduce  it  into  a  jug  full  of  wine,  and  seethe  three 
days  in  a  close  vessel;  and  when  it  is  sodden,  wring- 
out  the  wort,  and  drink  of  the  ooze  sweetened  with 
honey  every  day,  after  a  nights  fasting,  a  bowl  full. 

12.  The  eyes  of  an  old  man  are  not  sharp  of  sight ; 
than  shall  he  wake  up  his  eyes  with  rubbings,  with 
walkings,  with  ridings,  either  so  that  a  man  bear 
him^  or  convey  him  in  a  wain.  And  they  shall  use 
little  and   careful  meats,    and    comb    their   heads    and 

'  Achillea  millefoliu7n.  I        ^  In  a  litter. 

ErythrcRa  centaureum.  I 

32  L^CE  BOC. 

liie  mete  Jncjean.     pay  mon  j'ceal  unj'ceajipfynum  fealjre 
fol.  12  a.  pyjicean    ro    eaT;um  •    jeniin    pipoji    --j    ^ebeat:  "j  fpejlej- 

redte^  ^Tsppel  -j  lipon  ]-ea]~a  ^  ptn  f  h\])  job  ]-ealp.  :• 

pi])    miclum    eajeee    manij    man    h?ef])    micelne   ece 

on  hif  eajura.      pypc    Mm    ]7onne    jjiunbe    fpeljean    -j 

Ijij'ceop   yy]^^  "j    pmol    pyl   })a    pyjita    ealle  on   j'serjie  • 

meoluc   bi5   j-elpe   Ifet   f   peocan    on    J^a    eajan.      Gpc 

cele|)onian    -j    pububmbelf^    leap   jeacep    fupe    prS    pin 

jemenje.  :• 

Gp-    to    miclum    eajece   cpopleac   nio];opeapb  -j   pit- 

mpepep  pypt  nioj^opeapb  cnua  on  pme  Ijetr  fcanban  tpa 

"  Gr.  ap76^a  ;    iiilit:.     pi8  pile'' eajpcalp  jeuim  bpomef  ahl'anc  -j  boUan 

Lat.  Albugo.     yi^iJQg  hatep  pmef  jeoi:  J?jiipa  lytlum  on  hate  ]?a  ahfan 

'■  anfiin,  MS.      ^  ^^   Jjonne   on    pejien   past    oS5e    ej^pepen   bo    liiini;^ef 

li])on  to  -j  menj  tojsebepe  bo  on  J^sep  untpnman  man- 

nef    eajan  •  -j    a];peah  ept  J?a  eajaii    on    cleenum    pylle. 

J^i])  pile    liajian    geallan    bo  peapmne  on  ymb  tpa  nilit 

'' Slab,  MS.  not  phhS    op    ];am    ea^um.      pi]>    plie    jemm  onpsepe  plali'^ 

'     ■  ]>  peap   -j   ppmj    ]7uph   elaS   on    p    eaje   pona   jse'S    on 

])pim   bajum   op   [^ip  fio  plali    bi]?  jpene.     pij?  plie  eceb 

•j  jebsepneb  fealt  -j    bepen   mela  jemenj    tojsebejie    bo 

on  ]5  eaje  hapa  lanje  lipile  jjine  lianb  on.  :• 

^Readol>l>e  p^j^    j-lie    eahj'ealp    cele];onian    I'seb    jenmi   on   pam  ^ 

fol  12  b  pypttjmman   ;^nib  on  ealb  ptn  -j  on  hunij  bo  pipop  to 

l?et  fcanban  neahtepne  be  pype  nytta  Jjonne  jju  j'lapan 

piUe.     pi]7  pile  oxan  plyppan   nipepeajibe  -j  aloji    pmbe 

pylle   on   butejian.  :• 

Xv/xua-is,  pi]?  ])on  Se  eajan  typen  puban  feap  -j  jate  jeallan  -j 


Read  -binbef. 


drink  ■wormwood   before   they    take    food.     Then  shall       Book  i, 
a   salve    be    wrought    for    nnsharpsighted    eyes ;    take 
pepper   and   beat   it,  and  beetle  nut^  and  a  somewhat 
of  salt,  and  wine ;  that  will  be  a  good  salve. 

13.  For  much  eye  ache.  Many  a  man  hath  mickle 
ache  in  his  eyes.  Work  him  then  groundsel  and 
bishopwort^  and  fennel,  boil  all  the  worts  in  water, 
milk  is  better,  make  that  throw  up  a  reek  on  the 
eyes.  Again,  let  him  mingle  with  wine  celandine  and 
woodbines  leaves  and  the  herh  cuckoosour.'^ 

14.  Again,  for  much  eye  ache,  pound  in  wine  the 
nether  part  of  cropleek  ^  and  the  nether  part  of 
Wihtmars  wort,^  let  it  stand  two  days.  For  pearl,  an 
eye  salve ;  take  ashes  of  broom  and  a  bowl  full  of  hot 
wine,  pour  tlds  by  a  little  at  a  time  thrice  on  the  hot 
ashes,  and  put  that  then  into  a  brass  or  a  copper  vessel, 
add  somewhat  of  honey  and  mix  together,  apply  to 
the  infirm  mans  eyes,  and  again  wash  the  eyes  in  a 
clean  wyll  spring.  For  pearl  on  the  eye,  apply  the  gall 
of  a  hare,  warm,  for  about  two  days,  it  flieth  from  the 
eyes.  Against  white  spot,  take  an  unripe  sloe,  and 
wring  the  juice  of  it  through  a  cloth  on  the  eye,  soon, 
in  three  days  the  spot  will  disappear,  if  the  sloe  be 
green.     Against   white   spot,    mingle   together   vinegar 

and  burnt  salt^  and  barley  meal,  apply  it  to  the  eye,  "  A  substitute 
hold  thine  hand  a  long  while  on  it.  moniaclim'/' 

15.  For  pearl,  an  eye  salve  ;  take  seed  of  celandine 
or  the  root  of  it,  rub  it  into  old  wine  and  into  honey, 
add  pepper,  let  it  stand  for  a  night  by  the  fire,  use  it 
when  thou  wilt  sleep.  Against  white  spot,  boil  in 
butter  the  nether  part  of  ox-slip'^  and  alder''  rind. 

16.  In  case   the   eyes   be   tearful,  juice   of  rue,   and 

'  The  evidence,  such  as  it  is,  for 
this  rendering  will  be  given  in  the 

-  Herbar.  i.  Betonica  officinalis. 

^  Oxalis  Acetosella. 

VOL.   IL  C 

Allium  sativum,  probably. 
Cochlearia  anylica,  perhaps. 
Primula  veris  elatior. 
Aliius  glutinosa. 

34  LiECE   BOC. 

bopan  humj  ealjia  em  yeln.  ^tp  eajan^  typen  heopotey 
liopnep  alij-an  bo  on  ^efpet  ptn.  P^J^c  eajj'ealjie  pij; 
psenne  jemm  cjiopleac  -j  jajileac  bejea  em  pela  jecnupa 
pel  tofomne  jemm  ptn  -j  j:eaji]ief  jeallan  bejea  em 
pela  jemen^  pi]?  |>y  leace  bo  ]7onne  on  appset  Iset  fcan- 
ban  nijon  nilit  on  ]?am  appate  appmj  ]?uph  cla]?  -j 
jehlyttpe  pel  bo  on  liojm  •  'j  ymb  mlit  bo  mib  pej^epe 
on  f  eaje  fe  betfca  Irecebom. 

ipip  penne^  on  eajon  jentm  |?a  holan  cejifan  jebpseb 
bo  on  f  eaje  fpa  he  harofr  mjeje.  :■ 

yip  eajece  jepypce  htm  jjiunbfpeljean  *j  bifceop  pypt 
-j  beopypt  -j  pmul  pyl  ]^a  pyjita  ealle  on  psetepe  meoluc 
hip  betepe.  : 

fol.  13  a.  Pij?  eajna  ece  jenim  pa,  peaban  hopan  apyl  on  fujmra 

fpatum  o|)]?e  on  fupurn  eala5  'j  be];e  J^a  eajan  on  }>am 
ba|je  betepe  fpa  optop.  :• 

]?\p  eajece  jenim  pijjopmban  Tpiju  jecnupa  apylle 
on  butepan^  bo  on  pa,  eajan.  :• 

Pypc  eajpealpe  jemm  hnurcypnla  -j  hpsete  cojin  jnib 
cojsebepe  bo  pm  to  afeoh  }»uph  claS  bo  ]7onne  on  pa, 
eajan.  pi]?  eajna  paepce  -j  ece  hpitep  hlapej-  cpuman 
•j  pipop  -j  eceb  menj  pel  leje  on  cla5  bmb  on  |;a  eajan 
nihtepne.  puj-  mon  pceal  eajj'ealpe  pyjicean  •  jentm 
ftpeapbepian  pifan  mo]?opeapbe  -j  pipop  jecnupa  pel  bo 
on  cla]?  bebmb  pjefte  leje  on  jefpet  ptn  l?et  jebjieopan 
on  J)a  eajan  senne  bpopan,  Pyjic  eajfealpe  pububmbej- 
leap  pubumepce  ftpeapbepian  pifan  fu]?epne  pepmob 
oxna  lyb  cele]7onian   jecnupa  pa  pypte  fjnSe  menj   pi  J? 

•  Galen,  vol.  xii>  p.  335,  ed.  1826.  I       '^  TvXos. 
Sextus,  cap.  i.  1,  Lat.  |       ^  The  MS.  has  bicepan. 

LEECH   BOOK.    ].  35 

goats  gall  and  dumbledor(»s  honey,  of  all   equal   quan-       Book  I. 

titles.     If  eyes  be  tearful,  add  to  sweetened  wine  ashes 

of  harts  horn.     Work   an   eye   salve   for   a   wen,   take 

cropleek  and  garlic,^  of  both   equal   quantities,    pound 

them  well   together,    take  wine    and   bullocks   gall,    of 

both   equal   quantities,    mix   with   the    leek,    put   this 

then  into  a  brazen   vessel,   let  it  stand   nine    days   in 

the  brass  vessel,  wring  out  through  a  cloth  and    clear 

it  well,  put  it  into  a  horn,  and  about  night  time  apply 

it  with  a  feather  to  the  eye  ;  the  best  leechdom. 

17.  For  a  wen^  on  the  eye,  take  hollow  cress,'"'  roast 
it,  apply  it  to  the  eye,  as  hot  as  possible. 

IS.  For  eye  ache,  let  him  work  for  himself  ground- 
sel and  bishop  wort  ^  and  beewort^  and  fennel,  boil  all 
the  worts  in  water ;  milk  is  better. 

19.  For  ache  of  eyes,  take  the  red  hove,^  boil  it  in 
sour  beer  or  in  sour  ale,  and  bathe  the  eyes  in  the  bath, 
the  oftener  the  better. 

20.  For  eye  ache,  take  twigs  of  withewind,''  pound 
them,  boil  them  in  butter,  apply  them  to  the  eyes. 

21.  Work  an  eye  salve  thus;  take  nut  kernels  and 
wheat  grains,  rub  them  together,  add  wine,  strain 
through  a  cloth,  then  apply  to  the  eyes.  For  acute 
pain  and  ache  of  eyes,  mingle  well  crumbs  of  white 
bread  and  pepper  and  vinegar,  lay  this  on  a  cloth, 
bind  it  on  the  eyes  for  a  night.  Thus  shall  a  man 
work  an  eye  salve,  take  the  nether  part  of  strawberry 
plants  and  pepper,  pound  them  well,  put  them  on  a 
cloth,  bind  them  fast,  lay  them  in  sweetened  wine, 
make  somebody  drop  one  drop  into  the  eyes.  Work 
an  eye  salve  thus  ;  leaves  of  v/oodbind,"  woodmarche," 
strawberry  plants,  southern  wormwood,^**  green  hellebore. 

'  Allium  oleraceum  ? 
-  Wisps  or  sties  are  called  -wuns 
ill  Devon. 

^  Gentiana  campestris. 

*  In  Herb.  i.  Betonica  officinalis. 

^  Acorus  calamus. 

''  Glechoma  heeler acea. 
'  Convolvulus  sepium. 
'^  Convolvulus. 
^  Apium  graveolcns. 
'"  Artemisia  ahiotanon. 


36  L^CE   BOO. 

ptn  bo  on  cypepen  fset  op];e  on  ?e]ienum  fate  hajra 
Iset  franban  j'eopon  nilic  o]>])e  ma  appinje  J'a  pypta 
fpiSe  clsene  jebo  pipoji  on  -j  jefj^et;  fpi];e  leohtlice  mih 

fol.  13  b.  liunije  bo  pi])J>an  on  hojm  -j  mib  pej^epe  bo  on  ]?a  eajan 

£enne  bpopan.  Pyjic  eajpealpe  bpije  •  genim  fpejlef 
seppel  -j  fpepl  cpecipc  attjium  -j  jebsejineb  pealr  "j  pipopep 
msepc  jejpmb  eall  to  bufce  apipc  ]?u]ih  cla5  bo  on 
n^epc  hsebbe  liim  on  J?y  Isep  hit  J>ine  •  bo  mebmicel 
on  l^a  eajan  mib  coJ>  jape  jepefce  liim  septep  "j  plape 
•j  J>onne  a}»peah  Inj-  eajan  mib  clsene  psetpe  -j  on  ]> 
psetep  locije.  pypc  eajpealpe  cymen  -j  fcpeapbepjean 
pife  jecnupa  fpiSe  pel  -j  op  jeot  mib  jefpette  pme  bo 
In  cypepen  pset  oSSe  on  sepen  Iset  fcanban  pela  nihta 
on  appmg  jja  pypte  |?uph  claS  -j  aliluttpa  fpi]?e  pel  bo 
ponne    on    |^a    eajan   ];onne    ])u    pille   pefran  •    jip    fio 

Imminutiones.  pealp  fie  to  heaji^  jefpet  miS  hunije.  pi'S  sepmselum 
jenl^m  attpum  jemenj  piS  fpatl  ]?a^  eajan  ntepeajib 
nalgep  mnan. 

pib  aepmselum  ni]7epeapb^  sepcj^potu  jecopen  on  mu];e 
-j  appmjen  J^uph  claS  on  eaje  jebon   punbojilice   h?el]7. 
]?i])  ])on   j>e   mon    fupeje    fie    jenim    ajjnmonian    pelle 
fpij^e  o]?  ]?pibban   bsel   ];peah   jelome   ];a  eajan  mib  ]?y. 
Pustula.  P^]>  poece  on  eajum  •  jemm  pab  -j  pibban  ^  hleomocan 

fol.  14  a.  pyl  on  meolce   on    butepan  ip  betepe  -j  pypc  bej^mjc  • 

pyl  hleomoc  -j  jeappan  -j  pubu  ceappiUan  on  meolcum. 

'  Heap  MS.  If  any  word  closely 
answering  to  Gei-m.  Ilerbe,  Lat. 
Acerbus,  occurs  in  Saxon,  it  has 
not  met  my  eyes;  the  context  is  onr 
guide  here.     See  Gl. 

^  fmipe  must  be  supplied. 
"  mh>ejieapb,  MS. 

LEECH  BOOK.   I.  37 

celandine,  pound  the  worts  much,  mingle  with  wine,  Book  I. 
l)iit  into  a  copper  vessel  or  keep  in  a  brazen  vat,  let  ^^'  "" 
it  stand  seven  days  or  more,  wring  the  worts  very 
clean,  add  pepper,  and  sweeten  very  lightly  with  honey, 
put  subsequently  into  a  horn,  and  with  a  feather  put 
one  drop  into  the  eyes.  Work  a  dry  eye  salve  thus; 
take  beetle  nut(?)  and  sulfiir,  Greek  olusatrum^  and 
burnt  salt,  and  of  pepper  most,  grind  all  to  dust,  sift 
through  a  cloth,  put  it  on  a  fawns  skin,  let  him  keep 
it  about  himself,  lest  it  get  moist.  Introduce  a  small 
quantity  into  the  eyes  with  a  tooth  pick ;  afterwards 
let  him  rest  himself  and  sleep,  and  then  wash  his  eyes 
with  clean  water,  and  let  him  look  in  the  water, 
that  is,  keep  his  eyes  open  under  ivater.  Work  eye 
salve  thus;  pound  thoroughly  cummin  and  a  straw- 
berry plant,  and  souse  with  sweetened  wine,  put  into 
a  copper  vessel  or  into  a  brazen  one,  let  it  stand 
many  nights,  wring  the  wort  through  a  cloth  and  clear 
the  liquid  thoroughly,  then  apply  to  the  eyes  when 
thou  may  wish  to  rest ;  if  the  salve  be  too  biting, 
sweeten  it  with  honey.  For  imminution  of  the  eyes, 
take  olusatrum,  mingle  with  spittle,  anoint  the  eyes 
outwardly  not  inwardly. 

22.  For  imminutions,  the  nether  part  of  the  herb  Contraction 
ashthroat^  chewed  in  the  mouth  and  wrung  through  a  "  le  pupi . 
cloth,  and  applied  to  the  eye,  wonderfully  healeth.  In 
case  a  man  be  blear  eyed,  take  agrimony,  boil  it 
thoroughl}'-  doivn  to  the  third  part,  wash  the  eyes 
frequently  with  that.  For  a  pock  or  pustule  in  the 
eyes,  take  woad^  and  ribwort*  and  brooklime,^  boil  in 
milk,  in  butter  is  better,  and  work  a  fomentation. 
Boil  brooklime^  and  yarrow^  and  wood  chervil'  in 

•  Smi/rnium  olusatrum. 
-  In  Herb.  iv.  Verbena  officinulia, 
but  in  the  gll.  Ferula. 
^  Isatis  tinctoria. 

'  Plantago  lanceolata. 
'■"  Veronica  beccabunga. 
''  Achillea  millefolium. 
'  Anthriscus  silvestris. 




»  nTiAoxris. 

fol.  14  b. 

]?ij>  pypmum  on  eajum  jeriim  beolonan  ffeb  jfceab 
on  jleba  •  bo  tpa  bleba  pulle  pserejief  to  fete  on  rpa 
healpe  -j  fite  ]?8ep  opep  bp?eb  ];onne  f  heapob  hibeji  -^j 
jeonb  opep  f  pyp  *j  J^a  bleba  eac  ]70nne  pceaba]?  ]?a 
pypmaf  on  j^set  psetep.  pi]?  ]?eopable  on  eajum  J)e 
mon  ^epijo  hset  on  Iseben  hatte  cimoSip  •  hsenne  sejej- 
jeolocan  -j  mepcep  pseb  -j  attpum  -j  tunmintan,  Gpr 
pi"S  jepijon  fceapef  holifcancan  unfobenne  tobjiec  jebo 
];Eet  meapli  on  ]7a  eajan.  pi]?  }>iccum  bpseptim'^  jentm 
|?peo  hanb  puUa  mucpypCe  ]?peo  pealtrep  •  ]?peo  papan^ 
jiylle  ]7onne  oJ»  ^  fie  tpaebe  bej^ylleb  'psey  pofej-  healb  ]7onne 
on  cypejienum  pate,  pam  men^  ]?e  habbaS  ]ncce  bpaipaf 
jemm  cypejien  paet  bo  J^sejion  lybcopn  'j  pealt  jemenj  • 
jentm  cele];onian  -j  bifceoppypt  -j  jeacep  pujian  -j  at- 
topla]?an  -j  fpjimjpypt  -j  enjlifce  mojian  •  -j  hpon  psebicef 
■j  hjiepnep  pot  apaepc  J^onne  ealle  jeot  }7onne  pm  on  • 
Iset  ftanban  apeoh  ept  on  f  cypejiene  pset  •  Iset  ]?onne 
ftanban  ptptyne  nilit  -j  }pa  bepfcan  beo]?  jobe  •  hapa  ]>e 
clcEne  pletan  bo  on  f  pset  ]7e  ]>a,  bepftan  on  pyn  fpa 
pela  fpa  J^apa  plietna  ]?8ep  on  clipian  magje  •  fcpep  ])onne 
op  })am  p9Bte  f  bij?  fpiSe  50b  pealp  Jmm  men  ])e  hsep^ 
Jjicce  bpsepaf,  :. 

Alex.  TraU., 
lib.  iii. 


Lsecebomap  piS  eallum  eapena  fape  -j  ece  "j  piS  eap- 
ena   abeapunje .    -j    jlp    pypmaf    on   eapan    fynb   o]>]>e 

>  See  the  glossary  ;  it  is 
ffVKTJ,  ffiiKoiffis,  not  x'^M*"''^  ;  this  is 
a  misinterpretation  of  an  Hellenic 

-  Read  j-apan. 

^  I'arTi,  MS.     Read  \>a.  ni. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I. 


23.  For  worms  ^  in  eyes,  take  seed  of  henbane/  shed  Book  I. 
it  on  gledes,  add  two  saucers  full  of  water,  set  them 
on  two  sides  of  the  man,  and  let  him  sit  there  over 
them,  jerk  the  head  hither  and  thither  over  the  fire 
and  the  saucers  also,  then  the  worms  shed  themselves 
into  the  water.  For  "  dry"  disease  in  the  eyes,  which 
is  called  the  disease  fig,  and  in  Latin  is  called  x^l^^^^^^s'"^  "No.  ^vKwats. 
the  yolk  of  a  hens  egg  and  seed  of  marche^  and 
olusatrum  and  garden  mint.^  Again  for  the  disease 
fig,  break  to  pieces  a  hock  shank  unsodden  of  a  sheep, 
apply  the  marrow  to  the  eyes.  For  thick  eyelids,  take 
three  handfuls  of  mugwort;^  three  of  salt,  three  of 
soap,  boil  them  till  two  parts  out  of  three  of  the 
ooze  be  boiled  away,  then  preserve  in  a  copper  vessel. 
For  him  who  hath  thick  eyehds,  take  a  copper  vessel, 
put  therein  cathartic  seeds  and  salt  there  among, 
take  celandine  and  bishopwort  and  cuckoosour  and 
attorlothe  ^  and  springwort '  and  English  carrot,  and  a 
somewhat  of  radish,  and  ravens  foot,^  then  wash  them 
all,  then  pour  wine  on ;  let  it  stand,  strain  again  into 
the  copper  vessel;  then  let  it  stand  fifteen  nights  and 
the  dregs  will  be  good.  Have  with  thee  clean  curds  and 
introduce  into  the  vessel  on  which  the  dregs  are,  as 
much  of  the  curd  as  may  cleave  thereon.  Then  scrape 
the  scrapings  off"  the  vessel,  that  will  be  a  very  good 
salve  for  the  man  who   hath  thick  eyelids. 


1.  Leech  doms  for  all  sore  of  ears  and  ache,  and  for 
dea&ess  of  ears,   and  if  insects   are  in  the  ears  or  an 

'  Worms  are  all  creeping  things, 
here  insects,  acari  :  Celsus  has  a 
chapter  "  de  pediculis  palpebrarum," 
Lib.VI.  vi.  15, — "  sive  etiam  vermi- 
«'  culos  (oculi)  habeant  aut  brigan- 
"  tes  qui  cilia  arare  et  exulcerare 
"  Solent."  Marcellus,  275,  c.  Cf. 
ibid.  f.  The  disease  in  Hellenic  was 
<pdiip'ia(rt.s,  and  by  keen  eyes  the  in- 
sects could  be  seen  to  move,Actuarios. 

-  Hyoscyamus  niger. 
'  Apium. 
'  Mentha  saliva. 
^  Artemisia  vulgaris. 
^  Uncertain.  See  Herb.  xlv.  vol.  I. 
Pref.  Ivi. 

^  Euforbia  laOiyris. 
^  Ranunculus  ficaria. 



285,  f. 

fol.  15  a. 

286,  d. 

Sextus,  cap. 
xi.  1.  Lat. 

eajipicja  •    ^   jij:    eapan   bynien  •    "j    eajij^ealpa    ptpyne 
cji8ej:taf.  :• 

])i]>  eajiena  fape  "j  ece  beronican  nipan  5e]:'ophte  ]>a 
leap  pelp  ^  jecnupa  on  peapmum  pastepe  bo  hpon  5epo- 
fobep  elep  to  •  jeriim  p  fpa  placu  mib  ]nc]\e  puUe  bpype 
on  f  eape.  Gfc  pip*  pon  ilcan  jemm  ciepan  jefeo]?  on 
ele  bpj^De  on  f  eajie  Jjone  ele.  pi]?  eappsepce  -j  piS 
beape  hunbep  tunje  -j  penminte  "j  cellenbpe  jecnupa  on 
pm  o]>]>e  on  eala  afeoh  bo  on  eajie.  ]}!]>  ]?on  ilcan 
^emm  haenne  ]iypele  jemylte  -j  ]?onne  jebo  placo  on 
eape  jebpype  on.  PiJ?  |>on  ilcan  jenim  ele  •  jenim  eac 
jope  pypele  jeor  on  ]7onne  ^eyvc  f  pap  apej.  :• 

PiJ?  Jion  ilcan   jemm  beolonan  peap  jeplece  -j  J>onne 
on  eajie  jebpyp  •  ];onne  f  pap  jefcilS.  :• 

Cf.  Marcell 
284,  e. 

287,  d. 

Pi]>  ]?on  ilcan  jemm  japleac  "j  cipan  -j  jope  pypele 
jemylte  "cojgebepe  ppmj  on  eape.  :• 

prS  ]7on  ilcan  jemni  ?emecan  sejjiu  jetpipula  pjunj 
on  eajie.  piS  eapena  pape  jemm  jate  jeallan  bjiype 
2S5^^b  "^'  °^  ^  eape  •  menj  pi6  cu  meoltic  jip  ]7U  pille.  piS 
Cf.Alex.Trall.,  eapena  beape  •  jentm  hjiyj^ejief  ^eallan  pi]?  jaeten  hlanb 
lib.  iii.  1.  gemenjeb  jebpype  jepleceb  on  f  eape.  :• 

ed.  1548. 

yip  ]?on  ilcan  jip  eapan  piUen  abeapian  o]>]>e  ypel 
hlyfc  fie  •  jenim  eopopep  jeallan  peajijiep  jeallan  • 
buccan  jeallan  jemenj  ]n]>  liunij  ealpa  em  pela  bpype 
on  j3  eape.  :• 

Pi]?  }7on  ilcan  jip-  ypelne  hlyfc  hsebbe  ipieS  peap 
|>9ep  J)e  be  eop]?an  plihS  p  clsenofce  feap  jemen^  pi5 
pm  bjiype  on  eape.  :• 

6pt:  jiibban  peap  -j  ^eplecebne  ele  tojrebepe  jemenjeb 
bpype  on  pimboplice  htelS.      pij?  ]?on  ilcau  jenim  pam- 

fol.  15  b. 

Read  j-elye  ? 

I       *  Add  h]'a,  or  mon. 

LEECH   BOOK.   1.  41 

earwig,  and   if  the  ears  din,   and  ear  salves.     Fifteen       Book  i. 

•    1  Cli.  iii. 


2.  For  sore  and  ache  of  ears,  pound  new  wrought 
betony,  the  leaves  themselves,  in  warm  water,  add  a 
somewhat  of  rose  oil,  take  that  lukewarm  with  thick 
wool,  drip  it  into  the  ear.  Again  for  the  same,  take 
an  onion,  seethe  it  in  oil,  drip  the  oil  on  the  ear. 
For  ear  wark  and  for  deafness,  pound  the  herb  hounds 
tongue^  and  fenmint^  and  coriander  in  wine  or  in  ale, 
strain  it,  apply  to  the  ear.  For  the  same,  take  hen 
grease,  melt  it,  and  then  apply  it  lukewarm  to  the 
ear,  drip  it  on  it.  For  tlie  same,  take  oil,  take  also 
goose  grease,  pour  into  the  ear,  then  the  sore  departs. 

3.  For  the  same,  take  juice  of  henbane,  make  it 
lukewarm,  and  then  drip  it  on  the  ear ;  then  the  sore 

4.  For  the  same,  take  garlic  and  onion  and  goose 
fat,  melt  them  together,  squeeze  them  on  the  ear. 

5.  For  the  same,  take  emmets  eggs,  crush  thetn, 
squeeze  them  on  the  ear.  For  sore  of  ears,  take  goats 
gall,  drip  it  on  the  ear ;  mingle,  if  thou  will,  cows  milk 
with  it.  For  deafness  of  ears,  take  neats  gall  mixed 
with  goats  stale,  drip  it,  when  made  lukewarm,  on  the 

6.  For  the  same,  if  the  ears  have  a  tendency  to 
grow  deaf,  or  if  the  hearing  be  ill,  take  boars  gall, 
bulls  gall,  bucks  gall,  mix  equal  quantities  of  all  with 
honey,  drip  this  on  the  ear. 

7.  For  the  same,  if  one  have  ill  hearing,  mingle  juice 
of  ivy,  that  which  runneth  by  the  earth,  the  cleanest 
juice,  with  wine ;  drip  it  into  the  ear. 

8.  Again,  drip  into  the  ear  juice  of  ribwort  and  oil 
made  lukewarm,  mingled  together,  it  wonderfully 
healeth.     For  the  same,  take  rams  gall,  with  urine  of 

Cynoglossum  officinale.  \       -  M.  silvestris. 



Cf.  Marcell. 

284,  g. 

Cf.  Marcell. 

285,  a. 

282,  d. 

fol.  IC  a. 

inej'  jeallan  mib  hij'  j'elpei"  nihtnej'tijej*  niijoj^an  je- 
menje  piS  butejian  jeot;  on  eape.  Gft  yip  j^on  ilcau 
hnutbeamej'  junbe  feap  jepleceb  bpype  on  eape.  :• 

])i\>  Son  ilcan  jenim  celenbpan  feap  jpenpe  menj 
pi]7  pipep  meoluc  -j  humjep  bpopan  -j  jnnep  jeplelit 
tofamne.  Yi]>  eapena  abeapunje  epr  ellencpoppan  je- 
tjxipulab  f  feap  ppmj  on  p  eajie.  Gpt:  pi]>  J?on  ilcan 
jen'im  eopojiep  jeallan  •  "j  peapjief  -j  buccan  menj  pi]? 
liunij  o]?]?e  on  ele  ppmj  on  eape.  :• 

Gpt;  pib  J70n  ilcan  jentm  jpenne  sepcenne  fcsep  leje 
on  pyp  jenim  Jjonne  f  peap  pe  Inm  op  jae]?  bo  on  j^a 
ilcan  pulle  pjimj  on  eape  'j  mib  ]??epe  ilcan  pulle  poji- 
froppa  Jjset  eape, 

PiJ)  ]3  lice  ept  jenim  semetan  hopf  -j  cpopleac  -j 
neoj'opeapbe  ellenpmbe  o])])e  beolonan  "j  ele  jecnupa  to 
Somne  pypme  on  fcille  bo  J^onne  on  eape  }?apa  peabena 
iiemerena  hopf*  jenim  ]7onne  psebic  -j  eceb  cnupa  to 
Somne  ppmj  on  f  eape.  jip  pypmaf  on  eapan  fyn 
jentm  eop^  ^eallan  jpenep  feap  •  o)?|;e  hunan  peap  • 
o]>])e  pepmobep  peap  fpilc  J^apa  an  fpa  J^u  pille  jeot  f 
feap  on  jp  eape  f  tihS  ];one  pyjim  ut.  Pyjic  fealpe 
jecnupa  finpuUan  'j  leo|?opypt'  *j  po-^  je^o  ]7onne  on 
jlaep  pset  mib  ecebe  -j  ]mph  claS  appmj  bpype  on  ^ 
eape.  pij?  ]?on  jip  eapan  bymen  •  jenmi  ele  bo  on  mib 
eopocijpe  pulle  'j  popbytte  f  eape  mib  }>sepe  pulle  J?onne 
]?u  jiapan  piUe  'j  bo  ept  op  J>onne  Jju  onpsecne.  :• 

'  Read  leaj^ojipy]! 



tJie  'pcitient  liimself  after  a  nights  fasting,  mix  with 
butter  and  pour  into  the  ear.  Again  for  the  same, 
drip  into  the  ear  juice  of  the  rind  of  a  nut  tree  made 

9.  For  the  same,  mix  with  womans  milk  juice  of 
green  coriander,  and  a  drop  of  honey  and  of  wine, 
warmed  together.  For  deafening  of  the  ears  again,  try 
alder  ^  bunches  triturated,  wring  out  the  juice  into  the 
ear.  Again  for  the  same,  take  boars  gall  and  bullocks 
and  bucks,  mingle  with  honey  or  in  oil,  wring  into 
the  ear. 

10.  Again  for  the  same,  take  a  green  ashen  staft', 
lay  it  on  the  fire,  then  take  the  juice  that  issues  from 
it,  put  it  on  the  same  wool,  wring  into  the  ear,  and 
stop  up  the  ear  with  the  same  wool. 

11.  For  the  same,  take  emmets  horses^  and  cropleek^ 
and  the  lower  part  of  alder  rind  or  henbane  and  oil, 
pound  them  together,  warm  in  a  shell,  then  introduce 
into  the  ear  the  red  emmets  horses  ;  than  take  radish 
and  vinegar,  pound  them  together,  and  wring  into  the 
ear.  If  there  be  insects  in  ears,  take  juice  of  green 
earthgall,*  or  juice  of  Aorehound,  or  juice  of  worm- 
wood, whatsoever  of  these  thou  mayesb  wish,  pour 
the  juice  into  the  ear,  that  draweth  the  worm  out. 
Work  a  salve  thus ;  pound  sinfulP  and  latherwort** 
and  leek,  then  place  theiin  in  a  glass  vessel  with  vine- 
gar, and  wring  througli  a  cloth,  drip  the  moisture  on 
the  ear.  In  case  that  there  is  a  dinning  in  the  ears  ; 
take  oil,  apply  it  with  ewes  wool,  and  close  up  the 
ear  with  the  wool,  when  thou  wilt  sleep,  and  remove 
it  a^ain  when  thou  awakest. 

Book  I. 
Ch.  iii. 

'  Sambucus  niyra. 

"^  This  talk  of  "emmets  horses  " 
is  merely  a  misunderstanding  of  the 
ImrofivpfiriKes  of  Aristoteles.  Hist. 
Anim.  viii.  27.  The  translation  hy 
Plinius,  "  formicse  pennata;,"  that 
is,    male  ants,   is     commonly   ac- 

cepted as  true,  of  course,  but  it  is 
both  philologically  and  physically 

^  Allium  sativum. 

'  Erythrcea  centaureum. 

'■'  One  of  the  sedum  tribe,  or  all. 

"  Saponaria  officinalis. 



6pr  pi]?  j?on  ilcan  pepmob  [^efobenne  on  pastepe  on 
nipiim  cytele  bo  op  lieopSe  Ise'c  peccan  ]>one  fream  on 
f  eape  "j  popbytte  mib  ]7a3pe  pypte  li|?])an  hit  mjejan 
pie.  pi]?  eappicjan  •  jentm  f  micle  jpeate  pmbel  fcpeap 
rpyecje  ]?  on  pop]?ium  pixS  ceop  on  f  eape  he  bi6  op 

•  iiii. 

Alex,  Trail., 
lib.  iv. 

fol.  16  b. 

306,  a. 

306,  b. 

006,  b. 

306,  a. 

fol.  17  a. 

^Lsecebomap  pi^  healfjunbe  -j  J)?ep  tracn  hp8e]?ep  he 
hit  fie  •  'j  eac  piS  jealhfpile  "j  ]?potan  •  -j  papenbe  •  pij:" 
fpeopcojie  •  xilll.  cpseptaf.  :• 

Pi]?  healpjunbe  ]7onne  ?epeft  onjmne  pe  healpjunb 
pefan  fmipe  hme  pona  mib  hpy]?epef  o}?J?e  fpi'Soft  mib 
oxan  jeallan  p  ip  acunnob  ymb  peapa  niht  hi8  haL 
Tip  J>u  polbe  pitan  hpgBj'eji  ]3  healp  junb  fie  •  jemm 
anjeltpasccean  jehalne  leje  on  J^a  ftope  ]>sd\i  hit  a]?puten 
fie  "j  beppeoh  psefte  upan  mih  leaptim  •  jip  hit  healp- 
junb  biS  fe  pypm  pyp'S  to  eop]?an  •  jip  hit  ne  bi]?  he 
bij?  jehaL  6pt  pij;  healp  junbe  jentm  celenbep  -j  beana 
tojsebepe  jefobene  -j  aleje  on  Sona  topepe]?.  6pt  la3ce- 
bom  pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  jemm  psetephsepepn  jebsepnebne  -j 
jwnne  jejmben  fmale  -j  pij?  hunij  jemenjeb  *j  on  jebon 
Sona  biS  peh  pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  ept  jalbanum  hatce 
fuj>epne  ]?ypt  leje  J>a  on  Jjone  fpeoppsepc  •  ]?onne  atih'S 
hio  mib  ealle  ]7a  ypelan  psetan  uc  -j  ]?one  junb. 

Pi]?  ]7on  ilcan  ept  bepen  melo  'j  hluttoji  pic  -j  peax  • 
•j  ele  menj  tofomne  feo})  bo  cmhtef  6p]>e  cilbep  mije- 
Jjan  to  to  onle^ene  bo  on  ]7one  junb.     prS  healp  junbe 

'  Cf.  Galeu,  vol.  x.  p.  881,  ed.  1825. 

LEECH   r.OOK.    T.  45 

12.  Again  for  the  same,  try  wormwood  sodden  in  Book  I. 
water  in  a  new  kettle,  remove  it  from  the  hearth,  let  ^'^"  '^' 
the  steam  reek  upon  the  ear,  and  when  the  a'pplication^ 
has  gone  in,  close  up  the  ear  with  the  wort.  Against 
earwigs,  take  the  mickle  great  windlestraw^  witli  two 
edges,  which  waxeth  in  highways,  chew  it  into  the 
ear,  he,  the  insect,  will  soon  be  off. 


Leechdoms  against  a  purulent  humour  in  the  neck, 
and    tokens    of   it,  whether    it   be    such,   and   also  for 
wellings   in   the  jowl   and   throat  and  weasand,   and 
against  quinsy.     Fourteen  receipts. 

2,  Against  a  purulence^'^  in  the  neck,  when  first  the  "  Struma,  Mar- 
neck  ratten  begins  to  exist,  smear  it  soon  with  gall  of  ^^''^"^• 

a  beeve,  or  best  of  an  ox  ;  it  is  a  tried  remedy ;  in  a 

few  nights  he  will  be  whole.     If  thou   wouldst  know 

whether   it    be    neck    purulence,^  take    an    earthworm  ''  A  strumou.'; 

entire,  lay  it  on  the  place  where  the  annoyance  is,  and 

wrap  up  fast  above  with  leaves  ;   if  it  be  neck  ratten 

the    worm    tm'neth    to    earth,    if   it    be    not,   he,    the 

patient,  will  be  whole.     Again   for   neck    ratten,   take 

coriander  and  beans  sodden  together,  and  lay  on,  soon 

it    removes    the   disease.     Again,    a    leechdom   for    the 

same,  take  a  water  crab  burnt  and  then  rubbed  small 

and    mingled    with    honey   and    done    on,    or  applied, 

soon  he  will  be  well.     For  the  same  again,  a  southern 

wort  has   been   called  galbanum,  lay    it    on    the    neck 

pain,  then  it  draweth   altogether   out   the   evil  wet  or 

humour  and  the  ratten. 

3.  For    the    same    again,    mingle    together   bere    or 
harley  meal  and  clear  pitch  ^  and  wax  and  oil,    seethe "  Kesin- 
this,  add  a  boys    or  a   childs   mie,   nnake   into   an    ex- 
ternal  application  on  the  matter.     For  ratten   in   the 

'  It ;    the  application,  because      ]         -  Cynosurus     cristatus,      some ; 
l*ceam  is  masculine.  |     .  Igrostis  spica  venti,  some. 

46  L^CE   BOO. 

eyt  Jjfejie  jieaban  netelan  pyptcpuman  jej'obenne  on 
ecebe  -j  jebeatenne  *j  on  peaxhlajrey  pij^an  on  aleb  •  pj: 
ye  ^unb  bi]^  ];onne  onpnnenbe  fio  jpealj:  lime  cobjii]:!)  • 
ji]:  lie  bi]?  ealb  hio  lime  ontynS  -j  fpa  afrili5  p  yj:el 
ut:  o]>  f  lie  lial  bi5.  :• 

GfC  pi]7  ]?on  mamjpealb  tacn  -j  lascebom  piS  healj*- 
junbe  6p])e  jeajlfpile '  oS6e  J?]iotan  o]?]?e  payenbe  •  Sio 
abl  t]'  tpejea  cynna.  0];ep  if  on  ];am  ^eajle  -j  |7onne 
mon  Jpone  mu]?  ontyn^  bi]?  jehppej^eji  jefpoUen  "j  bi]?  jieab 
3'mb  ]>a  lipsectrunja  •  *j  ne  msej  fe  man  e]jelice  efiian 
ac  bij>  afmojiob  •  ne  m^j  eac  nalit  popfpeljan  ne  pel 
fpjiecan  ne  fcemiie  nsep]?  •  ne  bi^  ]?eop  abl  lip£e]:'epe  to 
ppecne.  Oj^eji  "ip  ponne  on  ]7?e]ie  ]?jiotan  bi]?  fpyle  -j 
lypfen  fe  ne  msej  nah"c  jecpej^an  -j  biS  pe  fpile  je  on 
]?am  fpeopan  je  on  )?8epe  tunjan  •  ne  msej  fe  man  pel 
e]jian  •  ne  J)one  fpeopan  on  cejipan  •  ne  hip  lieapob 
popS  on  hylban  f  he  hif  napolan  jefeon  mseje  •  *j 
fol.  17  ii.  butan    111]'    man   pa];op    tilije    he   bi}?    ymb  j^peo    mho 

jepajien.  Tip  fie  ])?epe  able  bpyne  Innan  j^ssp  fcjianj 
•p  mon  ne  mseje  utan  jefeon  fio  bij?  *Sy  ppecenjie. 
Tip  ]7onne  fie^  on  jehpa^l^epe  liealpe  pa  ceacan  afpollen 
•j  fio  ]?potu  -j  J)u  pa  tacn  jefeo  ponne  fona  Iset  pu 
him  blob  on  sebpe  •  jip  pu  f  pujihteon  ne  mseje 
fceappa  htm  pa  pcancan  f  Mm  beah. 

Sele  hnn  fceajipne  pyptbpenc  pyjme  him  metef  iBptep 
pon  bepmb  pone  fpeopan  'j  leje  on  Isecebomaf  pa  pe 
utteon  pa  ypelan  psetan  -j  pset  faji  ponne  bip  pseji  pyppe 
pen.  Pypc  him  pa  pealpe  jentm  fpmep  ]iyfle  jefmype 
ane  bpabe  pannan  Innepeajibe  mib  pam  jiypele  pyl  ponne 
peopp  jofe  fceapn  to  on  pa  pannan  -j  jeplece  'j  ponne 
hit  fy  jemylt  bo  ponne  on  Imenne  claS  leje  on  p  paji  *j 
befpepe  bo  f  pel  opt  on  on  bsej  •   'j  bip  fpa  betejie  fpa 

'  Seaslfpi)'e,  MS.  j      -  Ecad  fien. 

LEECH   BOOK.    T.  47 

neck  again,  use  a  root   of  the   red    nettle    sodden    in       Book  T. 
vinegar  and  beaten,    laid  on  in  the  manner  of  a  cake       ^  ''•  '^' 
of  was;   if  the   matter  be  then   beginning,    the   salve 
driveth  it  away ;  if  it  be  old  it  openeth  it,  and  so  the 
evil  riseth  out  till  he  be  hale. 

4.  Again  for  that,  a  manifold  token  and  a  leech dom 
for  the  neck  ratten  or  jowl  swelling  or  swelling  of  the 
throat  or  weasand.  The  disease  is  of  two  kinds  ;  the 
one  is  in  the  jowl,  and  when  one  openeth  the  mouth 
it  is  both  swollen  and  is  red  about  the  uvula  ;  and 
the  man  can  not  easily  breathe,  but  will  be  smothered ; 
he  can  not  also  swallow  aught  nor  speak  well,  nor 
hath  he  voice ;  this  disorder,  however,  is  not  dangerous. 
Another  sort  is  when  there  is  a  swelling  in  the  throat 
and  purulence,  he,  the  'patient,  may  not  speak  aught, 
and  the  swelling  is  both  on  the  neck  and  on  the  tongue  ; 
the  man  can  not  well  breathe,  nor  turn  his  neck  nor 
lean  forward  his  head  so  that  he  may  see  his  navel ; 
and  except  one  attend  to  him  somewhat  speedily,  in 
about  three  days  he  will  be  deceased.  If  the  burning 
of  the  disease  within  be  strong,  yet  there  are  no 
external  signs  of  it,  it  is  so  much  the  more  dangerous. 
If  then  on  either  side  the  jaws  be  swollen  and  the 
throat,  and  thou  see  the  tokens,  then  soon  let  thou 
him  blood  on  a  vein ;  if  thou  may  not  carry  that 
through,  scarify  for  him  his  shanks,  that  doth  him 

5.  Give  him  a  sharp  wort  drink,  warn  him  off  meat, 
after  that  bandage  the  neck,  and  lay  on  leechdoms 
which  may  draw  out  the  evil  humour  and  the  sore, 
there  will  be  then  hope  of  recovery.  Work  him  the 
salve  thus;  take  swines  fat,  smear  the  inside  of  a 
broad  pan  with  the  fat,  boil  up,  then  east  goose  sharn 
into  the  pan,  and  make  lukewarm,  and  when  it  be 
melted  then  put  it  on  a  linen  cloth,  lay  it  on  the 
sore,  and  swathe  up,  apply  that  pretty  often  in  a  day, 
and  it  will  be  the   better   the   oftener   thou   renewest 

48  LiECE   P.OO. 

])U  oftoji  ebnipafc  ];a  j^ealfe  -j  oj:tO)i  onlejefc  fio  tilrS 
f  yfel  lit.  :• 

PiJ>  healj'junbe    jeriim  peax  'j  ele  jeinen^  pi}»  poyan 
blofcman   •-]   jemelt;   trojsebepe  bo  ];9ep  on,       pi]?  fpeoji- 
fol.  18  a.  cop>e  pypc  on  lecjenbe    pealpe  •    jentm  peajipep  jelynbo 

•j  bepan  fmepu  -j  peax  ealpa  em  pela  pypc  to  fealpe 
^  Alex.  Trail,  fmijie  mib.  ^Gpt:  pij?  ]7on  ilcan  jtp  ]>u  pmbe  hpitne 
Paul.'iEoin.  lumbej'  Jjofc  abpije  pione  -j  je^nib  *j  afypt  -j  jeliealb  f 
"'•  ^^*  pi]>    j^aepe    fpeojicoj^e  -j  J^onne  ]?eapp  pie  menj  pi];  liunij 

fmipe  Jjone  fpeopan  mib  f  bij>  fcpanj  pealp  "j  job  pr5 
fpelcjie  ablapunje  -j  bpune]7an  -j  pi]>  ];apa  ceacna  ^e- 
fpelle  oS6e  afmopunje  •  fceal  ];eali  fe  hunb  ban  jnajan 
ffiji  •  ]?y  bi]?  fe  ]?ofr  lipit  -j  micel  jip  J;u  lime  nimefc  -j 
jabejiafr:  set  pylne^  ]?onne  ne  bi]>  he  to  unfpete  to 
jefrmcanne  •  ]?onne  pceal  mon  ]?one  jeajl  eac  fpillan 
jelome  on  J>8epe  able  •  -j  fpoljettan  eceb  pi}?  pealt  je- 
menjeb.  6pt  pipleapan  feapep  ]?py  bollan  pulle  lytle 
pceal  popcuuolftan.  pij?  fpeopcoSe  ept  japleac  jejniben 
on  eceb  f  j^e  fie  pi]?  paeteji  jemenjeb  fpille  ]?one  jeajl  mib 
]?y.  pi]?  fpeopco]?e  ept  pijep  feopo]?a  feo]?  on  jefpettum 
fol.  18  b.  psetepe    fpille   }?a    ceolan   mib  ]5y  jip  pe  fpeopa  pap  pie 

pyn  eac  ]?a  fpillmja  lipilum  bate  J?onne  ip  eac  to  ]?ip]'e 
able  jepet  I?  mon  unbep  ]?8epe  tunjan  Isete  blob  o]?}?e  op 
eapme  "j  on  mojijen  on  fppenje  •  jip  hit  ]?onne  cniht 
fie  Iset  on  ]?am  fpeopan  •  *j  on  psepe  able  ip  to  pop- 
py pnanne  piuej'  -j  plsepcep  fpi]?0]'c  ])y  l^ej'  fio  ceole  fie 
afpoUen.  :• 

Pi]?  ]?on  jip  mannep  muS  pap  fie  jemm  betonican  -j 
jetpipula    leje    on    ]?a    peolope.     To    mu5   j'ealpe  -j    to 

'  Read  yyWc.    In  Lye  jillen,  omentum,  is  an  eiTor  for  yylmen. 

LEECH    BOOK.    T.  49 

the    salve    and    the    oftcner    thou    layest    on.     It    will       Book  I. 
draw  the  evil  out. 

6.  For  matter  in  the  neck,  take  wax  and  oil,  mingle 
with  rose  blossoms  and  melt  together,  put  this  thereon. 
For  swerecothc  oy  quinsy,  work  an  onlaying  salve. 
Take  suet  of  bull  and  grease  of  bear,  and  wax,  even 
quantities  of  all,  work  to  a  salve,  smear  with  it. 
Again    for    the    same,  if    thou   find  a  white   thost  ^  of "  Album 

111         •  T  !•  T'f>»  Till'     Griccuni. 

hound,  dry  it  and  rub  it,  and  siit  it,  and  hold  it 
against  the  swerecothe,  and  when  need  be  mingle  with 
honey,  smear  the  neck  with  it,  that  is  a  strong  salve 
and  good  for  such  upblowing  or  inflation  and  brunella,^ 
and  for  swelling*  of  the  jaws,  or  smothering.  The 
hound  must  gnaw  a  bone  ere  he  dro'ppeth  the  thost, 
then  will  the  thost  be  white  and  mickle ;  if  thou 
takest  and  gatherest  it  at  the  flxU,  then  it  is  not  too 
unsweet  of  smell ;  one  shall  further  often  also  swill 
the  jowl  in  this  disease,  and  swallow  vinegar  mingled 
with  salt.  Again,  he  shall  swallow  down  three  bowls 
of  the  juice  of  cinquefoil,  little  ones.  For  swerecothe 
or  quinsy  again,  use  garlic  rubbed  in  vinegar  which 
be  mingled  with  water,  swill  the  jowl  with  that.  For 
quins}^,  again,  seethe  the  siftings  of  rye  on  sweetened 
water,  swill  the  gullet  with  it,  if  the  swere  be  sore, 
let  the  swillings  also  be  whilom  hot.  Besides  it  is 
also  laid  down  for  this  disease,  that  blood  be  let  under 
the  tongue  or  from  an  arm,  and  on  the  morrow  apply 
a  clyster.  Further  if  it  be  a  boy,  let  (blood)  on  the 
neck  ;  and  in  this  disease  it  is  well  to  warn  off  (the 
sick)  from  wine,  and  specially  from  flesh  meat,  lest 
the  gullet  be  swollen. 

In  case  that  a  mans   mouth   be   sore,   take  betony 
and    triturate   it,    lay   it   on   the  lips.     For   a    mouth 

'  A  disease  resembling  diphtheria  ;  otherwise,  Prima. 
VOL.   II.  D 

50  L^CE   BOC. 

jeblejenabjie  'cim;5an  ppleajre  •  'j  lapembel  leap  }>yl  on 
p£Ete]ie  hajra  lan^e  on  muSe  "j  jelome.  Jij:  monney 
ojiaS  fie  pul  jenim  bepen  mela  job.  -j  clsene  hunij  'j 
hpir  peak  jemenj  eall  tofomne  *j  jnib  ];a  te]>  mib 
fpiSe  'j  jelome.  :■ 


Lfficebomap  pi}*  toS  psepce  *j  yi])  pyjimum  je  pi];  ]?am 
upejian  toSece  je  pij;  ]?am'  nij^epan.  :• 

^  Herbar.  Pi]>   toj?   paepce  -^  betomcan  feoS  on  pme  oj;  };]iibban 

^  ^"  ■  *■   ■        btel  fpile  j7onne  jeonb  ]?one  muS  lanje  bpile. 

Pi6  to]?  psejice  jip  pyjim  ete  •  jemm  ealb  holen  leap 
fol.  19  a.  -j  heojiot  cjiop  neo}>epeajibne  -j  paluian  upepeajibe  bepj^^l 

rpy  bael  on  psetpe  jeot  on  bollan  "j  jeona  ymb  Jjonne 
peallaS  ];a  pj=]imap  on  );one  bollan.  ^ip  pyjim  ete  ]>& 
te'S  jemm  opeji  jeape  holen  jimbe  *j  eopop  }>jiotan 
mopan  pel  on  fpa  hatum^  hapa  on  mu]?e  fpa  hat  fpa 
\>u  hatoft  mseje.  Pi]?  to8  pyjimum  jenim  ac  mela  'j 
beolonan  pseb  -j  peax  ealpa  em  pela  menj  tosomne 
pyjic  to  peax  canbelle  •  -j  baepn  la;t  jieocan  on  ];one 
muS  bo  bl?ec  hpasjl  unbep  ])onne  pealla]?  ];a  ])y]iinap 

Pi8  to]?  ptejice  jebsepn  hpit  j-ealt  -j  japleac  bepec  on 
jlebum  jebpseb  "j  bepenb  -j  pipo]i  *j  ftjifelpypt  jejnib 
eal  tofomne  leje  on,  : 

yip  top  pjBpce  hpepnep  pot  ])el  on  pme  neo]?opeajibne 
oSSe  on  ecebe  j'up  fpa  "Su  hatoft  mseje.     pi]?  toSpsepce 

I'll^fi,  MS.  I      -  hacum  jwcjie 

LEECH    nOOK.    1.  5] 

salve  and  for  a  blained  tongue,  boil  in  water  iiveleaf,       l5ook  I. 
that  is,  cinque/oil,  and  bramble  leaves,  have  it  long  in  ^'  ^" 

the  mouth  and  frequently.  If  a  mans  breath  be  fijul, 
take  good  barley  meal  and  clean  honey  and  white 
salt,'  mingle  all  together,  and  rub  the  teeth  with  it 
much   and   frequently. 


1.  Leechdoms  for  sharp  pain  in  the  teeth  and  for 
worms,  either  for  the  upper  tooth  ache  or  for  tlie 

2.  For  tooth  wark,  seethe  betony  in  wine  to  the 
third  part,  then  swill  the  mouth  thoroughly  for  a  long 

3.  For  tooth  wark,  if  a  worm  eat  the  tooth,  take  an 
old  holly  leaf  and  one  of  the  lower  umbels  of  hart- 
wort,^  and  the  upward  ^^ar^  of  sage,  boil  two  doles" 
in  water,  pour  into  a  bowl  and  yawn  over  it,  then  the 
worms  shall  fall  into  the  bowl.  If  a  worm  eat  the 
teeth,  take  holly  rind  over  a  year  old,  and  root  of 
carline  thistle,  boil  in  so  hot  water  1  hold  in  the  mouth 
as  hot  as  thou  hottest  may.  For  tooth  worms,  take 
acorn  meal  and  henbane  seed  and  wax,  of  all  equally 
much,  mingle  these  together,  work  into  a  wax  candle, 
and  burn  it,  let  it  reek  into  the  mouth,  put  a  black 
cloth   under,   then  will  the   worms  fall   on   it. 

4.  For  tooth  wark,  burn  white  salt  and.  garlic, 
make  them  smoke  on  gledes,  roast  and  tear  to  pieces, 
and  add  pepper  and  clubmoss,  rub  all  together  and 
lay  on. 

5.  For  tooth  wark,  boil  in  wine  or  in  vinegar  the 
netherward  part  of  ravens  foot,*  sup  as  thou  hottest 
may.     For    tooth   wark,    bray   together   to   dust   rind 

1  That  is,  tlie  best,  purest  salt. 
-  Seseli ;  perhaps,  however,  Hart- 
bramble,  Rhamnus,  may  be  meant. 

^  That  is,  two  of  worts  to  one  of 

'  Ranunculus  ficaria. 

D    2 


L^CE   BOC. 

fol.  19  b. 

296,  h. 

linutbeamej"  jimbe  -j  ]?ojni  jimbe  jecnua  to  bufre  abpij 
on  pannan  fniS  utan  ];a  te];  yceab  on  jelome.  :• 

Pyjic  ]>nY  to]>yesi[\:e  ofejifsepifc  jimb  -j  hunij  'j  pipoji 
men5  cosomne  leje  on  •  pypc  eac  j^ealjre  op  penpypre 
on  J?a  ilcan  pipan.  :• 

]}i]>  ]>am  upepan  Co]?ece  jemm  pi})opmban  leap  appmj 
on  J)a  nofu,  ])i]>  ]?am  ni]7epan  coj^ece  plit  mib  J?e 
po]?opne  o]>  peet  Ine  bleben.  :• 

Gpc  jentm  elmep  pmbe  jebsepn  to  alifan  jemenj  J)a 
ahpan  pi|p  psetep  -j  afeoh  hapa  j^eet  paiteji  lanje  on 
mujje.     6pt  jemm  jeappan  ceop  fpijje.  :• 

Apul.  i.  13. 


Tip  mon  blobe  hjitece  jenim  betonican  fjJilce  fpa 
.III.  penejaf  jepejen  jejnib  on  jsete  meolc  pele  ]>]\y 
bajaf  ]>py  bollan  pulle  to  bjuncanne.  :• 

fol.  20  a. 


]}i\>  blsece  on  -jplitan  pyl  to  bsej^e  pencepfan  -j  neo- 
}?opea]ibne  fecj  •  cepcpmbe  eappan  pyl  on  psetepe  lanje 
be]7e  mib. 

To  pealpe  pij>  bls&ce  on  "jplitan  •  omppan  neojjopeajibe 
J>a  ]>e  fpimme  bo  pealt  to  -j  pbetan  -j  cej.  bpip  y^-]> 
blsece  on  'jplitan  jemelte  ealb  fpic  bpip  on  }?on  •  bo 
jejpunbenne  pipop  on  •  -j  cpopleac  hpsetenep  melpej* 
tpy  bsel  fpilce  ymy  pipopep  apyl  lipset  lipeja  •  jemm 
)?8ep  ];peo  fnseba  jepefc  a3ptep  peapme.  piS  blsece 
jemm  heopotep  hojm  jebsepn  to  ahpan  "j  fpepl  -j  je- 
bsepneb  pealt  ^  pic  to  alifan  'j  fpa  oftep  pcella  -j  je- 
cnupa  omppan  finale  "j    jemenj    eall  to  bjiij'e  -j  fmipe 

LEECH    1500K.    J. 


of  nut  tree  and  thorn  rind,  dry  then  in  a  pan,  cut '  ilic 
teeth  on  the  outside,  shed  on  frequently. 

6.  Work  a  tooth  salve  thus,  min2:le  together  oversea 
rind"  and  honey  and  pe})per,  lay  on.  Work  also  a 
salve  of  wenwort  in  the  same  wise. 

7.  For  the  upper  tooth  ache,  take  leaves  of  withe- 
wind,  Avring  them  on  the  nose.  For  the  nether  tooth 
ache,  slit  Avith  the  tenaculum,  till  they  bleed. 

8.  Again,  take  elms  rind,  burn  to  ashes,  mingle  the 
ashes  with  water  and  strain,  hold  the  water  long  in 
the  mouth.     Again,  take  yarrow,  chew  it  much. 

Book  I. 
Ch.  vi. 


1.  If  a  man  break  up  blood,  take  as  much  betony 
as  three  pennies  weigh,  rub  in  goats  milk,  give  for  three 
days  three  bowls  full  to  drink. 


1.  For  a  blotch  on  the  face,  boil  for  a  bath  fencress^ 
and  the  nether  ward  j;«ri  of  sedge,*  ash  rind,  tares, 
boil  long  in  watei-,  bathe  therewith. 

2.  For  a  salve  against  a  blotch  in  the  face,  use  the 
nether  ward  part  of  dock,  which  will  swim,^  add  to  it 
salt  and  curds  and  egg.  A  brewit  for  a  blotch  on  the 
face,  melt  old  lard,  on  that  a  brewit,  add  ground  pep- 
per, and  cropleek,^  two  doles  of  wh  eaten  meal  as  well 
as  of  the  pepper,  boil  a  little,  take  of  it  three  slices, 
after  that  go  to  bed  and  get  warm.  For  a  blotch,  take 
harts  horn,  burn  to  ashes,  and  sulfur,  and  burnt  salt 
and  pitch  burnt  to  ashes,  and  so  oyster  shells,  and 
beat  sorrel'  small,  and  mingle  all  into  a  brewit,  smear 

'  By  Sect.  7,  it  appeal's  by  te]>  is 
meant  the  gums,  cohiieoman. 
-  Cinnamon. 
^  Nasturtium  officinale. 
*  Carex. 

'■"  This  seems   by  Gerarde  to  be 
duckweed,  Lcmna. 
"  Allium  sativum. 
'  Rumex  Acetusa. 



niib.  6pt;  j-ealp  pel  on  aj>ybum  I'ceapejf  fmejiupe  hse^- 
Jjopnep  blolrman  -j  ]ni  fmalan  fmjpenan  -j  pubupopan 
nienj  ]7onne  hpitcpubii  pi]?  "j  hpon  biitepan.  :• 

Cf.  Marcell. 
290,  c. 

fol.  20  b. 


rtp  men  ypne  blob  op  nebbe  to  IpiSe  jennn  jpene 
betomcan  -j  puban  jecnupa  on  eceb  jeppmj  tofomne 
fpilce  ]-ie  an  plah  fcms  on  Jja  nofu.  blob  peten  bifceop 
pypt  nio];opea]ibe  ere  o^Se  on  meolce  bpmce.  Blob 
feten  epc  gemm  liejeclipan  jebmbe  on  fpeopan. 

blob  fecen  ept  fppmj  pypt  bo  on  eape.  :■ 

Blob  peten  ept  pejbpreban  bo  on  eape.  :• 

blob  peten  ept  jebal  bepen  eap  beftmje  on  eape 
fpa  he  nyte.  Sume  pip  pjiitat)  -{-  sejpyn  •  thon  •  ftpiith  • 
pola  apspenn  •  tajit  •  fuputh  •  on  •  tpia  •  enn  •  piath  • 
liathu  •  mojipana  •  on  hsel  i-f-  ajia  •  cajm  •  leou  •  jpotL  • 
peopn  •  Hi  •  ppil  ♦  cjionbi  •  p  •  |XI  •  nipo  •  cpon  •  sepcpio  • 
epmio  •  aeR  •  leNo  •  je  hopfe  je  men  blob  feten.         :• 

]}ip  jeihote  -j  jepoi'um  •  jemm  oxna  lyb  ni]7epeapb 
jecnupa  pel  piS  pastpe  •  jip  liio  fie  jpene  ne  bo  J?u 
]?8ep  psetep  to  ppinj  J>onne  on  ^  neb.  :• 

291,  e. 


PjP  pajium  peolojium  jefmipe  mib  hunije  J)a  peolopaj- 
gemm  |?onne  se;^eppelman  bepceab  mib  pipope  leje  on.  :• 


^Pi]7  pouum    muj^e   jentm    omppan  'j   ealbne    fpinef 
pyple  pypc  to  pealpe  fete  on  ]?one  pen-  bsel.     pi]?  ceolan 

'  KwLKhs  (Tiraarfios. 

-  you,  here  is  a  contraction  of  ])ohan,  j^ogan. 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  55 

therewith.     Again,  a  salve,  boil  in  pressed  sheeps  grease,       \'°"'^..i; 
hawthorns  blossoms,  and  the  small  stonecrop  and  wood- 
rofic,  then  mingle  mastic  therewith  and  a  little  butter. 


1.  If  blood  run  from  a  mans  nose  too  much,  take 
green  betony  and  rue,  pound  them  in  vinegar,  twist 
them  together  like  as  it  might  be  a  sloe,  poke  it  into 
the  nose.  A  blood  stopper;  eat  the  netherward  part 
of  bishopwort  or  drink  it  in  milk.  To  stop  blood 
ao-ain,  take  hedge  cleavers,  bind  it  on  the  neck. 

2.  As  a  blood  stancher  again,  put  springwort'  into 
the  ear. 

3.  To  stop  blood  again,  put  way  broad"  into  the  ear. 

4.  To  stop  blood  again,  poke  into  the  ear  a  whole 
ear  of  bere  or  havley ;  so  he  be  unaware  of  it.     Some 

write  this : either  for  horse  or 

man,  a  blood  stancher. 

For  snot  and  })oses  or  catarrhs;  take  the  nether- 
ward part  of  stinking  hellebore,^  pound  it  well  with 
water  ;  if  it  be  green  do  not  apply  water  to  it,  then 
wring  on  the  nose. 


For  sore  lips,  smear  the  lips  with  honey,  then  take 
film  of  egg,  scatter  it  with  pepper,   and  lay   on. 


For  distorted  mouth,  take  dock  and  old  swines 
grease,  work  to  a  salve,  set  on  the  wry  part.  For 
swelling  of  gullet,  for  that,  everfern^   also   shall   come 

'  Euforbia  laihyris.  i      ^  Helleborus  viridis. 

-  Plantago  maior.  |       '  Poh/podium  vulgare. 

56  L^CE  BOC. 

Ipile  pi]?  ]?on  pceal  eopjipeajm  eac  I'pa  -j  jyj'jiipaii  pyl 
on  meolce  flip  }'onne  -j  jebej^e  mib.  ])\]?  ceolan  fpile 
bipceop  pypt;  aCeplaSe  niSepeapbe  -j  claran  ]'yl  on 
ealaS.  :• 


■^  PiS   haep   pceapbe    hpic    cpubu    jecnupa  fpiSe    fmale 

bo  sesep  f  hpite   to  -j  menj   Ipa   ]m    belu   teapoji   6n- 

foL  21  a.  fniS  mib  peaxfe  feopa  mib  feolce  psefce  fmipe  mib  ]7onne 

mib  p»8epe  pealpe  utan  "j  mnan   asp   pe   feoloc   potije  • 

jip  tofomne  teo  pece  mib  hanba  fmipe  ept  pona.         : 


pi]?  pea^an  •  jiecelp  lytel  I'pepl  fpejlef  aBppel  peax 
jinjipep  ]7uph  hopn  bjimce  •  liunan  hapocpypt  on 
hlurcpum  ealo6. 


Alex.  Trail.  '  Pi]'  hpof ran  hu  he  mippenlice  on  mon  beciime  ^  hu 

1  .  V.  ini  10.     j^^^,  ^^^^  tilian   fcyle.      Se    hpofra   hsepS    mamjpealbne 

rocyme    fpa  'pa.   fpatl    beoS    mippenhcu  •    hpilum  cymS 

op    unjemetpgej'Cpe   ho3t:o  •    hpilum  op  unjemetpseptum 

cyle  •  ]^pilum  op  unjemethcpe  bpijneppe. 

Pypc  bpenc  pi]?  hpofcan  •  jeniin  miicjpyjir  feo]?  on 
cypepenum  citele  -j  pyl  o]?  ]3  hio^  fie  fpi]7e  ]?icce  •  -j  hio" 
fie  op  hpsetenum  mealte  gepojiht  ^enim  ]7onne  eopop- 
peapnef  maept:  bifceop  pypt:  •  hmb  heoloSan  •  bpeopje 
bpofclan  fmjpenan  bo  to  eall  on  pset  fele  bpmcan  mib- 
fol.  21  b.  belbajum  -j  pojija  pup  -j  fealtep  jehpset.      pi])  hpoftan 

>  B57|.  I        -  Head  he. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I. 


into  use,  and  boil  cockle  in  milk,  them  sup  some  and 
bathe  with  it.  For  swelling  of  gullet,  boil  in  ale 
bishopwort,  the  netherward  part  of  attoiiothe,  and 

Book  I. 
Ch.  xii. 


For  hair  Hp,  pound  mastic  very  small,  add  the  white 
of  an  egg,  and  mingle  as  thou  dost  vermillion,  cut 
with  a  knife  the  false  edges  of  the  lip,  sew  fast  with 
silk,  then  smear  without  and  within  with  the  salve, 
ere  the  silk  rot.  If  it  draw  together,  arrange  it  with 
the  hand ;  anoint  again  soon. 


For  watery  congestions^  called  KXvlmsc,  a  little 
incense,  some  sulfur,  beetle  nut,  wax,  ginger ;  let  the 
ixitient  drink  through  a  horn  horehowa.^  and  hawk  wort  ^ 
in  clear  ale. 


For  host  or  cough,  how  variously  it  comes  ujoon  a 
man,  and  how  a  man  should  treat  it.  The  host  hath 
a  manifold  access,  as  the  spittles  are  various.  Whilom 
it  cometli  of  immoderate  heat,  whilom  of  immoderate 
cold,  whilom  of  immoderate  dryness. 

2.  Work  thus  a  drink  against  cough.  Take  mugwort,'' 
seethe  it  in  a  cojDper  kettle,  and  boil  till  it*  be  very 
thick,  and  let  it*  be  wrought  of  wheaten  malt ;  then 
take  of  everfern  most,  bishopwort,  water  agrimony,^ 
pennyroyal,''  singreen,^  set  all  in  a  vat,  give  to  drink 
at  the  middays,    and   forego   what  is   sour  and  every- 

'  Bpo7xoKTiA77,  perhaps. 
-  Hicracium. 
^  Artemisia  vulgaris. 
'  The    gender    of   the    pronoun 
makes  it  refer  to  the  wort,  whereas 

the  process  seems  to  require  a  mas- 
culine, referring  to  the  potion. 

^  Eupatorium  cannabinum. 

**  3Ientha  pulegium. 

^  Sempervivuvi  tectorum. 

58  L^CE   BOC. 

ejzt; .  jemm  Imnan  feoS  on  psetejie  lele  I'pa  peapme 
bp.incan.  :• 

Gyt  jenim  clifpypt  fume  men  hata'S  poxep  clipe 
fume  eapypt  •  'j  hio  yy  jepopht  opeji  mibne  fumop 
feo]?  ]7a  on  psecepe  o]>  f  bpibban^  bsel  p'sep  popep  op  fie 
pele  bpmcan  J^pipa  on  bsej. 

PiS   hpofcan  ept  jentm   fsemmtan  pyl  on  eala]?   pele 

V      bpmcan.      6ptr   jennn   fppacen   bepmbpeb  pyl  on  ealaS 

]"ele  bpmcan.  :• 

6ft:  5en[i]m  hopn  jeapj^an  jieabe  nerelan  pyl  on 
meolce.  Gpc  jentm  pij>  Lpofcan  -j  pi]?  anjbpeofre  ]-la- 
pian  jobne  bsel  bo  bollan  pnlne  jnnep  to  bepyl  ppibban 
bsel  on  |)a  pypte  fupe  on  niht  neptij.  :• 

6pr  ^^ennn  majmbian  j^yl  on  ealaS  bo  pipoji  on. 
6pt;  yip  anjbpeofce  jip  men  fie  bpije  hpofra  •  jemrn 
fpicep  fnsebe  J>ynne  lege  on  liatne  fcan  fceab  cyraeb  on 
fete  hopn  on  bpmce  ]?onne  fmic.  :• 

PiJ?  bpijum  hpoftan  ept  jentm  eolonan  *j  jalluc  ete 
on  bunijep  teape.  :• 

fol.  22  a.  .XVI. 

V  ]}i]>  bjieoft  paspce  jenim  ]>Sb  lytlan  culmillan  -j  cymeb 

]iyl  on  hluttpum  eala]?  fupe  'j  bpmce.  6pt  jemni 
bpeopje  bpoftlan  -j  jyj^pipan  kyncean  pelle  on  hlut- 
tpum ealaS  bpmce  fcenc  pulne  on  neaht  neptij,  :• 

Pyl  on  ealaS  pijp  ]?on  ilcan  pnul  mapubian  betomcan 
•j  bpmce.      pijj   bpeoft   ]?8epce  jentm  puban  •  hunan   -j 

'  Eead  ^pibban  =  Sjiibba. 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  59 

thing  salt.     Again  for  host,  take  horehound,  seethe  in       ^^^^^  I- 
water,  administer  it  so  warm  to  drink. 

3.  Again,  take  clifFwort,'  some  men  call  it  foxes  cliff", 
some  riverwort,  and  let  it  be  wrought  past  midsummer, 
seethe  it  in  water  till  the  third  part  of  the  wash  be 
off",  give  it  thrice  a  day  to  be  drunk. 

4.  For  host  again,  take  sea  mint,  boil  it  in  ale, 
give  to  drink.  Again,  take  black  alder  rendered  and 
purified,  boil  it  in  ale,  give  it  to  be  drunk. 

5.  Again,  take  hove,"  yarrow,  red  nettle,"^  boil  them 
in  milk.  Again,  take  against  host  and  against  breast 
anguish,*  a  good  portion  of  slary,^  add  a  bowl  full  of 
wine,  boil  away  a  third  part  on  the  wort  ;  let  the 
patient  sup  it  at  night  fasting. 

6.  Again,  take  marrubium,  boil  it  in  ale,  add  pepper. 
Again,  for  breast  anguish,  if  a  man  have  a  dry  host, 
take  a  thin  slice  of  lard,  lay  it  on  a  hot  stone,  shed 
cummin  on  it,  set  it  on  a  horn,*^  let  the  p)('dient  drink 
in  the  smoke. 

7.  For  a  dry  cough  again,  take  elecampane  and 
comfi'ey  ;  let  the  'patient  eat  them  in  virgin  honey. 


1.  For  acute  pain  in  the  breast,  take  the  little 
centaury  and  cummin,  boil  in  clear  ale,  let  the  patient 
sip  and  drink.  Again,  take  pennyroyal  and  cockle, 
artichoke,  let  him  boil  in  clear  ale,  let  him  drink  a 
cup  fall  at  night  fasting. 

2.  Boil  in  ale  for  the  same,  fennel,  marrubium, 
betony,  and  let  the  patient  drink.  For  pain  in  the 
breast,    take    rue,    /lorehound    and   abrotanon,'^  rub  to- 

'  Arctium  lappa. 
-'  Glechoma  hederacea. 
'  Lamium  purpureum. 
^  Angina     pectoris      seems    too 

^  Salvia  sclarea. 

'^  Lye  understands  cj'meb  as 
Xa^aibpis,  germander,  going  by  the 

'  Artemisia  abrotanon. 

60  LMCE   BOC. 

appotanan   jejnib    toSomne   I'msele   on  moptepe   menj 
pi-S  liumj   -j    ])]iy  bajal"  selce  basj  lep  mete  ]?pie  cuclep 

.  XVII. 

PiJ?  heojit;  psejice  jTuban  jelm  I'eo]?  on  ele  'j  bo  alpan 
ane  yntfan  ro  fmijie  mib  ]?y  ]5  frilS  ]7am  fape.  pi]; 
heopt  ece  jip  linn  on  Innan  heapb  heopt  psepc  fie 
]?onne  Inm  pyx]?  pmb  on  ]?8ejie  heoptan  'j  hme  J'ejeS 
]7upft;  "j  bi]?  unmelitijlic.  :• 

Pypc    htm    ]?onne    fcan   bseS  'j  on  J^am   ete   lu]7epne 

pasbic    mib    j^ealte    ]?y    msej    pefan   fio    punb    jehseleb. 

fol.  22  b.  pi]?  lieopot  ece  eft  jentm  5iJ>pi]:an  {eo\>  on  meolce  yele 

bjiincan  •  vi.  bajaf.  :• 

6]:t  nio];epeapb  ejroppeapn  5y]?]nj:an  •  pe5bp8e[ban] 
pyl  toj'omne  pele  bpmcan.  pi8  liiopot  ece  ejit  jenim 
pipop  •  -j  cymen  •  "j  coft  ^ejnib  on  beo*^  o]>]>e  on 
psetpe  yele  bpmcan.  :• 


Paul,  ^gineta,      ]Dponan    ]-e    micla    jeoxa    cume    o]?]?e    hu    hif    mon 

Al^x"  Tr  11       ^icatf  pcule.     Se  cymS  op  ]?am  fpiSe    acoloban   mag  an  . 

vii.  15.  o])])e  op  ]7am  to   fpiSe   ahatoban  ♦    oSSe   op   to    micelpe 

olHwcl'x  Fylls  •    o]>]?e  op  to  micelpe    Isepnepj-e  <•    oSSe  op  ypelum 

psetan  •    plitenbum    'j    fceoppenbum    ];one    majan  •    jip 

}7onne  fe  j-eoca  man  ]?uph  fpipebpenc  afpipS  }>one  ypelan 

bitenban  psetan  on  pej  •  ]jonne  popftent  j-e  jeolila  •  fpipe 

pa   beah    J^am    monnum   ])e   po-^  pylle  jihfa  j-lih^  oSSe 

popjjon  ye  hie  iNnan   pcyppS  'j  eac  j'e  jeohfa  pe  ]>e  op 

])i£Y  ypelan  psetan  micelnyj-pe  cym^S  htepS  }?eappe  fpip- 

bpmcef  •  pe  pypcS   micelne    pnopan  eac  -j  fe  hme  bet  • 

ponne  pe  jeohfa  op  Jjsepe  iblan  pambe  cymS  "j  op  J^sepe 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  Gl 

gctlier  small  in  a  mortal-,  mingle  with  honey,  and  for  pook  I. 
three  clays,  every  day  before  meat,  let  tliG  imtient  take  Ch.  xvi. 
three  spoons  full. 


For  pain  in  the  heart,  seethe  a  handful  of  rue  in 
oil,  and  add  an  ounce  of  aloes,  rub  the  body  with  that, 
it  stilleth  the  sore.  For  heart  ache,  if  there  be  to  him 
within,  a  hard  heart  wark,  then  wind  waxeth  in  the 
heart  for  him,  and  thirst  vexes  him  and  he  is  languid. 

2.  Work  him  then  a  stone  bath,  and  in  that  let 
him  eat  southern  radish^  with  salt,  by  that  the  wound 
may  be  healed.  For  heart  ache  again,  take  githrife, 
seethe  it  in  milk,  give  to  drink  for  six  days. 

8.  Again,  boil  together  the  netherward  part  of  ever- 
fern,  githrife,  and  waybroad  ;  give  to  drink.  For  heart 
ache  again,  take  pepper  and  cummin  and  costmary,  rub 
them  into  beer,  or  into  water,  administer  to  drink. 


We  here  explain  whence  the  mickle  hicket^  cometh, 
and  how  a  man  should  treat  it.  It  cometh  from  the 
very  chilled  maw,  or  from  the  too  much  heated  onaw,  or 
from  too  mickle  fulness,  or  of  too  mickle  leerness,  that 
is  errhptiness,  or  of  evil  wet  or  humour  rending  and 
scarifying  the  maw.  If  then  the  sick  man  by  a  spew 
drink  speweth  away  the  evil  biting  wet,  then  the 
hicket  abateth.  A  spew  then  is  good  for  the  men 
whom  hicket  teareth  for  fulness,  or  in  case  it  scarifieth 
them  within  ;  and  also  the  hicket  which  cometh  of  the 
mickleness  of  the  evil  wet  or  humour,  hath  need  of  a 
spew  drink,  which  eke  worketh  mickle  sneezing,  and 
amendetli  the  sick.     When   the   hicket   cometh   of  the 

'  Rhafanus  sativa. 

"^  Holland  and  old  writers  spell  Hicket,  the  moderns  "  hiccup,"  "  hic- 
"  cough," 



fol.  23  a.  jelasjian  ne  bet  ];one  i'e  j;no]ia.     jip    I'e    jeohfa  op  cile 

cume  ]?onne  fceal  mon  mib  pypmenbum  Jjinjum  lacman 
fpile  fpa  pipoji  "ip  -j  o];pa  pepmenba  pypta  o]>]>e  jiuhan 
jejnibe  mon  optn '  j'elle  bpmcan  •  o]>])e  mepcef  yveh 
mib  pme^  o]>]>e   eceb^  pelle  bpmcan  oS6e  mtntan  bpoS 

Correct  cy men,  op];e  mojian  •  oS8e  cymenef  o]>])e  jmjippan  hpilum  an- 
lepij  fpa  jepenobe  •  hpilum  ];a  pypta  tojsebepe  jebon 
on  p  pof  pelle  bjimcan  •  jtp  op  hatum  ppetan  ypelum 
on  pone  majon  gefamnobum  fe  jeohfa  cume  -j  he  jepele 
f  fe  lime  mnan  fceoppe  on  ]7one  majan  •  pele  hmi  };onne 
placu  ppetep  bjimcan  fpi]?e  hat  •  jebo  j^onne  pepejie  on 
ele  fcmje  him  jelome  on  ];a  hpacan  f  he  maje  fpipan* 
j'ele  htm  pij?  jeohfan  cealb  psetep  "j  eceb  bpmcan  -j 
appotanan  jejnibene  on  pme. 

fi'om  the  Hel 

Cf.  Paul, 
lib.  iii.  37. 
ed.  Aid.  fol. 
43  a.  line  3.5. 
fol.  23  h. 

.X  Villi. 

PiJ>  plsettan  ]>am  men  pe  hme  ne  lyft  hip  metej'  ne 
li])ep  o^8e  on  majan  untpum  fie  •  oJ)]?e  bitepe  hprece  • 
BOP'S  jeallan  -j  pipop  bjimce  on  peajimum  psetepe  pjiy 
bollan  pulle  on  niht  neptij.  Gpt  yip  platunje  puban 
pepmob  bifceop  pyjit  mapubian  pyl  on  ealaS  fpipe  ^efpet 
mib  hunije  leolitlice  •  jebyimc  fpa  hate]'  fpa  piii  blob 
fie  fcenc  pulne  bo  fpa  ponne  pe  peapp  j'le.  :■ 


pip  j'culboji  prepce  ealbep  fpinej-  topb  psep  pe  pelb- 
janjenbe  fie  menj  pi^  ealbne  ]iy]'ele  jepypme  leje  on 
f  beah  pip  pculbop  ptepce  je  piS  pib  pjepce  •  pi's  breofc 
prejice  •  -j  pip  lenbenpsepce.  6pu  pyl  betomcan  -j  nep- 
tan  on  ealo^  pele  bpmcan  jelome  -j  fimle  set  pype 
jefmipe  mib  penpypte.  6pt  jenim  fpmep  pceapn  peep  pe 
on  bun  lanbe  -j  pyjitum  libbe  msenj  pip  ealbne  pyj'ele 

For  on  jnn. 

2  Not  the  same  case. 

LEECH   BOOK.    T.  63 

foul  wamb  and  of  the  leer  (yr  emi^ty  one,  the  sneezing       Book  i. 
doth  not  amend  it.     If  the  hicket  come  of  chill,   then      ^''-  ''^"'• 
shall  a  man    cure    it   with    warming   things,    such    as 
pepper  is,  and  other   warming   worts,    or   let   one   rub 
rue  and  give  it  in  wine  to  drink ;  or  give  seed  of  marche 
with    wine    or    vinegar,    or  broth  of  mint  or   carrot,'^  '^  aomkov,  Gr. 
or    cummin,    or   ginger,    at    times  singly    andj   so  pre- 
pared.    At  whiles  give   to   drink   the   worts   together 
put  into   the  wash.     If  the   hicket    come   of  hot   evil 
humours  collected   into    the   maw,    and   the   side    onan 
feel  that   it   scarifieth   him    within   in   the   maw,    give 
him  then  lukewarm  water  to  drink   "  very  hot,"   then 
put  a  feather  in  oil,  poke  him  frequently  in  the  throat 
that  he  may  spew ;  give  him  against  hicket  cold  water 
and  vinegar  to  drink,  and  abrotanon  rubbed  in  wine. 


Against  loathing  or  nausea,  for  the  man  who  hath 
no  lust  for  his  meat  nor  for  his  cup,  or  be  infirm  in 
the  maw,  or  hreaketh  bitter,  as  in  heartburn,  let  him 
drink  earthgall  and  pepper  in  warm  water,  three 
bowls  full  at  night  fasting.  Again  for  loathing,  boil 
strongly  in  ale  slightly  sweetened  with  honey,  rue, 
wormwood,  bishbpwort,  marrubiura,  drink  of  this  as 
hot  as  thy  blood  be,  a  cup  full,  do  so  when  need  be 
to  thee. 


Against  shoulder  pain,  mingle  a  tord  of  an  old  swine, 
which  be  a  fieldgoer,  with  old  lard,  warm  it,  lay  it  on, 
that  is  good  for  shoulder  pain  or  for  side  pain,  for 
breast  wark  and  for  loin  wark.  Again,  boil  betony  and 
nepeta  in  ale,  give  to  drink  frequently,  and  always 
at  a  fire  smear  with  wenwort.  Again,  take  sham  of 
swine,  which  liveth  on  the  downland  and  on  worts, 
mingle  with  old  lard,  lay  on,  and  let  the  patient  drink 


L^CE   T,OC. 

leje   on   'j    bjiinc'    betonican    on   jefpertum  pme  •  jij: 
pefep  liabbe  bjimce  on  pserejie.  :• 


fol.  24  a. 

Apul.  i.  9. 


Pi];  ]'iban  j^ape  ]7£ejie  lpi]?pan  bojen  -j  pebic  *j  hpite 
clfiepjian  pyjic  ro  clame  "j  to  bpence.  pij>  ]?se]ie  pmef- 
rjian  fiban  fape  pubupipan  jecnupa  on  eceb  -j  pypc  to 
clame  jebmb  on  |;a  fiban.  GjTc  betonican  fpilc  fpa 
]y]\y  penejaf  jepejen  •  -j  pipopep  feop on  *j  xx.  copna  to 
Somne  jetpipulab.  jeot  ealbep  pmep  Jjpy  bollan  pulle 
to  •  -j  jeplece  pele  nilitnej'ti^um  bpmcan.  Gpt  piS 
fiban  pape  jmban  piS  pypele^  jemenjeb  "j  jebeaten 
lecje  on  ];a  fiban  p  bet,  ])i]>  piban  pajie  ept  laupep 
cpoppan  jebeate  bjimce  on  j'cetepe  'j  on  }»a  fiban 
l>inbe,  ^Pi]>  fiban  fape  ept  caulep  pypttjiuman  jebsepn 
to  alifan  -j  yi])  ealbne  pypele  jeraenj  -j  aleje  on  ]>a 

Cf.  Herbar. 
Apul.  i.  10. 

Cf.  Marcell. 
353,  c. 

fol.  24  b. 


Pi]?  lenben  ece  jenim  betonican  fpilce  tpejen  penejaf 
jepejen  bo  |?8Gpto  fpetep  pmej-  tpejen  bollan  pulle  menj 
pi]?  hat  pgeteji  pele  nihtneptij  bjiincan.  Gpt  jenim 
jpunbe  fpel^ean  jebeat  -j  f  peap  pele  bpmcan  niht- 

pi]>  lenben  ece  ealipep  liatte  pypt  jnib  on  eala]?  -j 
bpmce  ]>a.  'Pi]>  }>on  ilcan  hunbep  tunje  hatte  pyjit 
jenim  ]>a.  leap  abpij  -j  ^ejnib  to  melupe  jenim  jjonne 
Ibepen  mela  jemenj  pi];  ])a  pypt  ^  jebpmj  J^onne  on 


i(rx«<ij.  Pi]?  J^eoli  ece  •  fmice  mib  peapne  fpij^e  J^a  J;eoh.     6pt 

to  bpence  •  pipop  •  pin  •  pealpypt  •  Imnij.     6ac  to  ]?on 

'  Read  bpmce. 

-  Tt)  TTTjYttz'epa,  Paul.  iEg.  aud  Galen,  a  preparation  of  rue. 

3  Paul,  .ffiginet.,  lib.  iii.  cap.  33. 

LEECH   BOOK.    r.  65 

betony  in  sweetened  wine.     If  he  have  fever,    let   liim       BookL 
drink  it  in  water.  '  ^^' 


For  sore  of  the  right  side,  work  thyme  and  radish 
and  white  clover  to  a  paste,  and  to  a  drink.  For  sore 
of  the  left  side,  pound  woodroffe  in  vinegar,  and  work 
it  to  a  paste,  bind  it  on  the  side.  Again,  betony  as 
much  as  three  pennies  weigh,  and  twenty -seven  corns 
of  pepper  triturated  together ;  pour  in  three  bowls  full 
of  old  wine,  and  make  lukewarm,  give  to  the  patient 
after  his  nights  fasting  to  drink.  Again  for  sore  of 
side,  lay  rue  mingled  with  lard  and  beaten,  on  the 
side ;  that  amendeth  it.  For  sore  of  side  again,  let 
him  beat  bunches  of  laurel  jloiver,  let  him  drink  them 
in  water,  and  bind  them  on  the  side.  For  sore  of 
side  again,  burn  to  ashes  roots  of  colewort,  and  mingle 
with  old  lard,  and  lay  on  the  side. 


For  loin  ache,  take  betony,  as  much  as  two  pennies  Lumbago, 
weigh,    add    thereto    two    bowls    full    of   sweet    wine, 
mingle    with    hot    water,    give    it   to    drink    after   his 
nights  fasting.     Again,  take  groundsel,  beat  it,  and  give 
the  juice  to  drink  after  his  nights  fasting. 

2.  For  loin  ache,  a  wort  is  called  ealiver,^  rub  it  in "  Erysimum 
ale,  and  let  the  patient  drink  it.     For  the  same,  a  wort  Qgrarde 
hight  hounds  tongue,   take  the  leaves,    dry  them,    and 
rub  them  to  meal,   then  mingle  with  the  wort   barley 
meal,  and  then  apply  it  in  milk. 


For  thigh   ache,   smoke  the  thighs  thorouglily  with  Sciatica. 
fern.    Again,  for  a  drink,  pepper,  wine,  wallwort,  honey ; 

VOL.  n. 

^6  LJECE   BOC. 

apulbop  •  popn  •  lejpc  •  cjncbeam  •  eoj:o]i]7]iote  seycj^jiote  • 
eloD.e  •  bij'ceop  py]^'c  •  ipj  .  betomca  •  pibbe  •  psebic  • 
fppacen  •  pipop  •  hpit  cpubu  •  cofc  •  jmjipep  •  moniaca  • 
necle  •  blmbe  netle  pipe  ]7ip  to  bpence.  jtp  ]>eoli 
j^apan  abelp  nio]?opeapbne  yecj  pyl  on  psetepe  Iset 
peocan  on  pset  lim  pre  ]\lape  fmijie  mib  j^ealpe  ]?e 
mon  Jmp  pypce.  Op  fpmep  fmeppe  •  pceapep  fmepu  • 
butepe  •  Icipteapo  •  pipoji  •  lipit  cpubu  •  fpejlep  seppel  • 
i'pepl .  cofc  •  eceb  •  ele  •  hpeppetre  •  pssbic  •  eolene  • 
bifceop  pypt  •  pealr  •  a3pc  •  apulbpe  •  ac  •  j^opn. 


])i\}  cneop  paepce  •    pubu    peaxe  •  -j   hejejiijre    jecnupa 

]>Si  tojsebejie  -j  bo  on  ealu  Iset   bcjean   neahtejuie   j'ele 

him  f  l^onne  bpmcan  be|7e  mib  "j  leje  on.     pi]?  J»on  jTp 

fol.  25  a.  cneop    pap    fie  •    jemm    pealpyjit    -j    clupj^unj  •    peabe 

netlan  apyl  on  psetepe  bej^e  mib. 


gip  jcancan  j'ape  fynb  jeiiim  jij^jiipan  -j  boljjiunan  • 
'j  hamoji  pypT  •  *j  beconican  "j  ban  pyjit  •  'j  linpypc  'j 
pubn  mejice  •  -j  eopSjeallan  •  "j  bpunpyjit  peo]?  on 
butepan  fmipe  mib:- 

Gip'  fcancan  pynb  fojiobe  mm  banj'yjit  jecnupa  jeot 
cejep  ]3  lipite  menj  tofomne  fcancpopebum  men.  ]}i^ 
fopebum  hme  lege  ];ap  pealfe  on  p  pojiobe  lim  -j  jrop- 
leje  mib  elmpmbe  bo  fpilc  to  •  ept  fimle  nipa  o]>f 
jehalob  fie  jepenbjia  ebn  jiinbe  'j  apyl  fpi'Se  bo  ]?onne 
op  })a  pmbe  jentm  Impjeb  jejpmb  bpipe  pic)  ];am  elmep 
bpsence  f  biS  50b  jpealp  popebum  lime. 

tsiy,  MS. 

LEECH    ROOK.    I.  67 

also   in   addition,    apple   tree,    thorn,    ash,    quick! )eara,       Book  I. 
everthroat,  ashthroat,  helenium,  bishopwort,  ivy,  betony,         "  ^^^'" 
ribwort,    radish,    spraken,^    pepper,    mastic,    costmary,  '  Mamnus 
ginger,  sal   ammoniac,    nettle,   blind   nettle,   work  this-^'""^" 
to   a   drink.     If    thighs   be    paralyzed,    delve    up    the 
netherward   part  of  sedge,    boil   it  in   water,   make  it 
reek  on  the  limb  that  is  helpless,  smear  with  a  salve, 
which   a   man   may   thus   work ;    from   swines   grease, 
sheeps  grease,   butter,   ship  tar,^  pepper,  mastic,  beetle 
nut,    sulfur,   costmary,    vinegar,    oil,    cucumber,   radish, 
helenium,  bishopwort,  salt,  ash,  apple  tree,  oak,  thorn. 


For  knee  pain;  pound  together  woodwax-  and  hedge- 
rife,  and  put  into  ale ;  let  it  lie  for  a  night,  give  him 
then  that  to  drink,  bathe  with  it,  and  lay  it  on.  In 
case  that  a  knee  be  sore,  take  wallwort  and  doffing, 
and  red  nettle,  boil  in  water,  bathe  therewith. 


1.  If  the  shanks  be  sore,  take  githrife  and  pellitory 
and  hammer  wort  and  betony  and  bonewort  and  flax- 
wort  and  wild  marche  and  earth  gall  and  brownwort, 
seethe  in  butter,  smear  therewith. 

2.  If  shanks  be  broken,  take  bonewort,  pound  it, 
pour  the  white  of  an  egg  out,  mingle  these  together 
for  the  shank  broken  man.  For  a  broken  limb,  lay 
this  salve  on  the  broken  limb,  and  overlay  with 
elm  rind,'^  apply  a  splint,  again,  always  renew  these 
till  the  limb  be  healed  ;  clean  some  elm  rind,  and  boil 
it  thoroughly,  then  remove  the  rind,  and  take  linseed, 
grind  it  for  a  brewit  or  paste  with  the  elms  drink  ; 
that  shall  be  a  good  salve  for  a  broken  limb. 

'  Fix  navalis  is  frequent  in  Latin   \       -  Genista  tinctoria. 
medicine  of  the  time.  j        '  Cf.  Aetius.  I.  i.  v.  TrreAea. 

E   2 


L^CE   BOO. 

403,  d. 

fol.  25  b. 


Gip  fmo  jefcjimce  -j  ept;  •  septep  J?oii  fpelle  jemni 
jate  tojib  jemenj  pi8  eceb  fmit  on  yona  halaS.  CQone- 
jum  men  jefcpmcaS  hip  pet  to  hip  homme  pypc  ba];o 
bo  eapban  to  -j  cepfan  -j  fmale  netelan  "j  beopyjit  bo 
on  tpoh  hate  ftanap  pel  jehsette  jebej^e  ]7a  hamma 
mib  ]7am  ftan  baSe  ]7onne  hie  fien  jefpate  ]7onne  pecee 
he  ]?a  ban  fpa  he  fpi])oft  mseje  bo  fpelc  to  -j  betepe 
fpa  mon  optop  mib  ]7y  be]7i5e.  Tip  fmo  clseppette 
mucjpypt  jebeatenu  -j  pi]?  ele  jemenjeb  -j  on  aleb. 
COycjpypte  leap  pij>  jejiofobne  ele  jemen^ed  fmijie  mib 
|?y  fona  bi]>  setftilleh  fio  cpacim;^. 


noSdypa.  pi]^  pot  ece  betonicau-  jeopmenleap*  pmul*  pibban* 

ealpa  empela  jemenje  meoluc  yi]>  paeteji  -j  ■^  tofj'ollene 
Apul.  Herb,  l^ii^  p]iam  ]?£epe  upeppan  healpe  bej^e  ]>y  Ifep  pe  fpile 
ii.  17.  In^epite  •  jenime  Jjonne  jalluc  jefobenne  leje  on.     ]?rS 

Cf.  Marcellus,   pota  faRe  6p]ye   jefpelle   ppam  miclum  ^anje  pejbpsebe 
405,  f.  g.  jetpipulab  -j  pi8  eceb  jemenjeb,      pi]?  ]?on  beah  jpunbe 

Ipelje  jebeatenu  -j  piS  pyfele  jemenjeb. 

Pi]7  potece  jip  pe  pot  ace  mjefpice  jenim  mucjpypte 

pyptpumaii  menj  pi]>  ele  pele  etan.  Vi5  pot  ece  ept 
fol.  2c  a.  hunan    peap    pi]?    ele    jemenjeb    fmipe    ]?a   papan    pet 

mib.  :• 

Pi]?  potece  jenim  ellenep  leap  •  -j  pejbpseban  -j  mucj- 

pypt  ^ecnupa  le^e  on  -j  jebmb  on. 


pi]?   ban    ece   tunmjpyjit  •'  beolone  •   pealpypt   ealbe 
jput  "j   eceb  •    heopotep    fmepa    o])]?e    jate  •    o]?]?e    jofe 

'  Tnnrm?;  pyjir,  TTerbarinm,  cxxxviii.     !^o  read. 

LEECH    JJOOK.    I.  60 

XXvi.  Book  I. 

If  a  sinew  .shrink/''  and  again  after  that  swell,  take    ^,    *. 

'.  °  .  .  '^  That  IS,  when 

a  she  goats  tord,    mingle  with  vinegar,    smudge  it  on,  a  leg  is  broken. 

soon  the  simeiu  healeth.     In  tlie  case  of  many  a  man, 

his  feet  shrink  up  to  his  hams,  work  baths,  add  tares 

and    cress    and    small    nettle    and   beewort,*    put    hot 

stones  well   heated  in  a  trough,    warm  the  hams    with 

the   stone   bath,    when    they  are  in  a  sweat,    then  let 

him,  the  patient,  duly  arrange  the  bones  as  well  as  he 

can,  apply  a  splint,  and    it   is  so  much  the  better  the 

oftener  a  man  bathes  with  the  "preparation.     If  a  sinew 

have  pulsation,  mug  wort  beaten  and  mingled  with  oil, 

and  laid  on  is  good.     Juice  of  mugwort  mingled  with 

rose   oil,    smear   with   that,    soon  will   the   quaking  be 



1.  For   foot    ache,    betony,    germen  leaves^    that    is  noHypa. 
'mallow,  fennel,  ribwort,  of  all  equal  quantities ;  mingle 

milk  with  Avater,  and  Ijathe  the  swollen  limb,  from 
the  upper  part  of  it,  with  that,  lest  the  swelling  go 
inwards;  then  take  sodden  comfrey,  lay  it  on.  For 
sore  of  feet  or  swelling  from  much  walking,  waybread 
triturated  and  mingled  with  vinegar.  For  that  dis- 
order, groundsel  beaten  and  mingled  with  lard  is  good. 

2.  For  foot  ache  ;  if  the  foot  ache  go  inwards,  take 
mugworts  roots,  mingle  with  oil,  give  to  eat.  For  foot 
ache  again,  juice  of  /iorehound  mingled  with  oil,  smear 
the  sore  feet  with  it. 

3.  For  foot  ache,  take  leaves  of  elder  and  waybroad 
and  mugwort,  pound,  lay  on,  and  bind  on. 


For  leg  ache,  white  hellebore,  henbane,  wallwort, 
old  groats  and  vinegar,   harts   or   she   goats   or  goose 

'  Acorui:  calamus. 

7(^  LMCE  BOC. 

meuj  tofomne  leje  j^onne  on,  pi]?  banece  eft  to  bpence 
eleue  •  cneopliolen  •  pealpyjit  •  liune  •  clufj^unj  jecnupa 
bo  on  pseteji  ]3  ofep  yjme  be|?e  to  fype  fpi^e  ]7one 
ece  ]7pea  mib  ]?y  peetepe  bo  f  j^pipa  on  bsej  •  pypc 
|?onne  fealpe  op  tim[i]nj  pypte  op  eolonan  •  op  J^unjc  • 
op  pepmobe  bo  ealpa  empela  ]>ylle  fpi'Se. 


Marcellus,  ^^F    mauuep   jetapa   beo];  pape  oSSe  ajmnbene  beto- 

395,  a.  mean    jetpipula    on    pme    bej^e    ]>a    fapan    ftopa    "j    ]7a 

a]?unbenan    mib    ];y.     6pt    jip    hie   bylfrilite  fien   oSSe 

;^ebopfcene  jenmi  faluian  feoS  on  psetepe  bej^e  mib   ]?a 


Part  in  Mar-         6pt  bile  jebsepneb  remenj  pi5  ahj-an  liimig  ^  pypc  to 

cellus,  395,  d. 

fol.  26  b.  fealpe    aj^j^eah    ]>onne    "j    jebej^e    ]?a    pimba    aejiept    mib 

hate    psetepe   septeji  j;on    mib    peapme  ele  je  fmipe   on 

}7am  |;e  psepe  pip  jefoben  leje  ponne  J;a  pealpe  on. 


xifxeTAof,  J)jY  pceal  pi]j  secelman  -j  piS  J?on  );e  men  acale  f  pel 

op  Jjam  potum  •  jemme  neo|?opeapbe  mebopypt  -j  lufc- 
mocan  •  -j  acpmbe  jecnua  eall  to  bufte  ^emenj  pi6 
hunij  lacna  mib  ]?y. 

.  XXXI. 

*  Oy Kos.  Vi]7  selcum  heapbum  fpile  obSe  jefpelle  abpije  beana 

•J  jepeo]?  butan  pealte  menj  jjonne  pi]?  huuij  leje  on. 
]}i]>  })on  ilcan  jemm  bepen   melo  peo]?  on  ecebe  bo  on 

'  Read  i^emenj;  \>a,  ahj-an  jn'S  hunig. 

LEECH    BOOK.    I.  7l 

grease,    mingle   together,    then   lay   on.     For    leg   aclio       Book  i. 

again,   for  a  draught,  lielenium,  kneeliolly,  or  butchers       ''  ^•'''*'"'- 

broom,  waUwort,  or  dwarf  elder,  Aorehound,  cloffing,^ 

pound  these,    put  them  in  water,    so  that  it  run  over, 

warm  at  the  fire  thoroughly,  wash  the  ache  or  aching 

part  with  the  water,  do  that  three  times  a  day ;  then 

work  up  a  salve   of  white   hellebore,    of  helenium,    of 

thung  or  wolfs  bane,  of  wormwood,  put  equal  quantities 

of  them  all,  boil  thoroughly. 


1.  If  a  mans  instrumenta  genitalia  be  sore  or  puffed 
out,  triturate  betony  in  wine,  bathe  with  tliat  the  sore 
and  puffed  up  places.  Again,  if  they  he  mucous,  or 
in  eruption,  take  sage,'  seethe  in  water,  Imthe  with 
that  tlie  instrumenta. 

2.  Again,  take  dill  burnt,  mingle  the  ashes  with 
honey,  work  up  to  a  salvo,  then  wash  and  bathe  the 
wounds  first  with  hot  water,  after  that  with  warm 
oil  or  grease,  on  which  myrtle  has  been  sodden,  then 
lay  the  salve  on. 


This  shall  be  good  for  chilblain  and  in  case  that  the  Pernio, 
skin  of  a  mans   feet  come  off  by  cold,^   let   him   take 
the  netherward  part  of  meadowwort  and  lustmock  and 
oak  rind,  pound  all  to  dust,  mingle  with  honey,  effect 
a  cure  with  that. 


1.  For  every  hard  tumour  or  swelling,  dry  beans 
and  seethe  them  without  salt,  than  mingle  with  honey, 
lay  on.     For  the    same,    take    barley    meai,    seethe    in 

'  Ranunculus  sceleratus.  ]       ^  Oy    Jjam    focum,    off  the  feet, 

-  Cf.  Myreps.  xlvii.  10.  |  not  of. 

72  ].iECE    BOC. 

6ft;  pi]7  ]?on  belenan  merij  pi^  pyj'ele  l^je  on,  pi& 
fjnle  eft  jebeat  hunan  nienj  pi]?  pypele  leje  on  o8Se 
jate  hopn  jebsejmeb  'j  pi]?  ppeceji  jemen^eb.  Gyz 
jiypele  o])]>e  jelynbo  pi]>  japleac  semenjeb  -j  on  aleb 
l70ne  fjnle  Jjpsen]?. 

]}i]>  fpile  efc  cepfiUe  jecnupab  mib  jiyj'ele  "j  on 
jemelt  peax  jebon  -j  on  aleb  bet.  :• 

ViS    fpile    eft   jate    fl?3fc    jebsepneb    to   ahfan  mib 
fol.  27  a.  psetepe    on    jefmiten    ealne    ]jone    fpile    topepe]?.      6ft 

mnipejii  p  ip  jojift  f  j'seb  jecnupa  "j  peo]?  on  psetepe. 
6ft  pmfuUe  pi]»  pypele  jemenjeb  -j  pi]?  lilap  "j  pij? 
celenbpan  88t  •  pomne  jemenjeb.  ])i]y  yp lum  pajtan  "j 
I'pile  jentm  heopotep  pceapo]?an  op  })ani  hopne  o]>]>e 
j^sej-  hopnep  melo  menj  pi])  psetep.  finit  on  eal  f  popml" 
•j  ]7one  ypelan  pgetan  apej  be]?  -j  abjiip]*.  :• 

Pi])  fpile  jemm  jate  tyjiblu  on  j'ceajipum  ecebe 
jej-oben  -j  on  pelpe  pifan  on  jebon. 

Pi]?  selcum  yplum  psetan  mucjpypite  }?a  jjienan  leap 
jetpiipulab  -j  pi]7  pypele  jejmben  tojsebepe  fmipe  an 
je  }>eoli  J'Pep  bylftan  on  lynb  f  beali  ]>i]>  ]>an  •  je  f 
beah  eac  pi]>  pota  ^efpelle.  ^i}  mnan  jepypfmebuni 
jefpelle  j^am  ]?e  pyjiS  op  pylle  o]>]>e  op  jie^e  oS^e  6f 
hp.icpca  hpilcum  •  ]>&,  pypt  ]>e  hatte  plpleape  •  jeniiii  "j 
jebeat  "j  leje  on  jelome  oJ>  ^te  open  fie  pe  fpile  lacna 
])onne  ]>a  punba  fpa  o}>fie  punba.  piS  fpile  ept  hluttop 
fol.  27  b.  l^ic    jemm  bo    ahfan   to   feoS    setjsebepe    jeleje  }70nne 

]7one  fpile  mib  ]»y  jelome.  pi]?  fpile  eyz  jate  typblu 
bpije  ^ejnib  -j  afipte  ]m\\h    fma^l    fipe   bo    ]'onne    jiyple 

].KE(J11    JJUUK.    i.  73 

vinegiir,  put  ou.     Again  for  that,  niingle  henbane  with       Book  I. 
Lird,    lay  on.     For  a  swelling   again,    beat   horehonnd,      ^^'  ^^^'' 
mingle  with   lard,    lay   on,    or  goats   horn   burnt   and 
mingled  with  water.     Again,  lard  or  suet  mingled  with 
garlic,  and  onlaid,  dwindleth  the  swelling. 

2.  For  swelling  again,  chervil  pounded  with  lard 
and  added  to  melted  wax,  and  laid  on,  is  to  boot  oi- 

3.  For  a  swelling  again,  goats  flesh  burnt  to  ashes, 
smudged  on  with  water,  removes  all  the  swelling. 
Again,  pound  the  seed  of  juniper,  that  is  gorse,^  and 
seethe  in  water.  Again,  houseleek  mingled  with  lard 
and  with  bread  and  with  coriander,  mino;led  too-ether. 
Against  ill  humours  and  swelling,  take  shavings  oft' 
the  horn  of  a  hart,  or  meal  of  the  horn,  mingle  with 
water,  smudge  it  on,  it  doth  away  and  driveth  off'  all 
that  ratten  and  the  evil  wet. 

4.  Against  swelling,  take  goats  treadles  sodden  in 
sharp  vinegar,  and  applied  in  the  same  manner. 

5.  For    every    evil    humour,^    mugwort,    the    green  ^\iyixa  and 
leaves  of  it,  triturated,  and  rubbed  together  with  lard,  ^'''^''^• 
both  smear  on  the  thighs  on  which  the  mucus  is,  that 

is  good  for  them  ;  and  that  is  good  also  for  swelling 
of  the  feet.  For  a  swelling  purulent  within,  such  as 
cometh  of  a  fall  or  of  a  blow  or  of  any  crick,  take 
the  wort  that  hight  fiveleaf  Oi'  cinquefoll,  and  beat  it 
and  lay  it  on  frequently  till  that  the  swelling  be 
open,  then  tend  the  wounds  as  other  wounds.  For  a 
swelling  again,  take  "clear  pitch," ^  add  ashes,  seethe 
together,  then  overlay  the  swelling  with  that  frequently. 
For  swelling  again,  dry  goats  treadles,  grate  and  sift 
them  through  a  small  sieve,  then  add  lard,  as  much  as 

'  Some  verb  must  be  supplied  to  '  -  Pituita  molesta,  of  Horatius. 

form  a  sentence,  as  frequently  hap-   •  ^  Probably  resin,  as  solid.       See 

pens.     And  of  course  iuniperus  is  Elseccepu,  pale  tar,  in  Lye. 
not  gorse.                                            | 

74  L^CE   EOC. 

to  fpa  fpa  j^yn  tpa  punb  -j  ealbef  pmej"  fjnx  micel  fpa 
jje  p)ince  pypc  to  fealpe. 

6pt  jebsejineb  j-ealt  jejiiib  pel  on  jepleceb  prt3tep 
o])  f  hit  fie  fpa  }?icce  fpa  hunijef  teap  leje  on  j7one 
fpile  ojrep  leje  mib  cla6e  -j  mib  eopcijjie  pulle  binb 
on.  pi]?  paeplicum  fape  -j  jefpelle  mm  peax  -j  liemlic 
jetjiipula  ]'y]ic  fpa  peajiin  to  pealpe  biiib  on  f  j'aji.      :• 

Pi]?  y-ceji  fpile  •  mm  liunan  jebeat  -j  jemenj  pip 
jiypele  leje  on.  6pt  mape  tpymhte  jput  mealtep 
fmebma  •  cepfan  •  cejej-  p  bpite  bifceop  j'ypt  •  elene  • 
ontpe  •  elehtjie  •  fijfonte  •  jalluc  menj  tofomne  leje 
on.  pi]?  beabum  fpile  •  Nim  jjiunbefpeljean  leje  on 
jleba  "j  jepyjime  "j  leje  }>onne  fpa  peapme  on  ]7one  fpile 
•j  bebmb  mib  cla'Se  Inet  beon  nihtejine  on  jip  hip  ]?eapp 
fie.  TJi5  beabum  fpile  ajpimoman  jebeat  menj  pi5  pm 
fol.  i:s  a.  "j  pijp  ]-ealt  bo  on  ]7one  fpile  pona  jepit  apej.     Ipi])  fpile 

attopla^an  jecnupa  lege  on  ]jone  fpile  leje  la^fc  on  f 
bolh  pelf,  bpenc  pi]?  beabum  fpile  ]3  he  utplea  eopop- 
}?pote  •  eolone  •  jotpoSe  •  tpa  penpypta  bo  on  ealu 
bpmce.  pi]?  beabum  fpile  jemm  fpane  pypt  [^ecnupa 
pel  jemenj  pi6  pejifcpe  butepan  leje  on  Jione  fpile  o]? 
^  jelacnob  fie.  pi]?  fpile  cunille  •  fpjimj  pyj^t  elate 
pyl  on  butepan  -j  on  hunije  leje  on  ]?a  ]?ypta  jemenj 
piS  ije^ey  ^  hpite.  Spe}?m5  pi]?  fpile  •  ban  pypt  upe- 
peapbe  jecnupa  fmeele  ]?a  )?ypte  jemenj  piS  tujep  f 
hpite  beclsem  ^  lim  mib  ]?e  j'e  fpile  on  fie. 

Pypc  ]?  hiep  op  ]?am  ileum  pyjitum  on  cealbum  pylle 
paetpe  jecnupa  ]?a  pfpta  f]'i]?e  pel  lege  on  f  pjetep 
lapa  on  ]?one  fpile.  :• 

ViS  fpile  cnupa  mSepeapbe  hamop  pypt  *j  pecj  bmb 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  75 

two  pounds,  and  as  much  of  old  wine  as  to  thee  may       Book  i. 
seem  good,  work  to  a  salve.  ^''-  ^^^^' 

6.  Again,  rub  burnt  salt  well  in  water  made  luke- 
warm, till  that  it  be  as  thick  as  a  tear  of  honey,  lay 
on  the  swelling,  overlay  with  a  cloth,  and  with  wool 
of  ewe,  bind  on.  For  sudden  sore  and  swelling,  take 
wax  and  hemlock,  triturate,  work  this  so  warm  into  a 
salve,  bind  on  the  sore. 

7.  Against  a  sudden  swelling,  take  horehound,  beat 
and  mingle  it  with  lard,  lay  on.  Again,  mingle  to- 
gether the  cottony  potentilla,  comononly  called  silver- 
weed,  groats  of  malt,  smede  or  fine  flour,  cress,  the 
white   of  an  egg,  bishopwort,  helenium,  ontre,  lupins, 

"  sigsonte,"  comfrey,  la}'  on.  For  a  dead^  swelling,  take  '  Without 
groundsel,  lay  it  on  gledes  and  warm  it,  and  lay  it  so  ^'^^^^g- 
warm  on  the  Bevelling,  and  bind  on  with  a  cloth,  let 
it  be  on  for  a  night,  if  need  be  for  that.  For  a  dead 
swelling,  beat  agrimony,  mix  with  wine  and  with  salt, 
apply  it  to  the  swelling,  which  soon  will  depart  away. 
For  swelling,  pound  attorlothe,  lay  on  the  swelling, 
lay  least  on  "  the  wound"  itself  A  draught  for  a  dead 
swelling,  that  it  may  break  out,  put  carhna,  helenimn, 
goutweed,  the  two  wenworts  into  an  ale  drink.  For  a 
dead  swelling,  take  "  swanwort,"  pound  it  well,  mingle 
with  fresh  butter,  lay  on  the  swelling  till  that  it 
be  healed.  For  a  swelling,  boil  cunila,  springwort,^ 
clote,  in  butter  and  in  honey,  lay  the  worts  on,  mingle 
with  them  the  white  of  an  egg.  A  swathing  for  a 
swelling,  pound  small  the  upper  part  of  bonewort,  mingle 
with  the  wort  the  white  of  an  egg,  plastei"  the  limb 
on  which  the  swelling   may  be,  with  that. 

8.  Work  the  bath  of  the  same  worts  in  cold  well 
water,  pound  the  worts  very  well,  lay  on,  leave  the 
water  on  the  swelling. 

9.  For  a  swelling,  pound  the  netherward  part  of 
hammerwort  and  sedge ;  bind  on. 

'  Euforbia  lathyris. 

76  lyece  eoc. 


'AA^ds.  AiVKT].        Lsecebomaf  ]>i]>  blaDce  -j  bae]?  yiptyne  ealjia. 

pel  eolenan  ni]?epea]ibe  -j  mintan  6n^  j'ealcej-  pynian 

fol.  28  b.  ']>  hit   fie   jncce  fpa  bpip   jemenj  tojsebejie  fmipe    mib. 

]>i]>  bltece  mm  eolonan  iii]?epeapbe  "j  ompjian  eac  fpa 
fio  ])e  fpimme  "j  ontpan  'j  bij'ceop  pyjit  'j  a^pcpmbe 
]-eo]?  on  butepan  apeoh  ]mph  cla6  menj  ];oune  piS  pipop 
•j  pi]?  teopan  jejpmb  fmijie  mib.  pi]?  bl[ece  pyl  eolo- 
nan on  butepan  menj  pi]?  jfote  j-ealt  •  teojio  •  liunij  • 
ealb  pape  fmipe  mib.  piS  blsece  jenlm  jope  fmepo  -j 
ni]?epeapbe  elenan  *j  bapan  fppecel  bifceop  pypt  "j 
liejjiipan  ]?a  peo]?e]i  pypta  cnupa  tofomne  pel  appmj 
bo  ]?ffip6n  ealbjie  fapan  ciiclep  pulne  jip  ]?u  hsebbe 
lytel  eley  menj  pi]?  fpi}?e  -j  on  niht  aly]?pe.  Sceappa 
]?one  fpeopan  opep  funnan  fetljanje  geot  fpijenbe  ]? 
blob  on  ypnenbe  ]?8etep  fpip  ])pipa  sep'cep  •  cpe]?  ]?onne 
hapa  ]?u  ]?a]-  iinh^ele  •  -j  jepi'c  aj^ej  mib  janje  ept  on 
clsenne  pej  to  hufe  *j  5eli])8e]?epne  janj  fpijenbe.  bse]? 
piS  bloBCe  apyl  tyn  j-i]?uni  ]?a  pypte  on  hpepe  -j  fynb- 
jujea  betonican  •  neptan  mapubian-  ajpimonian*  jeappe* 

fol.  29  a.  mmte  ebheolo]?e  limblieolo]>e  •  cupmealle  •  eopb  jealla  • 

bile  •  mepce  •  piiiul  ealpa  empela  ^epyjic  ]?onne  fcol  op 
j?pim  tpeopum  ni]?an  Sypele  fite  on  bybene  "j  ])e  opep- 
lipep  upan  mib  hpitle  py  Isep  pe  8e]?m  ut  •  jeot;  unbep 
J?one  fcol  on  ]?a  bybene  leet  peocan  on  •  fpa  ]?u  meaht 
on  ]?am  pyptum  J?pipa  bon  •  -j  unbep  ni]?an  ftype  mib 
friccan  ^ip  ]?u  hattpe  j^ille  •  'j  tep  }?am  b8e]?e  fmipe 
]?one  lichoman  -j  }?one  •jplitan  mib  jefpette  pastpe  "j 
jehpep  tpa  sejpu  on  hatum  psetejie  ji;efmi]ie  ealne 
]?one  lichoman  mib. 

'    on  on,  MS.  I      -  majubian,  MS. 

LEECK    r.OOK.    I.  77 

xxxii.  Book  I. 

f"h.  xxxii. 

1.  Leechdoms  for  blotch  and  baths.     Fifteen  in  all. 

2.  Boil  the  netherward  part  of  helenium  and  mint 
in  the  runnings  of  salt,  that  it  be  as  thick  as  brewit, 
minofle  together,  smear  therewith.  Against  blotch,  take 
the  netherward  part  of  helenium,  and  so  also  of  dock 
(that  which  will  swim),  and  ontre,  and  bishopwort, 
and  ash  rind,  seethe  in  butter,  strain  through  a  cloth, 
then  mingle  with  pepper  and  with  tar,  grind  these, 
smear  therewith.  For  blotch,  boil  helenium  in  butter, 
mingle  with  soot,  salt,  tar,  honey,  old  soap,  smear 
therewith.  For  blotch,  take  goose  grease  and  the 
netherward  part  of  helenium  and  vipers  bugloss,  bishop- 
wort  and  hayrife,  pound  the  four  worts  together  well, 
wring  them,  add  thereto  of  old  soap  a  spoon  full,  if  thou 
have  it,  mingle  a  little  oil  with  them  thoroughly,  and 
at  night  lather  on.  Scarify  the  neck  after  the  setting 
of  the  sun,  pour  in  silence  the  blood  into  running 
water,  after  that  spit  three  times,  then  say,  "  Have 
thou  this  unheal,  and  depart  away  with  it ;"  go  again  on 
a  clean  way  to  the  house,  and  go  either  way  in  silence. 

A  bath  ^  for  blotch,  boil  ten  times  the  worts  in  a  basin     ^    ,   ,  , 

.  •■'  Inula  iiele' 

and  separately  betony,   nepeta,  marrubium,   agrimony,  „,„,„. 
yarrow,  mint,  horseheal,'"^  hindheal,^  churmel,*^  earthgall,'^ "  Eupatonum 
dill,  marche,  fennel,  of  all  equally  much,  work  then  a  <=  chhra  per- 
stool  of  three  pieces  of  wood,  with  a  hole   below,    ^^^  1"^^^%^.^^ 
on  a  bucket,^  and  robe  thee  over   from   above  with  a  centanreum. 
garment  lest  the  vapour  escape ;  pour  the  pre2Mred  hot 
liquor  under  the  stool  into  the  bucket,  let  it  reek  on 
thee.     So  thou  mayst   do   thrice  with  the   worts,   and 
underneath    stir    with   a   stick  if    thou   wilt    have    it 
hotter;   and  before  the  bath  smear  the  body  and  the 
forehead   with   sweetened   water,    and    shake    up   two 
eggs   in  hot  water,  smear  the  whole  body  therewith. 

'  nupnj.  Hippokr.  I      -  Byden,  now  Bidet. 

78  LJECE  BOC. 

Lsecebom  pi]?  lijieofum  lice  •  abelpe  ompjian  *j  jelob- 
pypt  ;^ecnupa  •  yyl  ]?onne  on  but(3]ian  bo  lipon  ]-ealtep 
to.  ]}i]>  beabum  lice  fcsejjpyjit  mejice  jnib  on  ealoS 
]-ele  bjimcan.  PiS  hjieop le  pell  on  hlonbe  cpicpmbe  ^  • 
ellenjimbe  nijpepeajibe  •  sepc  pmbe  •  -j  pab  •  elm  pmbe  • 
hemlic  bo  j^onne  butejian  on  -j  liunij.  pi]?  hpeople 
pejbppebe  IsecepypC  •  leac  •  inmte  •  ina5])a  •  eolone  • 
fpepl  jecnupa  pi]'  pyfle  bo  )78ep  f[p]eplep  fpilcan  J^apa 
pyjita  tpsebe. 

fol.  29  b.  pi]?  lijieople  ept  jemm  lioppey  jiyj'ele  5emen[5]  fpi]je 

pij;  fealce  fmipe  mib.  b?e];  pi]>  lipeople  •  pyl  on  pgetejie 
sepcpmbe  •  cpicbeam  jiinbe  •  liolen  jiinbe  •  pulanbeamej'  • 
ananbeamef  •  fecj  •  J^eoppypt  •  hejepipe  •  mapubian  • 
he]>e  mib  •  -j  ]5  lie  jnib  mib  ]?pepe  liejepipan.  Pype 
j'ealf  e  op  majiubian  on  butejian  •  op  pyjim  nuilupe  •  op 
hapan  fppecele  •  hejepipan  •  jentm  healpe  ];a  pealpe 
jemenj  pi]?  jecnupabe  elenaii  fmipe  o]?  ]5  batije  •  pi]>]?an 
mib  ]??epe  o]?eppe.  bsej?  pi]?  J^am  miclan  lice  eolone 
bpom  •  ipij  •  mucpypt  selppone  •  beolone  •  cotruc  •  epe- 
lafran  pyl  on  pPDtejie  fpi]?e  jeor  on  bybene  -j  pitte  on. 
bpmce  ]?ipne  bpenc  pi]?  }^on  •  beronican  •  cujimiUe  hope* 
ajjiimonia  •  fppmjpyji'c  •  jieabe  netle  •  elehcjie  •  Saluie  • 
fmjpene  •  alexanbjiia  •  fie  jepoplit  op  pilifcum  ealaS 
bpmce  on  }?am  l)a}?e  'j  ne  IsBte  on  ]?one  e]?m.  Sealp  pij? 
]?am  miclan  lice  •  elene  •  ]>u.n-^  ompjie  •  jjmnbefpelje  • 
hole  cepfan  •  pejbpcebe  •  epelafce  •  ontpe  •  hope  •  jaUuc  • 

fol.  30  a.  cele]?onian  •  cottiic  pel  on  butepan  eal  tojsebepe  liealp 

'  Read  ci'icbeanijiinbc. 

LEECH   BOOK.    T. 


3.  A  leechdoin  for  a  leprous  body,  delve  up  dock  and 
silverweed,  pound  them,  then  boil  them  in  butter,  add 
a  trifle  of  salt.  For  deadness  of  the  body,  rub  in  ale 
staithwort,  marche,  give  to  the  patie7it  to  drink.  For  a 
leper,  boil  in  urine ^  rind  of  quickbeam,  the  netherward 
part  of  elder  rind,  ash  rind,  and  woad,  elm  rind,  hem- 
lock, then  add  butter  and  honey.  For  a  leper,  pound 
with  lard  waybroad,  leechwort,  leek,  mint,  may  the, 
helenium,  sulfur,  put  of  the  sulfur  two  parts  to  one  of 
the  worts. 

4.  For  a  leper  again,  take  fat  of  a  horse,  mingle 
thoroughly  with  salt,  smear  with  that.  A  bath  foi- 
a  leper,  boil  in  water  ash  rind,  quickbeam  rind,  holly 
rind,  the  foultree  or  black  alder  rind,  rind  of  spindle 
tree,  sedge,  ploughmans  spikenard,  hapife,  marrubium, 
bathe  therewith,  and  rub  the  body  with  the  hayrife. 
Work  a  salve  of  marrubium  in  butter,  of  worm"  meal, 
of  vipers  bugloss,  hayrife,  take  half  the  salve,  mingle 
with  pounded  helenium,  smear  till  it  get  better,  then 
smear  with  the  other  half.  A  bath  for  the  mickle 
body  or  elphantiasis,  boil  in  water  thoroughly  helenium, 
broom,  ivy,  mugwort,  enchanters  nightshade  (?),  hen- 
bane, mallow,  everlasting,  pour  into  a  byden,  and  let 
the  iKitient  sit  upon  it.  Let  a  man  drink  against  that 
disorder  this  drink ;  betony,  churmel,  hove,  agrimony, 
springwort,  red  nettle,  lupin,  sage,  singreen,  alexanders, 
let  it  be  wrought  out  of  foreign  ale,  let  the  sick  man 
drink  it  in  the  bath,  and  let  him  not  allow  the  vapour 
to  reach  it.  A  salve  for  the  mickle  leprous  body, 
helenium,  wolfsbane,  dock,  groundsel,  field  gentian, 
waybroad,  everlasting,  ontre,  hove,  comfrey,  celandine, 
mallow,  boil  all  in  butter  together,    let   half  the  salve 

Book  I. 
Ch.  xxxii. 

"  Cf.  Aetius.  I.  ii.  108. 

-  Thus  in  later  times  :  "  Fair 
large  Earth-worms  gathered  in  May 
when  they  couple  ;  put  them  into  a 
Pail  of  Water  at  night  till  the  next 
morning,  so  will  they  have  cleansed 

themselves,  then  dry  them  before 
the  fire,  or  in  an  Oven,  which  when 
through  dry,  beat  into  Ponder.'" 
Salmon's  English  Physician,  p. 
G97,  ed.  169.3.     He  adds  the  cures. 



fie  fpinef  pyyele  o"55e  liojij'ey  fmejiu  •  fmijie  p>onne  mib. 
Pi8  fpile  jemm  pejbpasban  mo]7opeajibe  jecnupa  yi]> 
pyfele  leje  -j  jebmb  on  ]?one  fpile. 



fol.  30  b. 


Djiencaf  -j  )'ealj:a  pi);  I'ppmje  •  ipjiinjpyji'c  peabe  hope  • 
jjejbpiebe  •  pepep  puje  •  appotane  •  majej^e  •  pipoji  • 
j'tn  .  jip  lie  on  eajian  fie  jebeate  pe^bpteban  •  -j  pepeji 
pujean  -j  pipop  •  ppmj  on  ]5  eape.  To  pealpe  pi^ 
ipjiinje  •  ntm  bolhpnnan  •  pejbpa^ban  majej^an  •  J?one 
]j]iaban  capel  nio]7opeapbne  •  jeojimenleap  ni];epeapb  • 
bocce  nij^epepb  •  peabe  hope  •  burepe  "j  hunij.  Sealp 
epr  mebopypt.  aeumban*  hmb  hioloSe*  jeappe*  cneop- 
holen  .  sej^elpep^mj  pypt .  ajpimonia. 

Pi]?  beabum  fpjunje.  Pyl  on  butrepan  felpsetan 
fBptep  ]?am^.  *j  fppmjpypt.  pi]?  fppmje  majej^a  •  pubu 
mepce  •  pypc  to  j-ealpe  bpmce  jobe  pypta.  Ui}?  fppmje  • 
mm  elehtjian  jecnupa  on  hunij  menj  ro  fomne  lege 
on  ]?one  fpile  oj7]?8et  hal  pie.  PI'S  fppmje  fppmjpyjit: 
ceppillan  ^j  hunij  'j  jope  fmepa  jecnupa  pyl  to  pomne 
leje  on  Sone  fppmg. 


51  p  nsejl  fie  op  hanba  -j  pij?  peap.hbpseban  ntm  hpgete 
copn  menj  pi^  hunij  leje  on  ]?one  pmjeji.  Pi5  anjnsejle 
ap^efpeopp  -j-  ealbe  j-apan  *j  ele  jip  ]?u  hsebbe  ^ip  j^u 
nsebbe  bo  plytan  to  menj  tofomne  leje  on."  :• 

Pi];  peaphbpseban  •  ma3o];an  cjioppan  pyl  on  butepan 
•j  fealt  fniipe  mib. 

'  Read  8e}e]i}»an. 

I      -In  the  margin  is  some  cypher. 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  81 

be  swines  fat  or  horse  grease  ;    tlien  smear  therewitli.       Book  l. 
Against   swelling,   take   the   netherward   part  of  way- 
broad,  pound  with  grease,  lay  and  bind  on  the  swelling. 


1.  Drinks  and  salves  against  pustule;  springwort,  red 
hove,  waybroad,  feverfuge,  abrotanon,  maythe,  pepper, 
wine.  If  it,  the  inistule,  be  on  an  ear,  beat  waybroad 
and  feverfuge  and  pepper,  wring  tlie'm  into  the  ear. 
For  a  salve  against  a  pustule,  take  pellitory,  waybroad, 
maythe,  the  netherward  part  of  the  broad  colewort, 
the  netherward  part  of  mallow,  the  netherward  part  of 
dock,  red  hove,  butter,  and  honey.  A  salve  again, 
meadow  wort,  tow,^  water  agrimony,  yarrow,  butchers 
broom,  stichwort,    agrimony. 

2.  For  a  dead  pustule;  boil  in  butter  the  herb  wild 
oat,  teferth,  and  springwort.  For  a  pustule,  maythe, 
wood  marche,  work  thesa  into  a  salve,  let  him  drink 
good  worts.  For  a  pustule,  take  lupin,  pound  in  honey, 
mingle  together,  lay  on  the  swelling  till  it  be  hole. 
For  a  jDustule,  pound  springwort,  chervil,  and  honey 
and  goose  grease,  heat  them  together,  lay  tliis  on  the 


1.  If  a  nail  be  off  the   hand,  and  against  a  warty 
eruption,''^  take  wheat  corn,  mingle  with  honey,  lay  on  pro^ablv""'' 
the  finger.     For  an  angnail,^^  brass  filings  and  old  soap,  b  xiapwvvxM, 
and  oil  if  thou  have  it,  if  thou  have  it  not,  add  cream, 
mingle   together,   lay  on. 

2.  For  warty  eruption,  heat  in  butter  bunches  of 
maythe  and  salt,  smear  therewith. 

'  Understand,  in  ashes.      "  Lin-  I  medicina;  est  ;  et  einis  spodii  (h-orj/ 

teorum  lanugo  e  velis  navium  ma-  \  Jiliiigs)  vimhabet."    Plinius,  xix.  4. 

ritimarum  maxime,  in   magno  usu  I 

VOL.  II.  F 

82  L^CE  BOC. 


Me\avia.  Be  afpeajitebum  'j  abeabebiim  lice  iio  abl  cymb  oftol'r 

Cf.Gliltumde*^^'    ^™^"^^    ^^^^^  ^^^^  ^®^™^  ^^  ^^^  ^epitenpe   peo]i]>e« 
Simpl.  Med.      jipiluiii    lic    afpeajicob  •  ];onne  op  j^am    p pum    pelme    fio 
ed.  182G.   '       ^^1  ^1^^*^  cealbum  l^injuni  bi]^  to  celanne  -j  to  lacmanne  • 
*j    ]?onne  fio  abl  cymS   utan   butan   fpeotolum  tacne  • 
J^onne   pcealt    J;u    jepept  ]?a  liseto   celan   mib   cellenbjie 
jetjiipulabpe    mib  lilapef  cjiuman   oppenbiim    mib   cealb 
ptetpe  oj'j^e  mib  ])y  pelpan  feape  J^sepe   cellenbpe  •  o])])e 
fol.  31  a.  mib  ssje]'   ]>y   hpite    oJ^J^e    mib    pme    o]>]m   mib    o])pum 

Jjinjum  ]7am  J?e  p  ilce  rasejen  htebbe  •  ]wnne  pe  ]jelma 
-j  fio  liseto  fie  apej  jepiten  "j  pe  bsel  ]>i!ey  liclioman 
fie  jepenbeb  hpon  o^Se  blaac  oJ'J'e  pon  o]>]>e  fpilcep 
hpget  j'  J^onne  ];a  fcope  ]?oiine  betft  j^u  "Sa  •  "j 
bjuje  mib  onlejene  fpa  fpa  mon  on  peax  lilape  *j  op 
peajimmn  bepe  •  -j  op  fpelcum  l^mjum  pypcS.^  Nif  him 
blob  to  Iretanne  on  tebjie  ac  ma  liipa  man  pceal  tilian 
mib  pyptbpencum  utypnenbum  o])]>e  fpij^lum  o]>]>e  mijo- 
Itim  mib  J>y  ]>u  mealit  clajnfian  f  omcyn  -j  ]>8ep  ^eallan- 
co'Se  l^a  jieaban  •  je  ]>eah  ]?  ypel  cumen  ne  fie  op  ]?ajia 
omena  pelme  fpa  l:»eali  beali  fpilcum  mannum  j'e  peeappa 
pyptbpenc.  Tip  }>a  omihtan  pannan  j^mj  o]?]?e  J?a  peaban 
fyn  utan  cumen  op  punbum  o]>]>e  op  fmj'injum  oSSe 
op  plenum  fona  J>u  ]?a  J'lnj  lacna  mib  pceappmje  -j 
onlejena  bepef  septep  ];sepe  pifan  J?e  Isecaf  cunnan  pel 
\)u.  hit  betft.  Tip  ]3  afpeajitobe  lie  to  ]7on  fpi|7e  abeabije 
fol.  31  h.  ^    |;ae]i   nan   jepelnep  on  ne  fie  |?onne    pcealt  ]?u  pona 

eal  "^  beabe  *j  ]3  imjepelbe  op  afni]?an  o\>  f  cpice  he  • 
]3  Jjseji  na  miht  |)?ep  beaban  licef  to  lape  ne  fie  J^aef  j^e 
sep  ne  ij-en  ne  pyji  jepelbe.  jGpteji  J'on  lacnije  mon 
)ja  bolh   fpa   J>u   ]?one   bsel    ]>e   ]?onne  jit  hpilce   hpeja 

'  pync,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.   T.  83 

XXXV.  Book  I. 

Ch.  XXXV. 

Of  swarthened  and  deadened  body.  The  disease 
Cometh  oftenest  of  corrupt  humours  after  the  inflamma- 
tion of  the  disease  which  has  passed  away,  the  body 
whilom  becometh  swarthy.  Then,  from  the  original 
inflammation,  the  disease  is  to  be  cooled  and  to  be 
tended  with  cold  appliances.  And  when  the  disease 
Cometh  from  without,  without  a  manifest  token  of  its 
cause,  then  shalt  thou  first  cool  the  heat  with  triturated 
coriander,  with  crumbs  of  bread  moistened  with  cold 
water  or  with  the  juice  itself  of  the  coriander,  or  with  the 
white  of  egg,  or  with  wine,  or  with  other  things  which 
have  the  same  virtue.  When  the  inflammation  and  the 
lieat  are  gone  away  and  the  part  of  the  body  is  turned 
somewhat  to  he  either  pale  or  livid  or  somewhat  such, 
then  scarify  the  place,  thou  wilt  then  better  it ;  and 
dry  it  with  an  application  such  as  a  man  works  of 
wax  cake  and  warm  beer  and  of  such  things.  He  is 
not  to  be  let  blood  on  a  vein,  but  rather  the  symptoms 
shall  be  tended  with  wort  drinks,  of  a  perfluent 
nature,  either  emetic  or  diviretic,  with  which  thou 
mayest  cleanse  the  corrupt  humour  and  its  red  gaU- 
sickness.  Yea,  though  the  evil  be  not  come  of  the 
inflammation  of  the  corrupt  humours,  yet  for  such  men 
the  sharp  wort  drink  is  beneficial.  If  the  pituitous 
livid  or  red  symptoms  be  come  from  without,  from 
wounds  or  from  cuttings  or  from  blows,  soon  do  thou 
heal  those  matters  with  scarif5dng  and  onlayings^  of  ^ 'Ein06>aTa. 
barley,  after  the  manner  which  leeches  well  know; 
thou  shalt  amend  it.  If  the  swarthened  body  be  to 
that  high  degree  deadened  that  no  feeling  be  thereon, 
than  must  thou  soon  cut  away  all  the  dead  and  the 
unfeeling  fiesJi,  as  far  as  the  quick,  so  that  there  be 
nought  remaining  of  the  dead  flesh,  which  ere  felt 
neither  iron  nor  fire.  After  that  one  shall  heal  the 
wounds,  as  thou  wouldst   the   part  which  as  yet  may 

P  2 

84  L^CE   BOC. 

jejrelnej^j-e  lisebbe  •  "j  eallunja  heabe  ne  fynb/  pu  j-cealt: 
mib  jelomhcjie  fceappunje  hpilum  mib  miclum*  lipilum 
mib  jreaptjm  pene  ^  teoli~  f  blob  ppam  ])S3]\e  abeabeban 
fcope  laciia  6a  pceajipan  ]my  •  ^emm  bean  raela  o]y]>e 
setena  •  oSSe  bejief  •  dpl^e  fpilcej-  melupep  fpa  J?e  ]?ince 
f  htc  onniman  pille  bo  eceb  to  "j  hunij  peo]?  petjsebepe 
*j  leje  on  'j  bmb  on  ]?a  ]"apan  fcopa.  Tip  ]m  polbe  p 
fio  pealp  fjnSjie  fie  bo  lycel  pealcep  to  on  bmb  hpilum  "j 
l^peah  mib  ecebe  o]>]^e  mib  pine.  Tip  J^eapp  lie  j'ele 
hpilum  pyptbjienc  •  -j  jej'ceapa  fimle  J^onne  J;u  p>a  fcpan- 
jan  Isecebomaj-  bo  hpilc  p  msejen  fie  *j  fio  jecynb  J^sej- 
lichoman  •  hpoe]?ep  hio  fie  fcpanj  ]?e  heapb  -j  ea}>elice 
moeje  j^a  ftpanjan  Isecebomap  abepan  ]>e  hio  lie  hnepce 
•j  meappe  'j  ]>ynne  *j  ne  nueje  abejian  ]?a  laeceboma]-. 
bo  ]>u  Sa  Isecebomaf  fpilce  ])u  pa  lichoman  ^efie  •  pop 
];on  Se  micel  jebal  "ij*  on  psepnebef  *j  pipep  -j  cilbep 
lichoman  •  -j  on  ]?am  msejene  \>sei  bsejhj^amlican 
pyjihtan  *j  ]?8ep  iblan  j^pep  ealban  -j  ]?8ep  jeonjan  -j 
pijiep  J>e  fie  ^epm^  ppopmijum  •  -j  psej'  J?e  fie  unje- 
puna  fpelcum  J'lnjum  •  je  ];a  hpitan  lichoman  beo6 
meajiuppan  -j  tebpan  J^onne  |?a  blacan  •  'j  ]?a  peaban. 
jip  pu  piUe  Itm  aceoppan  oSSe  afniSan  op  lichoman 
ponne  jefceapa  pu  hpilc  fio  fcop  fie  •  "j  peepe  ftope 
msejen  •  poji  pon  8e  papa  ftopa  fum  pape  potap  jip 
hipe  mon  jimeleaflice  tilaS  •  fume  latop  pelaS  pajia 
Iseceboma  fume  jiapop  -  jip  pu  pcyle  aceoppan  oS^e 
afmpan  unhal  lim  op  halum  lice  ponne^  ceopp  pu  f  on 
pam  jemsepe  peep  halan  licef  •  ac  micle  fpipop  fen's  o'SSe 
ceojip  on  f  hale  -j  f  cpice  lie  fpa  pu  hit  pel  -j  papop 
jelacnoft.  ponne  pu  pyp  fette  on  mannan  ponne  mm 
pu  mejipep  poppep  leap  'j  jejmben    pealt  opep  le^e   pa 

'  Kead  fy.  i       ^  Eead  sejmna. 

-  Kead  ]ienian  t  teohan.  |       '  Insert  ne. 

LEECH   BOOK,   I.  85 

have  some  feelinor,  and  be  not  altogether   dead.     Thou       ^^^"^  i- 

.      .  .  .  .  Ch.  XXXV 

shalt  with  frequent  scarifying,  whilom  with  miekle, 
whilom  with  slight,  wean  and  draw  the  blood  from 
the  deadened  place.  Cure  the  scarifyings  thus ;  take 
bean  or  oat  or  barley  meal,  or  some  of  such  meal  as 
to  thee  seemeth  good,  so  that  it  will  serve,  add  vine- 
gar and  honey,  seethe  together  and  lay  on,  and  bind 
upon  the  sore  places.  If  thou  shouldst  wish  that  the 
salve  be  stronger,  add  a  little  salt,  bind  on  at  whiles 
and  wash  with  vinegar  or  with  wine.  If  need  be, 
give  at  whiles  a  wort  drink,  and  observe  always  when 
thou  art  applying  the  strong  leechdoms,  what  the 
power  be,  and  what  the  nature  of  the  body  of  the 
]jatient ;  whether  it  be  strong  and  hardy,  and  easily 
may  bear  the  strong  leechdoms,  or  whether  it  be  nice 
and  tender  and  thin,  and  may  not  bear  the  leechdoms. 
Apply  the  leechdoms  according  as  thou  seest  the  state 
of  the  body.  For  a  miekle  difference  is  there,  in  the 
bodies  of  a  man,  a  woman,  and  a  child ;  and  in  the 
main  ov  constitution  of  a  daily  wright  or  labourer  and 
of  the  idle,  of  the  old  and  of  the  young,  of  him  who  is 
accustomed  to  endurances,  and  him  who  is  unaccustomed 
to  such  things.  Yea,  the  white  bodies  be  tenderer  and 
weaker  than  the  black  and  the  red.  If  thou  wilt  caive 
off  or  cut  off  a  limb  from  a  body,  then  view  thou  of 
v/hat  sort  the  place  be,  and  the  strength  of  the  place, 
since  some  or  one  of  the  places  readily  rotteth  if  one 
carelessly  tendeth  it :  some  feel  the  leechdoms  later, 
some  earlier.  If  thou  must  carve  oflp  or  cut  off  an 
unhealthy  limb  off  from  a  healthy  body,  then  carve 
thou  not  it  on  the  limit  of  the  healthy  body ;  but 
much  more  cut  or  carve  in  on  the  hole  and  quick  body ; 
so  thou  shalt  better  and  readier  cure  it.  When  thou 
settest  fire  on  a  man,  then  take  thou  leaves  of  tender 
leek  and  grated  salt,  overlay  the  places,  then  shall  be 
by  that  the  more  readily   the  heat  of  the   fire   drawn 

86  L^CE  BOC, 

fol.  32  b.  Ibope   }>onne    biS    j^y  ])e   pajjop   ]?8ej'   pyjie)-   hseto  apej 

atojen  •  ]?  ilce  bij?  nytcol  icej'  jflite  o))]7e  liunbef  jip 
hit  man  yona  to  be^S  •  -j  ept  ymb  ])jieo  niht  fmijie 
mib  humje  f  ]>y  ]>e  pa];op  fio  hpypnj  op  fealle. 

.  XXXVI. 

PiJ>  ]>?e]\e  able  ]7e  men  hset  cijicul  abl  jentm  cpicbeam 
jimbe  •  -j  sepfan  •  -j  apulboji  •  mapulboji  •  ellen  •  pi]?i5  • 
pealh  •  piji  •  pice  •  Sc  •  ylahj^opn  •  bijicean  •  elebeam  • 
jatetpeop  •  sepcep  pceal  msept  •  "j  felcep  tpeopep  basl 
]?e  man  bejitan  mgej  •  butan  bpe^j^opne  -j  alojie  Jpapa 
tpeopa  msept  J?e  heji  apjiiten  pynb  "j  eac  jajel  -j  cneop 
bolen  •  finjjienan  eolonan  •  jiebic  pealpypt  •  ]?a  jpeatan 
netlan »  pepmob  eo]i]:>  jeallan.  ^entm  }?onne  tynam- 
bepne  cetel  bo  ]>]iibban  bsel  ]?a]\a  jimba  -j  J>a  pypta 
pylle  fpij^e  on  max])yjite  jip  ]m  hsebbe  •  jip  J?u  nsebbe 
pyl  on  psetpe  fpij^e  •  bo  j^onne  op  ]>a  pinba  "j  bo  nipe  on 
fol.  33  a.  mnan  f  ilce  pof  bo  fpa   ]?]iipa   afeoh  ]?onne    clsene   fpa 

hatne  }?one  bpenc  "j  bo  ];onne  mele  pulne  butepan  on 
fpa  hatne  -j  jehpepe  tojsebepe  l?et  ftanban  tpa  niht 
o]?]?e  ]7peo  •  abo  j^onne  op  j^a  butejian  "j  jemm  ];oime 
jajel  cjioppan  •  -j  ipij  cpoppan  •  helban  •  -j  betonican 
eolonan  •  pebic  •  banpypt .  eop'5  miftel  jebeat  tojas- 
beyie  pylle  on  jjsepe  butepan  abo  J7onne  |?a  butepan 
clgene  op  ]?am  pyptum  |??ep  |^e  mon  mseje  •  jenim  ]7onne 
fmsel   bepen   mela  *j   jebsepneb    pealt    bpipe    )?onne   on 

'  Zc^;'?7,  or  ZwaTTip. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I. 


away.     The  same  'process  is  advantageous  for  frogs  ^  or       ^^^^  I- 
liounds    bite,  if  one  soon  applieth  it.     And  again,  for 
about  three  nights,  smear  with  honey,  that  thereby  the 
more  readily  the  scab  or  crust  may  fall  off. 


Against  the  disease  which  is  hight  circle  addle^  or 
shingles,  take  quickbeam  rind,  and  aspen  and  apple 
tree,  maple  tree,  elder,  withy,  sallow,  myrtle,  wich 
elm,  oak,  sloe  thorn,  birch,  olive  tree,  the  lotus  tree,^ 
of  ash  there  shall  be  most,  and  a  part  of  each  tree 
which  a  man  can  get  at  (except  hawthorn  and  alder), 
the  largest  quantity  of  the  trees  which  are  here  written, 
and  also  gale  and  knee  holly,  that  is,  butchers  hroom, 
singreen,  that  is,  house  leek,  helenium,  radish,  wallwort, 
the  great  nettle,  wormwood,  earthgall.^  Take  then 
a  kettle  holding  ten  ambers,  put  therein  a  third  part 
of  the  rinds  and  the  worts,  boil  strongly  in  mashwort, 
that  is,  the  unfermented  luort  of  beer,  if  thou  have  it,  if 
thou  have  it  not,  boil  strong  in  water,  t  hen  remoth3 
rinds,  and  put  new  rinds  into  that  same  decoction,  do 
so  three  times,  then  strain  out  clean  the  drink  so  hot, 
and  then  add  a  basin  full  of  butter  so  hot,  and  shake 
them  up  together  :  let  this  stand  two  nights  or  three, 
then  remove  the  butter,  and  then  take  catkins  of  gale, 
berry  branches  of  ivy,  tansy,  and  betony,  helenium, 
radish,  bonewort,  basil,  beat  together,  boil  in  the  butter, 
then  remove  the  butter  clean  off  t]ie  worts,  as  far  as  a 
man  may  :  then  take  fine  barley  meal  and  burnt  salt, 

'  No  doubt//'0(/,Cod.Ex.p.  426-9. 
Dioskorides  Alexifarm.  31.  has  a 
chapter  on  the  ^pvvrj,  or  toad,  and 
the  Barpaxos  e\eios,  or  "  marsh 
frog,"  as  poisonous. 

-  luPlinius  Valerianus.  Circinus. 

*'  Vesicae  si  homiuem  cinxerint  oc- 

^  Are  we  to  suppose  Carpinus 
was  read  as  Caprinus,  and  say  horn- 
beam for  lotus  ? 

'  Erythrcea  centmireuin. 



fol.  33  b. 

])Sd]\e  butepan  -j  hjiejie  ]7onne  fpij^e  butan  pype  -j  ho 
pipop  to  ere  l^onne  repefc  J^one  bpip  on  neaht  neptij. 
bpmce  ]7onne  seftep  ];one  bpenc  -j  nanne  o]?epne  peetan 
■cyn  nihtum  J^pitij  jlp  he  mjBje  •  jemm  ]?oniie  acmifcel 
jebeat  fmaele  "j  abpije  *j  jejnib  to  melupe  apeli  ]7onne 
fi\>  aenne  peninj  bo  ]?  on  ]5  betfte  pm.  bpmc  fpa 
nijon  bajaf  -j  ne  ete  nipne  cife  ne  peppce  jof  •  ne 
peppcne  sel  •  ne  Fe[p]]-c  fpin  •  ne  naht  |7S9p  ]>e  op 
mopobe  cume  •  ne  pixaf  •  tinpcellehte  •  ne  plohtenpote 
pujelaf*  jip  lie  hpilc  J>ipfa  ete  fie  ^  pealt  -j  nane 
Jjinja  beop  ne  bpmce  "j  jemetlice  pm  -j  eala  •  jip  moq 
];ifum  Isecebome  bepylijS  ];onne  bij?  fe  man  lial;  pi|? 
cipcul  able  jemm  boccan  ]?a  j^e  fpimman  pille  jebeat 
fpijje  fmale  apylle  on  ealbum  mopobe  ^obe  lianb  pulle 
bo  l^onne  ]?a  pypta  op  bo  ept  o]?pe  lianb  pulle  j^sepe 
ilcan  pypte  pylle  ept  fpiSe  jebo  }»onne  J^a  ]'y]ita  op 
jenim  ];onne  fpepl  jebeat  fpi]?e  fmale  jebo  j^onne  on 
]7a  pealpe  f  hio  fie  fpa  J>icce  fpa  bpip  fmijie  ]?oime  J^a 
fpeccan  mib  J^Eepe  fealpe  o]?  f  him  pel  fie. 

362,  d. 

362,  d.  e. 

fol.  34  a. 


pi]?  Jpon  ]>e  mon  ne  mseje  hip  micjean  jehealban  -j 
]?8epe  5epealb  na^e  eopopej-  clapa  o]?]?e  oppej-  fpinej-  je- 
b£epn  to  ahfan  pceab  ]7onne  pa  ahfan  on  J^sej'  peocan 
mannef  bpmcan.  6pt  fpmef  blsebpan  untybpenbej-  f  ip 
jylce  jebaspn  to  ahpan  bo  on  pm  fele  bpmcan.  Jfi]) 
]7on  ilcan  ept  jate  blsebpe  ahypfce  pele  etan  •  fume  fpa 
jehypfte  jejniba]?  to  bufce  fceab  on  pm  pellaS  bpmcan 
jlp  hie  beo^  butan  pejrjie.  jip  mon  ne  mseje  jeinijan 
ept  cymenef  jenim  fpa  micel  fpa  Su  mib  ]?pim  pinjpum 

LEECH   BOOK.   I.  8i) 

next  make  a  brewit  of  tliein  in  the  butter,  and  shake       Book  i. 

it  well  up   without  fire,   and  add   pepper,  then  let  the 

patient  eat  first  the  brewit  at  night   fasting.     Further 

after  that  let  him    drink   the  draught  and  none  other 

liquid  for  ten  nights,  for  thirty  if  he   can  endure  it ; 

then  take  mistletoe  of  the  oak,  beat  it  small  and  dry  it, 

and   rub    down    to    meal,   then   weigh   it   against   one 

penny,  put  that  into  the   best   wine  ;  let  the   sufferer 

drink  this   accordingly  for  nine  days,  and  let   him  eat 

neither  new  cheese,  nor  fresh  goose,  nor  fresh  eel,  nor 

fresh  pig,  nor  augbt  of  that  which  cometh  of  a  decoction, 

nor  fishes  without  shells,  nor  web  footed  fowls ;  if  he 

eat   any  of  these,  let  it  be    salted,    and  by  no  means 

let  him  drink  beer,  and  wine  and  ale  moderately.     If 

this  leechdom  be  followed  then  shall  the  man  be  hole. 

Against  circle    addle    or   shingles,  take  dock  that  will 

swim,  beat  it  very  small,  boil  in  old  inspissated  wine  a 

good  handful,  then  remove   the   worts,  afterwards  add 

another  handful  of  the  same  wort,  boil  again  thoroughly, 

then  remove    the   worts ;    then    take  brimstone,    beat 

it  very  small,    then    apply  the    salve,    so   that  it  may 

be    as    thick    as    brewit,   then    smear  the  specks  with 

the  salve  till  it  be  well  with  him,  the  patient. 


In  case  that  a  man  may  not  retain  his  urine  and  have 
not  control  over  it,  burn  to  ashes  claws  of  a  boar  or 
of  another  swine,  then  shed  the  ashes  on  the  sick  mans 
drink.  Again,  burn  to  ashes  the  bladder  of  an  unpro- 
lific,  that  is  a  gelt,  swine,  put  it  into  wine,  administer 
it  to  drink.  For  the  same,  fry  a  goats  bladder,  give 
it  to  the  man  to  eat ;  some,  when  so  fried,  reduce  it 
to  dust,  and  %vhen  shed  into  wine,  give  it  to  the  men 
to  drink,  if  they  be  without  fever.  Again,  if  a  man 
may  not  pass  water,  take  of  cummin  as  much  as  thou 
mayst  lift   with    three   fingers,   triturate    it,    and    add 



358,  g. 

362,  d. 

fol,  34  b. 

up  aliebban  mneje  jetjiifula  -j  jebo  to  pmej-  cpejen 
bollan  f  ulle  •  -j  o]?pe  cpejen  paecepef  pele  bjiincan  nihc- 
neptijum.  6pc  jip  mon  ne  mseje  jemijan  bpmce  jy]?- 
pipan  on  psecjie  jejnibene.  6pc  ^enime  eac  jeajipan  *j 
pejbpseban  pyl  on  pme  pele  bjimcan.  6pt  pammep 
bltebpe  jefobene  Jiicje  he.  ^entm  pmolef  pypccjiuman 
epc  •  'j  ]7a  j'ypt;  pelpe  jebeat  "j  jepiib  on  pm  opJ>sene 
pel  "j  apeoh  pele  bpmcan.  6j:t-  jofa  tunjan  jebjisebbe 
•j  jejacje.  6pt;  jip  pu  pmbe  pile  on  oj'pum  pifce 
innan  jentm  ]?one  -j  jebjifeb  fpij^e  -j  jebjiyce  on  bpim- 
can  -j  pele  ]?am  peocan  men  bpmcan  fpa  he  nyte  fpa 
]?u  pcealt  ]?a  oj'pe  ?ecap  "j  bpmcan  j-ellan.  rip  mon  ne 
mseje  gemijan  bjimce  he  lilian  pyptcpuman  apyllebne 
on  pme  o^Se  on  eala'S.  Tip  he  J'onne  to  fpiSe  mije 
bjimce  ^yjjpipan  on  psetepe  jejmbene.  Tip  mon  blobe 
mije  jemm  pubu  popan  feoJ>  on  psetpe  o^8e  on  ealaS 
j-ele  bpmcan. 

Gtp  pip  ne  mseje  jemijan  mm  tunceppan  fseb  feoS 
on  pffitpe  j'ele  bpmcan.  Jip  mon  ne  mgeje  jemijan 
jecnupa  lupefcice  *j  ellenpmbe  -j  oleafepum  'p  tp  pilbe 
elebeam  jemen^  piS  fupum  hluttpum  eala'S  pele 


J^eR  linbon  bolh  pealpa  to  eallum  punbiim  "j  bjiencap 
•j  clsenpunja^  on  jehpilce  pifan  je  utan  je  on  f'am 
mnoJ?um.  pejbpsebe  jebeaten  pi's  ealbne  pypele  je- 
menjeb  peppc  ne  nyt  bij?. 

^6pC  bolhpealp  jentm  pejbpseban  fasb  jetpipula  fmale 
pceab  on  |?a  punbe  pona  bi^  pelpe. 

claej-nunsa,  MS. 

Herbar.  Apul.  ii.  6. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  91 

thereto  two  bowls  full  of  wine  and  two  others  of  water,  Book  i. 
give  it  to  the  sick  to  drink  after  his  nights  fasting.  Ch.xxxvn. 
Again,  if  a  man  cannot  mie,  let  him  drink  githrife, 
rubbed  fine  in  water.  Again,  take  also  yarrow  and 
waybroad,  boil  them  in  wine,  give  them  to  be  drunk. 
Again,  let  him  eat  a  rams  bladder  sodden.  Again,  take 
roots  of  fennel  and  the  wort  itself,  beat  it  and  rub  it 
fine  into  wine,  moisten  well  and  strain  it,  and  admi- 
nister it  to  drink.  Again,  let  him  roast  ^  and  partake 
of  the  tongues  of  geese.  Again,  if  thou  find  a  fish 
within  another  fish,  take  and  roast  it  thoroughly,  and 
break  it  to  bits  into  a  draught,  and  give  it  to  the  sick 
man  to  drink  in  such  a  manner  that  he  know  it  not. 
So  shalt  thou  give  the  other  meats  and  drinks.  If 
a  man  may  not  pass  water,  let  him  drink  a  root  of 
a  lily  boiled  in  wine  or  in  ale.  If  he  then  mie  too 
strongly,  let  him  di-ink  githrife  in  water,  rubbed  to 
(lust.  If  a  man  mie  blood,  take  dog  roses,  seethe  thera 
in  water  or  in  ale,  administer  them  to  drink. 

If  a  woman  may  not  pass  water,  take  seed  of  garden 
cress,  seethe  it  in  water  and  give  it  her  to  drink.  If 
one  may  not  pass  water,  pound  lovage  and  elder  rind 
and  oleaster,  that  is  wild  olive  tree,  mix  this  with 
sour  clear  ale,  and  give  to  drink. 


1.  Here  are  wound  salves  for  all  wounds  and  drinks 
and  cleansings  of  every  sort,  whether  without  or  in 
the  inwards.  Waybroad  beaten,  mixed  with  old  lard ; 
the  fresh  is  not  of  use. 

2.  Again,  a  wound  salve ;  take  seed  of  waybroad, 
bray  it  small,  shed  it  on  the  wound,  soon  it  will  be 

'  Our  Saxon  has  not  been  careful  I  is  set  down  in  Marcellus  as  restrain- 
in  the  selection  of  his  recipes  ;  this  |  ing  "  profluvium  urinse." 

92  LJiCE   BOC. 

Pi]?  ealbpe  piuibe  tobjiocenpe  ^jiunbefpelje  jn]?  ealhne 
pyj-ele  jemenjeb  *j  on  aleb  lacna  fpilce  punba.  To 
punbe  clseDpunje  -^  jentm  clc"ene  humj  jepyjime  to 
fyjie  jebo  J^onne  on  clsene  psec  bo  pealc  ro  "j  hpepie  o|? 
■p  hic  lisebbe  bpipej-  ]?icne]-pe  fmijie  |?a  punbe  mib  |)onne 
fol.  35  a.  pulla^  hio.       jip    banbjiice    on   heapbe    fie    majej^an  "j 

5ocpo]?an  jecnupa  pel  on  hunije  bo  ]?onne  bucepan  on 
f  bi^  job  bolhpealp.  Gyt  pi^  |?on  eac  bi]?  job  lufc- 
mocan  cpop  co  lecjanne  on  jebjiocen  heapob  *j  jtp 
hunb  plice.  ]}i]>  hunbep  j'lice  jemm  J^a  peaban  netlan 
•j  accoplajpan  -j  fpicej-  sleep  empela  feoS  on  burepan 
pypc  CO  ]-ealpe  pona  beoS  ])Si  unnytcan  ban  nte. 

bolli  pealp  piS  limjen  able  •  lileomoce  hacce  pyjic  fio 
peaxeS  on  bpoce  jepypc  J?a  on  mopjenne  ]?onne  bio 
jebeap  lie  fume  beoS  unbeape  "j  jofe  fceapn  ])onne 
bio  ne  ere  •  jecnupa  ]?a  bleomocan  menj  pi]?  ]7am  jofe 
pceapne  •  bo  Isep  J^aep  fceapnep  pyl  on  bucepan  appmj 
p  bij;  50b  pealp.  Sealp  bapan  fppecel  mm  on  ealbum 
lanbe  ^  kmjenpypc  feo  bi]?  jeolu  upepeapb  -j  sejef 
bybjnn  mib  J?y  j'ceal  mon  lacnian  ]?one  man  ];e  bi]? 
lunjenne  punb.  pij?  mnan  punbe  pealp  •  ptn  ele  • 
fol.  35  b.  jalluc  .  hunij.     bolhpealp    5y]>pif  e  -j    jelob    pypc   -j    ];a 

bpunan  pypc  bpableapan  fio  peaxe]?  on  puba  "j  lufc- 
moce  cpoppan  •  jecnupa  ]?a  ealle  -j  pyl  pepefc  on  bure- 
jian  bealpe  'j  appmj. 

bolb  pealp  epc  jjiunbe  fpelje  J?a  Se  peaxa'S  on  pop]?i- 

"^  jtim  fio  bi])  50b  CO  bolhpealpe  *j  jiibbe  -j  jeappe  •j  ji]?- 

pipe    jecnupa  }>a  pypca  ealle  pyl  on  bucepan  -j   appinj. 

6pc  bolbj'ealp  50b  acpinb  abjiije  ];a  pmbe  -j  fpiSe  fmale 

Tecnupa  "j  abelp    ni]7epeapbne    j-lali    Sopn   aj-cap  ]ja  yce- 

-  clajj-nunge,  MS. 


LEECH   BOOK.    I.  Ho 

3.  For   an   old    bruised    wound,    groundsel    mingled       Book  l. 
with    old    lard,  and  laid  on  :    tend  such  wounds    thus.       ''  ''''''""■ 
For  cleansing  of  a  wound  ;  take  clean  honey,    warm  it 

at  the  fire,  put  it  then  into  a  clean  vessel,  add  salt, 
and  shake  it  till  it  have  the  thickness  of  brewit,  smear 
the  wound  therewith,  when  it  turneth  foul.  If  there 
be  a  bone  breach  in  the  head,  pound  maythe  and 
goutweed  well  in  honey,  then  add  butter,  that  is 
a  good  wound  salve.  Again  for  that,  a  bunch  of 
"  lustmock  "  is  good  to  lay  on  a  broken  head,  and  also 
if  a  hound  tear  a  man.  For  tearing  by  a  hound,  take 
the  red  nettle  and  attorlothe  and  some  lard,  of  each 
an  equal  quantity,  seethe  in  butter,  work  to  a  salve, 
soon  the  useless  bones  will  be  out. 

4.  A  wound  salve  for  lung  disease.  A  wort  is  called 
hleraock,  which  waxetli  in  brooks,  and  is  nov:  hrool-- 
lime,  work  it,  that  is,  deal  with  it  in  a  morning  when 
it  is  dewy,  (some  'plaiits  of  it  are  undew}'),  and  sharn 
of  goose  dropped  when  the  goose  eats  not ;  pound  the 
brooklime,  mingle  with  the  dung  of  goose,  put  in  less 
of  the  sharn  than  of  the  wort,  boil  in  butter,  wring 
through  a  cloth,  that  will  be  a  good  salve.  A  salve : 
take  vipers  bugloss,  grovjii  on  an  old  tilth,  and  golden 
lungwort,^  and  a  yolk  of  egg,  with  this  shall  one  tend "  Tlieracium 

1        .  1     1    •       J.1         1  -ri  •  T  murorum  and 

a  man  who  is  wounded  m  the   lung.     Jbor  an  mward  ^„/„,t,„,,,.j„,„. 

wound,  a  salve :    wine,  oil,  comfrey,  honey.     A  wound 

salve  :  githrife   and   silver   weed,    and   the  broadleaved 

brownwort   which   waxeth   in    woods,    and  a  bunch  of 

the  flowers  of  ''  lustmock ";    pound   all   these   and  boil 

first  in  a  half  proportion  of  butter,  and  wring  through 

a  cloth. 

5.  Again,  a  wound  salve:  the  groundsel  which  waxeth 
in  highways,   that  is  good  for  a  wound  salve,  and  rib- 
wort, and  yarrow,  and  githrife  ;b  pound  all  ihe-woris,^  Agrostemma 
boil  in  butter,  and  squeeze  through  a  cloth.     Again,  a  9^^''^'9"- 
good  wound  salve  :  oak  rind ;  dry  the  rind  and  pound 

it  very  small,  and  delve  up  the  nethermost  jpart  of  a 

94  LiECE   BOC. 

mefean  pmbe  -j  fpiSe  fmale  jecnupa  ajfipc  fmale  j^ufih 
fmrel  fipe  bo  bejea  empela  f  mela  biS  50b  on  to 
fceabenne,  rip  pu  paSe  pille  lytle  punbe  jelacnian 
eacepfan  jetjiipula  oS'Se  jefeo^  on  buCepan  pyjic  to 
pealpe  fmipe  mib.  bolh  pealp  •  jeappan  •  jyl^jupau  • 
fmjpenan  •  jotpojmn  Itefc  jecnupa  piS  butepan  fpiSe 
pel  leje  neahtepne  fpa  jecneben  •  bo  Jjonne  on  pannan 
pyl  fpiSe  bo  f  pam  op  clsene  apeoh  j^uph  claS  bo  on  lipit 
pealt  h]\e]\  fpiSe  o];  p  jeftanben  fie.  bolhpealp  mejifc 
hope  sej^elpepSmjpypt  "j  jy]?]iipan  -j  fm^penan  on  ]>a 
foi.  36  a.  ilcan    pifan    p/pce.      bollipealp  jenim   pabef  cpoppan  "j 

netelan  eac    jecnupa   pel  •    pyl  on  butejian  afeoli  ];upli 
claS  bo  lipit  fealt  on  lipejie  fpiSe, 

bolhpealp  acpmb  •  eepepSe  •  meobopypc  abpije  ealle 
■j  jecnupa  fmale  apipt  Jmjili  pipe  men^  pi];  hnnije  -j 
rejep  p  hpite.  bollipealp  i^iy  mon  fie  mib  ipene  je- 
punbob  •  pubupope  •  fm^jiene  •  jelobpypt  fppmj  pypt  • 
3yj7pipe  •  jpunbefpelje  •  majoSe  pypm  pypt  niojjopeajib 
jecnua  pel  tofomne  ealle  menj  piS  butepan  pyl  pa 
pjjjita  on  psepe  butepan  fpiSe  apleot  p  pam  op  clsene 
afeoli  pupil  cla5  bo  on  blebe  lipep  piS  op  p  jefcanben 

^tp  mon  mib  tpeope  jej-lejen  fie  o"S^e  mib  ftane 
oppe  byl  on  men  jebepfteS  •  to  pon  bollipealp  •  jyp- 
pipe  •  ontpe  •  jelobpypt  •  pijelhpeoppa  •  jecnupa  pa 
pypta  fpipe  jemenj  pel  piS  butepan  -j  on  pa  ilcan 
pifan  jepena  pe  ic  sep  cppep. 

Jip  men  fie  lim  op  aple^en  •  pmjep  o^6e  pot  oppe 
lianb  jip  p  meaph   ute   fie  .   jenim  pceapej'  meaph  je- 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  95 

blackthorn,  shave  off  the  outermost  "paH  of  the  rind      Book  L 

and  ponnd  it  very  small,  sift  it  small  through  a  small         ^^xruu 

sieve,  put  togettver  equal  quantities  of  both,  the  meal  is 

good  to  shed  on  a  vjound.     K  thou  wilt  quickly   cure 

a  little  wound,  bruise   or  seethe  in   butter  water  cress, 

work  it  into   a  salve,    smear   therewitL     A   salve  for 

wounds  :   pound  very  well  with  butter,  yarrow,  cockle, 

singreen,  or  hjou^leek,  of  goutweed  the  least,  lay  them 

by  for  a  night  so  bruised,  then  put  them  into  a  pan,  boU 

thoroughly,  remove  the  foam  clean  off.  strain  through 

a   cloth,    add    white   salt,'    shake    it    well    up    till    it 

be  got  firm.      A  wound   salve;  work  up  in  the  same 

wise  marsh  hove,    stichwort,  and  cockle,  and  singreen. 

A  wound   salve ;  take   heads   of  woad   and  of  nettle, 

also  pound  them  well,  boil  in  butter,  strain  through  a 

cloth,  add  white  salt,  shake  thoroughly. 

6.  A  wound  salve  :  oak  rind,  ''  aeferthe, '  meadowwort : 
dry  all  these  and  pound  them  small,  sift  the  diud 
through  a  sieve,  mingle  with  honey  and  the  white  of 
an  egg.     A  wound  salve,  if  a  man   be  wounded  with 

iron:  woodroffe,  singreen,  silverweed,  springwort,*  gith- ^ Evforbia 
rife,  groundsel,  maythe,  the  lower  part   of  wormwort,      ^"' 
pound  them  all  well  together,  mingle  with  butter,  boil 
the   worts    in   the  butter   thoroughly,    skim  the  foam 
off  clean,  strain  through  a   doth,   put  U  on  a  saucer; 
shake  it  till  it  be  concrete. 

7.  If  a  man  be  .smitten  with  wood  or  with  stone, 
or  if  a  boU  bursteth  on  a  man,  for  this  a  wound  salve : 
cockle,  "ontre,''  silverweed,  turnsole,  pound  the  worts 
thoroughly,  mingle  weU  with  butter,  and  prepare  in 
the  same  wise  which  before  I  quoth. 

8.  If  a  limb  be  smitten  off  a  man,  a  finger,  or  a  foot, 
or  a  hand,  if  the  marrow  be  out,  take  sodden  sheeps 

-  Sail  DOT  ^uitc  pTire  is  z.'.a  -a^id-i/c  :  the  Latin  and  Gre^  authors  ;  per- 

mticli  c-.ome5   rei    frcrr.   vn  jis  ;  :  haps  tliis  is    an   evasioo  of    that 

much  dirty  from  the  saiTpans.     Sal  |  drag, 

ammoidacian  is  oftea  pre&cnbfcd  in  I 

96  L.ECE   EOC. 

j'oben  leje  on  f  o]>e]\  meapli  •  appi]^  fpiSe  pel  neahtejine. 
fol.  30  1).  bolh    yealj:  •    h^cylef  jiaju  -j  bolen  pmbe  m];epea]ibe  •  'j 

;;5y|)jiipan  jecnua  fpiSe  pel  ]>a  pfjita  jemens  pi5  buce- 
pan  feocS  fpiSe  pleoc  op  p  pam  afeoh  ]>upli  claS  fpij^e 
clfiene  jip  psej'  boljep  oppap  fynb  to  hea  ymb  frpic 
mib  hate  ipene  fpiSe  leohrlice  f  p  pel  bpitije. 

bolhpealp  jotpoj^an  i^ecnupa  fpiSe  pel  mej  pi"S  bute- 
pan  feoS  fpiSe  -j  j^yll  -j  appmj  J'uph  cla8  pleot  f  pam 
op  jepelc  fpi'Se  pel  •  jip  bolh  pulije  ceop  fcpsel  pyptr 
on  -j  jeappan.  bolhpealp  jenim  jiibban  •  -j  jeappan  • 
■j  bolhpunan  nio]>opea]ibe  •  -j  boccan  -j  ^ope  pceapu  'j 
picef  lytel  •  "j  hunij  pylle  on  butepan  bo  on  f  bolh 
})onne  clsenfaS  hit  -j  halaS.  bolhj-ealp  jentm  jeappan 
•j  Ifece  pypt  pyl  on  butepan. 

Sealp  yip  ];on  f  bolh  ne  pulije  jemm  bpeji  J?e  hiopan 
on    peaxa];    ceop    J^a   jnnbe    on    f    bolh    ne    pula]?   hit. 
bolhpealp  mebopypt  niojwpeapb  •  lufcmoee  •  hope  •  eopoji 
peajm  •    pyl  on   hunije   bo   j^icce   maxpyjit  on   jemanj. 
fol.  37  a.  bolhbpenc  •  eopopj^jiote  mopopeajib  "j  mebopypt  eac  fpa 

ajjiimonia  nioj^opeajib  "j  upepeajib  pyl  on  ealaj>  ]>a,  pypita 
jebijim  mib  jifte  pele  bjiincan. 

bolhbpenc  jeacej-  fujian  pubu  cuniUe  jij^pipe  •  eopop- 
}>]iote  ni])epeapbe  cepc)jpote  cnupa  fmale  bo  on  cealb 
pEetep    jmb    betpeoh    lianbum    afeoh    J>uph    cla8    pele 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  97 

marrow,  lay  it  on  the  other  marrow,  bind  it  well  up  for  ^'(^(^^  I-... 
a  night.  A  wound  salve  :  the  lichen  of  hazel,  and  the 
netherward  part  of  holly  rind  and  githrife,  pound  the 
worts  very  well,  mingle  with  butter,  seethe  thoroughly, 
skim  off  the  foam,  strain  through  a  cloth  very 
clean  ;  if  the  edges  of  the  wound  are  too  high,^  run 
them  round  with  a  hot  iron  very  lightly,  so  that 
the  skin  may  whiten. 

9.  A  wound  salve :  pound  very  thoroughly,  gout- 
weed,  mingle  with  butter,  seethe  thoroughl}^,  and  boil, 
and  wring  through  a  cloth,  skim  off  the  foam,  salt  it 
very  well ;  if  the  wound  get  foul,  chew  strailwort  up- 
on it  and  yarrow.  A  wound  salve:  take  ribwort  and 
yarrow,  and  the  netherward  part  of  pellitory,  and  dock, 
and  goose  dung,  and  a  little  pitch,  and  honey,  boil  in 
butter,  apply  it  to  the  wound,  then  it  cleanseth  and 
healeth.  A  wound  salve  :  take  yarrow  and  leechwort, 
boil  in  butter. 

1 0.  A  salve  to  the  end  that  a  wound  may  not  foul : 
take  briar,  on  which  hips  wax,  that  is,  dog  rose,  chew 
the  rind  and  let  it  drop  on  the  wound,  then  it  Avill 
not  foul.  A  wound  salve :  the  netherward  part  of 
meadow  wort,  lustmock,  hove,  everfern,  boil  in  honey, 
add  thick  mashwort  among  them.  A  drink  for  wounds  : 
the  netherward  part  of  everthroat,  that  is,  cavline 
thistle,  and  meadow  sweet,  so  also  the  nether  and  up- 
ward part  of  agrimony,  boil  the  worts  in  ale,  barm 
them  with  yeast,  that  is,  introduce  fermentation  with 
yeast,  administer  to  drink. 

11.  A  wound  drink  :  pound  small,  cuckoo  sour, 
wild  cunila,^  cockle,  the  netherward  part  of  carline 
thistle,  ashthroat,  put  them  into  cold  water,  rub  be- 
tween the  hands,  strain  through  a  cloth,  administer  to 

'  Probably,  if  the  edges  are  likely  to  coalesce,  before  the  parts  that  lie 

-  Plinius,  XX.  63. 

VOL.   n.  G 

98  LiECE   BOC. 

bjimcan  fcenc  fulne  nealitnejcij.  bolhbjienc  jiibbe 
nio|;epea]ib  -j  ufej^eapb  •  eoj:op];]iocan  •  -j  seyc  J?)iot;an 
niojjopeapbe  cuiipa  finale  bo  on  peallenbe  pajteji  jnib 
becpeoli  lianbum  -j  aj'eoli  |ni]ili  cla8  yele  bjimcan.  To 
gelcum  bolje  j'ealj:  •  ^efomna  cue  mefa  cu  mi5o]?a  je- 
pyjice  CO  flynan  ]>a  fpa  mon  fapan  j'ypcS  micelne  citel 
fulne  •  mill  ]7onne  apulboji  jimbe  'j  sej'C  pmbe  j-lali];o]in 
jimbe  •  -j  piji  pmbe  •  -j  elm  piinbe  •  'j  liolen  jimbe  •  -j 
pi]>i5  jiiiibe  -j  jeonjjie  ace  •  ]fealh  junbe  •  bo  J?a  ealle  on  mi- 
celne cicel  jeot:  ]?a  plynan  on  pyl  fpi])e  lanje  •  bo  })onne 
op  ]ja  jimba  pyl  J>a  plenan  ]3  Ino  fie  ))icce  bo  fimle  on 
foi  .i:  b.  liTgppan  citel  fpa  hio  Isej'pe  fie  •  jeor  on  yset  ]7onne  liio 

jenoli  ]>icce  fie  •  jetel  |?oiine  cealcfcan  fpiSe  -j  jefamna 
poc  -j  afipc  J^ujih  claS  "j  ];one  cealcfran  eac  on  ]?a 
plynan  fmijie  mib  f  bolli.  6pc  pij>  ]?on  ilcan  jenim 
liopan  -j  jelobpypt  'j  bjiune  pypic  -j  lufcmocan  cpioj)  -j 
hapan  fpjiecel  pyl  on  butejian  "j  ppmj  ponne  op  )?a 
pypta  bo  o]:>pe  on  •  pibban  •  bipceoppypt  jeajipan  at- 
topla]?an  bo  ]:>a  on  j^a  ilcan  bucejian  pyl  epc  fpiSe 
apjunj  ])H  op  f  bip  50b  bollip^alp. 


J^eR  fint  laecebomaf  y\]>  selcep  cynnef  ofhum  'j  6n- 
peallum  -j  banco]mm  ealica  'j  tpenCij. 

Nim  5penep  mepcef  leap  jejnib  o]>])e  jetpipula  pi'ci 
ecebep  bepfcan  finipe  mib  ])y  Jja  pajian  fcopa.  pi]; 
omum  utablejnebum  ntm  fuji  molcen  pyjic  to  cealjie  -j 
l>e\)  luib  |;y  cealjie,     Uib  omum  ept  jenim  beojibpsefra  -j 


LEECH   BOOK.    T.  99 

drink  a  full  draught  to  the  sick  caffcer  his  nights  fasting.'  Book  T 
A  wound  drink  :  pound  small  the  netherward  and  up- 
ward  part  of  ribwort,  carline  thistle,  and  the  netherward 
part  of  ashthroat,  put  them  into  boiling  water,  rub 
between  the  hands,  and  strain  through  a  cloth,  ad- 
minister to  drink.  A  salve  for  every  wound:  collect 
cow  dung,  cow  stale,  work  up  a  large  kettle  full  into 
a  batter  as  a  man  worketh  soap,  then  take  appletree 
rind,  and  ash  rind,  sloethorn  rind,  and  myrtle  rind, 
and  elm  rind,  and  holly  rind,  and  withy  rind,  and  the 
rind  of  a  young  oak,  sallow  rind,  put  them  all  in  a 
mickle  kettle,  pour  the  batter  upon  them,  boil  very 
long,  then  remove  the  rinds,  boil  the  batter  so  that  it 
be  thick,  put  it  ever  into  a  less  kettle  as  it  groweth 
less,  pour  it,  when  it  is  thick  enough,  into  a  vessel, 
heat  then  a  calcareous  stone  thoroughly,  and  collect 
some  soot,  and  sift  it  through  a  cloth  with  the  quick- 
lime also  into  the  batter,  smear  the  wound  therewith. 
Again  for  the  same,  take  hove  and  silverweed  and  browai- 
wort,  and  a  bunch  of  the  flowers  of  "lustmock,"  and 
vipers  bugloss,  boil  in  butter  and  wring  the  worts  off, 
and  put  others  in,  ribwort,  bishopwort,  yarrow,  atter- 
lothe,  put  them  into  the  same  butter,  boil  again  strongly, 
wring  these  off" ;  that  will  be  a  good  wound  salve. 


1.  Here  are  leech doms  for  erysipelatous  inflammations 
of  every  sort,  and  fellons,  and  leg  diseases  of  every 
sort ;  eight  and  twenty  in  number. 

2.  Take  leaves  of  green  marche,  rub  or  bruise  them 
with  the  lees  of  vinegar,  smear  with  that  the  sore 
places.  For  erysipelas  which  hath  broken  into  blains, 
take  sour  curds,  work  them  to  a  chalder,  and  foment  with 
the  chalder.    For  erysipelatous  inflammations  again,  take 

'  Ne)t;i5  must  be  understood  as  najTrijum. 

G    2 

100  L^CE   BOO. 

fapan  "j  sejef  f  hpite  -j  ealbe    3)iuc  leje  on  pi]?  omena 
jefpelle,     pi]?  omena  jebepfce  Sitte  on  cealbum  p^ecejie 
fol.  38  a.  o}*  f  lii"^  abeabob  fie  teoli  ]?onne  tip  yleali  ]jonne  peopep 

fceappan  ymb  J»a  poccaf  utan  -j  Iset  yjman  ]3  fncce  ]?e 
luc  pille ;  pypic  |?e  pealpe  ]?up  •  Nim  bjiune  pypc  -j  mepfc 
nieap  jeallan  'j  peabe  netlan  pyl  on  butepan  -j  fmipe 
mib  -j  bej»e  mib  |;am  ileum  pypcum. 

^  V^]^  W^  ilcan  jenim  anjolcp^eccean  jejnib  fpi];e  bo 
eceb  CO  "j  on  bmb  *j  fmipe  mib.  pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  jemm 
lapinan  jnib  to  bufce  -j  menj  pi]?  hunij  -j  fmipe  mib. 
UiS  ])on  ilcan  jenim  jebpaebbe  fejpu  menj  pi5  ele 
leje  on  -j  be]?e  fpiiSe  mib  betan  leapum.  Gpr  jemm 
cealpej-  fceapn  o]']?e  ealbep  h]iy]?epef  peapm  -j  leje  on. 
Qf-c  pi]?  }?on  jemm  heopotep  fceapo]?an  op  pelle  afcapen 
mib  pumice  -j  pefe  mib  ecebe  'j  fmipe  mib.  6ptr  jenim 
eopopep  jeallan  jip  ]?u  nsebbe  mm  o]?pe]'  fpinej-  ^ejnib 
•j  fmijie  mib  J>y  ]?fep  hit  faji  fie.  pi}?  pon  ilcan  jemm 
fpealpan  neft  bpec  mib  ealle  apej  --j  jebaepn  mib  fceapne 
mib  ealle  -j  jnib  to  bufte  menj  pi]?  eceb  "j  fmipe  mib. 
fol.  38  h.  piS  ])on  ilcan  jehset  cealb  psetep  mib  hatan  ipene  -j  be]?e 

jelome  mib  ]?y.  pi]?  Latum  omum  •  mm  betonican  -j 
pepmob  -j  pmul  jnib  on  eala  *j  jiebic  pele  liim  bpincan. 
])]]>  liatum  omum  liim  pen  omppan  -j  ]?a  fmalan  clatan 
j>yl  on  jate   meolce  *j    fupe.       pi]?    hatum    omum   mm 

'  Plinius  Valerianus,  fol.  76,  d,  for  eight  lines. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I. 


dregs  of  beer,  aud  soap,  and  the  white  of  an  egg,  and 
old  groats,  lay  tliis  on  against  erysipelatous  swellings. 
Against  bursting  of  erysipelatous  inflammations,  let 
the  man  sit  in  cold  water  till  the  sore  becometh 
numbed,  then  get  him  up,  then  strike  four  scarifying 
slashes  about  the  pocks  on  the  outside,  and  let  the 
lymph  run  as  it  will.  Work  thyself  a  salve  thus : 
take  brown"v^'ovt,  and  marsh  gall,  or  marsh  gentian, 
and  red  nettle,  boil  in  butter,  and  smear  and  bathe 
with  the  same  worts. 

3.  For  the  same,  take  an  earthworm,'  rub  it  tho- 
roughly fine,  add  vinegar  to  it,  bind  it  on  and  smear 
therewith.  For  the  same,  take  savine,  rub  to  dust,  and 
mingle  with  honey  and  smear  therewith.  For  the  same, 
take  roasted  eggs,  mingle  with  oil,  lay  on,  and  foment 
freely  witli  leaves  of  beet.  Again,  take  a  calfs  sharn, 
that  is  clung,  or  an  old  bullocks,  still  warm,  and  lay 
it  on.  Again  for  this  same,  take  harts  shavings,  shaven 
off  the  fell  or  skin  with  pumice,  and  wash,  that  is 
maceraie,  with  vinegar  and  smear  therewith.  Again, 
take  a  boars  gall,  if  thou  have  not  that,  take  gall  of 
another  swine,  rub  and  smear  with  that  where  it  is 
sore.  For  that  ilk,  take  a  swallows  nest,  break  it 
away  altogether,  and  burn  it  with  its  dung  and  all, 
and  rub  it  to  dust,  mingle  witli  vinegar  and  smear  there- 
with. For  tlie  same,  heat  cold  water  with  a  hot  iron, 
and  bathe  frequently  with  that.  For  hot  er3^sipelatous 
humours,  take  betony,  and  wormwood,  and  fennel, 
rub  them  into  ale,  and  radish  ivith  tJt.em,  give  the 
mixture  to  the  sick  man  to  drink.  For  hot  erysipe- 
latous humours,  take  fen  ompre,  that  is  ivater  dock, 
and  the  small  clote,  that  is,  cleavers,  boil  in  goats 
milk    and    sup.      Against    hot    erysipelatous    humours, 

Book  I. 
Cli.  xxxix. 

'  Bjorn  Haldorson  mentions  this 
treatment :  the  earthworm  is  called 
A'mumadkr  (read  ma'Skr),  because 
erysipelas  is  usually  cured  by   it  ; 

"  his  lumbricis  probari  et  curari 
"  soleat,  cum  applicati  marcescant 
"  et  moriantur."  (On  A'mumadkr.) 
A'ma  is  the  Ome  of  the  text. 

102  LiECE   BOC. 

Imnan  "j  epelafran  -j  alexanbpian  "j  betomcan  "j  cele- 
];onian  -j  ceplicej-  ysdb  bpmce  on  pme.  Sealj:  mm 
ellenef  blofrman  -j  j^one  cpop  pyl  on  butejian  *j  fmipe 
mib  •  jij:  hit  pille  pypfman  fmipe  mib  sejef  jeolcan  opep 
fmipe  mib  Jjy  -j  bpije  to  jlebum  o]?  p  hit  heajib  fie 
Jjpeah  ]7onne  apej  "j  fmipe  ept  mib  ])se]\e  ]*ealpe.  pi]? 
hatum  omum  mm  pmef  bpseftan  menj  pij)  hpeap  rejjiu 
■j  mib  pe]7epe  fmit  on  -j  ne  ]?peah  sep  hit  hal  fie. 
Pi}»  feonbtim  omum  mm  cneopholen  micle  sep  oSpum 
mete  bpejhpam  to  ]'am  bolje  •  "j  hjiyj^epef  jeallan 
humj  fot  •  bo  tofomne  lacna  mib.  pij>  j7on  ilcan  f  ly 
ptc  •  hiftmoce  ]7a  cpoppihtan  ntm  to  baj>e  -j  jebfejme 
to  j'ealpe  pulpef  ceacan  |?a  pmefcpan  'j  j^a  te]?  funbo]^ 
fol.  39  a.  menj   pi8   humje  -j    fmipe   mib  -j  peppcne  cyj'e  on  leje 

menj  ]5  oj7ep  jnS  meoluce  fupe  })py  mo'^jenaf  nijon 
fupan.  pi]?  banco]?e  p  ip  oman  mm  ni^ontyne  fnseba 
eolonan  -j  nyjon  ontpan  -j  enblepan  peabej-  fecjef  bo 
on  eala  -j  bjnnc  micle  jep  ]?onne  J>u  ete  •  -j  ])a  eolonan 
ane  feo"S  o]?  f  hio  meppe  fie  cnupa  tofomne  fmipe  mib 
])0ep  ut  plea,  bpenc  pi]?  onpeallum  cymeb  •  pipoji  •  coft  • 
mepcep  preb  •  ceafceji  pypte  fseb  cnua  pel  bo  on  eala. 
bpenc  pi]?  onpeallum  •  cnua  on  eala  o]?}?e  jefeoS  cele- 
}?onian  -j  heah  hiolo]?an  bifceop  pypt  5y])]iipan.  bjienc 
pi})  onpeallum  •  fijponte  •  cipe  •  leac  •  ]>e5bpsebe  nio)?o- 
peajib  •  pyl  ealle  on  pretpe  -j  jefpet  mib  humje.  bjienc 
pi])  ]>on  mm  })a  fmalan  cla3pe}i  pypt  mo]>opea]ibe  ])yl  on 
ealo}?  oSbe  on  beope.     bpenc  pi]>  onpealle  pyl  on  ealoS 


1.  xxxix. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  103 

take  horchound,  and  everlasting,  and  alexanders,  and  ^P'*"'^  \ 
betony,  and  celandine,  and  charlock  seed,  drink  them 
in  wine.  A  salve  :  take  blooms  of  elder,  and  the  croi>, 
or  bunch  or  umbel,  boil  them  in  butter,  and  smear 
therewith  ;  if  it  will,  that  is,  if  it  shew  a  tendency  to 
form  ratten  or  2mrident  matter,  smear  with  yolk  of 
egg ;  smear  over  with  that,  and  dry  it  by  gledes,  or  hot 
coals,  till  that  it  be  hard,  then  wash  away  and  smear 
again  with  the  salve.  For  hot  erysipelatous  eruptions, 
take  dregs  of  wine,  mingle  with  raw  eggs,  and  with  a 
feather  smudge  it  on,  and  wash  not  till  the  place  he 
hole.  For  oozing  erysipelatous  blains,  take  knee  holly, 
that  is,  butchers  broom,  much  ere  other  meat,  daily 
for  the  wound,  and  put  together  bullocks  gall,  honey, 
soot;  cure  therewith.  For  the  same,  that  is,  for  the 
disease  called  fig,  take  for  a  bath  that  sort  of  "lust- 
mock  "  which  bearetli  crops  or  flower  bunches,  and 
for  a  salve,  burn  a  wolfs  jaw,  the  left  one,  and  the 
teeth  apart,  mingle  with  honey  and  smear  therewith, 
and  lay  on  fresh  cheese,  mingle  the  other  ingredient^ 
with  milk,  sup  for  three  mornings  nine  sips.  For  leg 
disease,  that  is  hot  red  blains,  take  nineteen  snips  of 
helenium,  and  nine  of  "  ontre,"  and  eleven  of  red  sedge, 
put  them  in  ale  and  drink  much  ere  than  thou  eat;  and 
seethe  the  helenium  alone  till  that  it  be  tender,  pound 
together,  smear  therewith  where  the  disease  may  bo 
striking  out.  A  drink  for  fellons ;  cummin,  pepper, 
costmary,  seed  of  marche,  seed  of  black  hellebore,  pound 
well,  put  into  ale.  A  drink  or  potion  for  fellons ; 
pound  in  ale  or  seethe  celandine,  and  elecampane, 
bishop  wort,  githrife.  A  drink  for  fellons ;  sigsonte, 
onion,  leek,  the  netherward  part  of  waybroad,  boil  all 
in  water  and  sweeten  with  honey.  A  drink  for  that ; 
take  the  netherward  part  of  the  small  cloverwort,  boil 
in    ale  or  in  beer.      A  drink   for  fellons ;    boil    in    ale 

'  What  other  ingredient  is  not  clear  by  the  grammatical  construction. 

fol.  39  b. 

104  L^CE   BOC. 

j-'inujlan  bij'ceoppijit  heali  hiolojje.  bpenc  pi]?  6n):ealle 
pyl  on  ealaS  Ippmj  pyjit  o]>])e  on  beope.  bpenc  epc  piS 
onpealle  pyl  on  eala]?  cjiopleac  bpeopje  bpofclan  pypm 
pyptr.  bpenc  fip  onpealle  mepce  at;copla];e  •  betoce  •' 
pube .  fecj  •  ontpe  •  clare  •  bipceop  pypt  jepypc  on 
eala"S.  6fc  pi]?  onpealle  jemm  asr  ppuman  haeplenne 
fciccan  o]>]>e  ellenne  ppic  J?inne  naman  on  apleali  ])]\y 
pceappan  on  ^epylle  mib  ])y  blobe  j^one  naman  peopj) 
ope]  I  eaxle  op]?e  berpeoh  ]?eoh  on  ypnenbe  pjietep  -j 
franb  opeji  ]?one  man  ];a  pceappan  aj'lea  "j  f  eall  fpi- 
jmbe  jebo. 

PrS   onpealle  jepoli  pox  apleah  op  cucum    }>one   cuxl 
Itet  hleapan  apej  bmb  on  nsepce  hapa  ]7e  on. 


^  Pi]>  p6c  able  •  onjieb  hampypt  •  nio]?opea]ib  •  pelbmope 

nij^epeapb  onpebep  empela  -j  ]7apa  o]7eppa  tpejea  pelb- 
luojian  liealpe  l^oppe  Jjonne  hampypte  cnnpa  fpiSe  to 
lumne  bo  liluctoji  ealu  ^  }>a  pypca  opepfcije  •  Ifet  fcau- 
ban  ]?]ieo  niht  pele  j'cenc  pulne  on  mopjen.  bjienc  piS 
poc  able  ]'yl  psetep  on  cjioccan  bo  liunij  on  pleot  fimle 
foJ.  40  a.  \)  pam  op  o]>  f  lut  nelle  ma  pseman  •  flip  ]?onne  "j  bpmc 

opt  "j  jelome  fj\a  ]n  liatofc  maeje  *j  mib  ]7f  hunije 
fViiijie  ])a3]i  hit  iitjlea  on  ]?one  poc  ne  bi]?  pona  nan 
tcona.  Sealp  pi]?  poc  able  pyl  on  burepan  fmjpenan  • 
jeappe  •  5y]?)iipe  peabpe  netelan  cpop.    bpenc  pi]?  poccum 

Kead  beconice. 

LEECH    BOOK.    I. 


fennel,  bishop  wort,  elecampane.  A  drink  for  a  f'ellon; 
boil  in  ale  or  in  beer  springwort.  A  drink  again  for 
a  fellon ;  boil  in  ale  cropleek,  penny  royal,  wormwort. 
A  drink  for  fellons ;  marclie,  attorlothe,  betony,  rue, 
sedge,  "  ontre,"  clote,  bishop  wort,  work  tlieim  up  in 
ale.  Again  for  fellons,  take,  to  begin,  a  hazel  or  an 
elder  stick  or  spoon,  write  thy  name  thereon,  cut  three 
scores  on  the  place,  fill  the  name  with  the  blood,  throw 
it  over  thy  shoulder  or  between  thy  thighs  into  run- 
ning water  and  stand  over  the  man.  Strike  the  scores, 
and  do  all  that  in  silence. 

For  fellon,  catch  a  fox,  strike  oflf  from  him  ivliilc 
quick,  that  is  alive,  the  tusk,  or  canine  tooth,  let  the 
fox  run  away,  bind  it  in  a  fawns  skin,  have  it  upon 

Book  I. 
Ch.  xxxix. 


For  pock  disease,'  use  "  onred,"  liouseleek,  the  nether 
part  of  it,  fieldmore,  the  nether  part  of  it;  of  "onred" 
an  equal  quantity,  and  of  the  two  others  Ijy  half  less 
of  the  fieldmore  or  carrot  than  of  the  houseleek, 
pound  them  thoroughly  togetlier,  add  so  much  clear 
ale  as  may  mount  above  the  worts ;  let  them  stand 
three  nights,  administer  in  the  morning  a  cup  full. 
A  drink  for  pock  disease ;  boil  water  in  a  crock,  add 
honey,  skim  continually  the  foam  away  till  it  will 
foam  no  more  ;  then  sip  and  drink  oft  and  whilom 
as  thou  hottest  may,  and  smear  with  the  honey  where 
it  may  be  breaking  out  into  the  pock,  soon  there  will 
be  no  mischief.  A  salve  for  pock  disea,se ;  boil  in 
butter  singreen,  yarrow,  githrife,  the  crop,  or  floiver 
head,  of  red    nettle.     A  drink    against    pocks ;  bishop 

^Smallpox.  The  disease  was  un- 
known in  classical  medicine  ;  it 
appeared  in  France  in  565,  A.D., 
and  in  Arabia  in  572,  A.D.     The 

Arabic  physician  Razi  treats  of  it 
in  a  separate  monograf  about  92.3, 
A.D.,  not  long  before  this  copy  of 
the  Leech  Book  was  ^Titten  out. 



bifceop  pyjit  •  acco]\la]>an  •  fppiD;z;py]it  •  clatan  nio]?e- 
peajibe  on  ealaS  jepojibc.  pi]^  poccum  i'piSe  I'ceal  mon 
blob  Isetan  -j  bjimcan  ainylce  butepan  boUaii  fulne  • 
jip  hie  utylean  selcne  man  fceall  ape^  abelpan  mib 
]70]me  •  -j  |>onne  pm  oSSe  aloji '  bpenc  bpype  on  mnan 
fionne  ne  beoS  liy  jefyne. 

])i]>  poccum  jentm  jlofpypt  apyl  on  buuepan  "j  fmipe 

fol.  -lo  b. 

yi\>  mnan  onpealle  neejlsep-  hatte  pypt  fu}>e]mo  l"io 
bi^  30b  to  ecanne  pi]?  mnan  onpelle  on  niht  nej'tij. 
pi])  mnan  onjzealle  pyl  elonan  eluhtpan  on  ealaS  bpinc 
liatef  bollan  pulne.  Gft  pyptbpenc  op  j'ejimobe  beto- 
nican  •  op  j^fepe  pupan  j^e^bji^eban  bpmce  pela  nihca. 
PiJ?  ]>se]\e  ^eolpan  able  •  hune  •  bifceop  pypt  •  helbe  • 
hope  meii^e  pa  tojsebepe  bo  selcpe  jobe  hanb  pulle 
maxpypte  bo  to  pope  ambeji  pulne  -j  to  ftanbsepe 
bj^phomaji  •  hune  pepmob.  StanbseJ?^  bpmce  bpenc  op 
ompjian  op  pme  -j  op  psetpe  •  jefpete  fpi'Se. 


^  Op  ^eal  able  lio  bip  op  psepe  jeolpan  •  cymep  jpeat 
ypel  fio  bi]?  ealpa  abla  picufc  •  ponne  ^epeaxeS  on  innan 
unjemec  psetan  pip  fmt  tacn  •  ^  him  fe  lichoma  eall 
abicepa^  -j  ajeolpaS  fpa  50b  feoluc  •  'j  him  beo8  imbep 
cun^an  tulje  fpeapte  sebjia  -j  ypele  -j  htm  bi5  micje 
jeolu  •  la3t  lum  op  lunjen  a^bjie  blob  pele  him  opt 
fcypjenbne  bjienc  fcanbaSu  jelome.     ^Pyjic  him  Sonne 

'  Aloji,  alnus  glutinosa,  has  no 
medical  properties.  Probably  the 
AlnixHuigrajnow  Bhamnus  franyula, 
Spjiacen,  was  meant  by  the  Latin 
author  copied. 

'  Read  cunsDj^lserre,  cynoglossum. 
'  By  8tanbae)>  understand    Sran- 
bee)'b]ienc,  or  amend  thus. 
'  "iKrepos. 

*  Cf.  Plinius  Valerianus,  fol.  61  d. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  107 

wort,    attorlothe,   spriiigwort,    the   nctlierward   part  of      Book  i. 
clote,  or  burdock,  worked  up  in  ale.     Against  pocks,  a  ^'" 

man  shall  freely  employ  bloodletting  and  drink  melted 
butter,  a  bowl  full  of  it  :  if  they  break  out  one  must 
delve  away  each  one  of  tliGin  with  a  thorn ;  and  then 
let  him  drip  wine  or  alder  drink  within  them,  then 
they  will  not  be  seen,  or  no  traces   will  remain. 

Against  pocks :  take  glovewort,  boil  in  butter,  and 
smear  therewith. 


For  inward  fellon,  there  is  a  southern  wort  hight 
cynoglosson,  which  is  good  to  eat  against  inward  fellon, 
at  night  fasting.  Against  inward  fellon,  boil  heleniuni 
and  lupins  in  ale,  drink  a  bowl  full  of  the  hot  infusion. 
Again,  a  wort  drink  from  wormwood  and  betony,  and 
from  the  rough  waybroad  or  'plaintain,  let  him  drink 
it  many  nights.  For  the  yellow  disorder,  or  jaundice, 
/lorehound,  bishop  wort,  tansy,  earth  ivy,  mingle  them 
together,  of  each  employ  a  good  handful,  add  of  mash- 
wort,  for  an  infusion  an  amber  full,  and  for  a  stone 
bath  use  dithhomar,  or  "papyrus,  horehound,  and  worm- 
wood. A  stone  bath;  that  must  he,  to  use  ivith  a  stone 
hath ;  let  the  oimn  drink  a  drink  from  ompre  or  sorrel, 
from  wine  and  from  water ;  sweeten  thoroughly. 


From  gall  disease,  that  is  from  the  yellow  jaundice, 
Cometh  great  evil ;  it  is  of  all  diseases  most  powerful, 
when  there  wax  within  a  man,  unmeasured  humours ; 
these  are  the  tokens  :  that  the  patients  body  all  be- 
coraeth  bitter  and  as  yellow  as  good  silk  ;  and  under 
the  root  of  his  tongue  there  be  swart  veins  and  perni- 
cious, and  his  urine  is  yellow.  Let  him  blood  from  the 
lung  vein,  give  him  often  a  stirring  drink,  stone  baths 

108  L.ECE   BOC. 

fcilne  bpenc  op  omjijian  on  pme  'j  on  j^setjie  -j  on  jjam 
baSe  jehpilce  mopjene  bjunce  mylfce  bpmcan  fio  jebet 
)?a  bitepneype  psep  jeallan. 


foi.  41a.  ^  Pi]?  psetep  boUan  betomcan  fpilce  anef  penmjep  je- 

pasje  on  peapmum  psecepe  jmbe  bpnice  ])py  bajap  jelce 
bsej  jobne  bollan  j:u]ne.  Gy~  jemm  sepcppotan  oJ)|?e 
pealpypce  pyccpuman  jjsep  peapep  peopep  cuclepap  pnlle 
jebo  on  bollan  pulne  jnnef  fele  bpmcan. 


Pi]7  canceji  able  f  ip  bire  ♦  ]*u]ie  •  peak  •  pibbe  • 
fej  •  poc  .  jebsepneb  lam  •  hpaecep  fmebma  menj  piS 
je^pu  mebopypt;  sepeppe  acpmb  •  apulbop  pmb  •  ]lali 
|7opn  pnibe  •  ^ip  pe  bice  peaxe  on  men  jej^ijic  nijme 
cealjie  -j  leje  on  cl?enpa^  j?a  punbe  mib. 

])i])  cancepe  on  C3^pepenum  paste  jebaejm  Ipepl  je- 
jnib  to  bufce  fpa  }in  fmalofc  mreje  "j  apipc  ]ni)ili  claS 
men5  piS  ealbe  fapan  -j  pie  fpepl  picpa  bo  luinijej' 
ceapep  mebmicel  to'^  fceape  •  ^ip  to  ftiS  fie  ]>£em  mib  ]yf 
hunije  leje  on  jeopmen  leap  J)onne  bit  hahje  ]'yl  on 
butepan  jeacep  fupan  -j  fmjpenan  "j  pubupopan  fmipe 
foi.  41  b.  niib  J7a  oppap  j^sep  hit  jieabije  Iset  ]?a  o^pe  j-ealpe  clasn- 

iian  f  bolli  ne  bo  nan  paetep  to,  Sealp  pi]?  cancjie  • 
jemm  cu  meoluc  bucan  ppetejie  l?et  )7eop]?an  to  pletum 
5e]?pe]i  to  butepan  ne  paspc  on  pjetpe.  Ntm  fijel- 
hpeoppan  ]?a  fmalan  unprej'cene  bo  clsene  cnua  fpiSe 
5emen5  pel  pi^  J)?epe  butepan  bo  on  pannan  opeji  pyji 
apyl  fpiSe  apeoli  pel  ]?u]ih  claS  lacna  mib  ]?y,  ]7i])  canceji 
able  •    ac  pmb  on  no]i]?an    cpeope  be  eo]i]?an  •  -j  mebo- 

I  "rdp(ii\p.  j       ^  Supply  a  point  after  to,  not  in 

-  clsej-na,  MS.  I  MS.     Kead  J^sen. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  109 

often.     Work  him  then  a  composing  drink  of  sovrel  in       Book  I. 
wine  and  in  water,  and    in   the  bath,    every  morning, 
let  him  drink  a  mulled    draught ;    it   will    amend    the 
bitterness  of  the   gall. 


For  dropsy,  rub  betony,  as  much  as  a  penny  weight, 
in  warm  water,  let  tlie  patient  drink  for  three  days, 
each  day,  a  good  bowl  full.  Again,  take  of  the  juice 
of  the  roots  of  ashthroat  or  of  dwarf  elder  four  spoons 
full,  put  them  into  a  bowl  full- of  wine,  give  them  to 
drink  to  the  patient. 


1.  Against  the  disease  cancer,  that  is,  bite :  sorrel, 
salt,  ribwort,  egg,  soot,  burnt  loam,  smede  or  fine  flour 
of  wheat  ;  mingle  with  eggs,  meadow  sweet,  "  fieferth," 
oak  rind,  appletree  rind,  sloethorn  rind :  if  the  cancer 
wax  on  a  man,  work  up  some  new  chalder  and  la}' 
on  ;  cleanse  the  wound  thei'ewith. 

2.  Against  cancer  ;  burn  sulfur  in  a  copper  vessel, 
rub  it  to  dust,  as  small  as  thou  may,  and  sift  through 
a  cloth,  mingle  with  old  soap,  and  let  the  sulfur  pre- 
dominate, add  a  moderate  quantity  of  virgin  honey ; 
see  if  it  be,  too  stiff,  moisten  it  witli  the  honey  ;  lay  on 
a  mallow  leaf;  when  it  healeth,  boil  in  butter  cuckoo 
sour  and  singreen  and  woodroffe,  smear  therewith  the 
borders,  where  it  is  red ;  make  the  other  salve  cleanse 
the  wound,  put  no  water.  A  salve  for  cancer ;  take 
cows  milk,  without  water,  make  it  become  cream,  turn 
it  to  butter,  wash  it  not  in  water.  Take  the  small 
turnsole  unwashen,  make  it  clean,  pound  it  thoroughly, 
mix  it  well  with  the  butter,  put  it  into  a  pan  over 
the  fire,  boil  it  thoroughly,  strain  well  through  a  cloth, 
cure  therewith.  Against  disease  of  cancer  :  oak  rind 
on  the  north  side  of   the   tree  by  the   earth,  and    the 

110  LiECE   BOC. 

pypt  nioJ>epeapb  •  jepejiSe  ni]pepea)ib  •  cunejiseppe  nio- 
}>opeapb  •  bo  ealpa  empela  jecnua  to  bufce  •  bo  lienne 
fejep  f  hpite  to  •  -j  hunij  bo  bejea  empela  jemen^ 
piS  J?am  bufciim  cla^m  on  Sone  eancep  ne  bo  nan 
p?etep  to. 


yi])  attpe  bpencaf  "j  Isecebomaf  •  betonican  mepce  • 
pejnnob  •  pmul  •  pebic  •  cnua  on  ealaS  j-ele  bjiincan. 
piS  attjie  betonican  "j  ]?a  fmalan  attopla];an  bo  on 
halij  psetep  bpinc  f  pseteji  -j  et  ];a  pypta.  Ui5  selcum 
attjie  •  pebic  "j  elate  ete  eep  ne  msej  ]>e  nan  man  attpe 
fol.  42  a.  apypban.      PI'S    selcum   attpe   bipceoppypt  ni];epeapb  -j 

elehtjie  •  -j  fppmj  pypt  nio]?epeajib  eo):opJ?potan  •  "j 
clatan  •  apyl  on  ealaS  pele  bpmcan  jelome.  jtp  nreb- 
b]ie  j-lea  man  pone  blacan  fnejl  apsepc  on  halij  psBtpe 
pele  bpmcan  o]>])e  hpset  hpeja  ]  sep  ];e  fjiam  fcottum 
come.  6pt  pejbjiteban  jejnib  fpipe  bpmc  on  pine. 
Pi];  nsebpan  bite  betonican  ^te  ]>\iy  penejaf  jepeje  bo 
on  ]>]\y  boUan  pulle  pmef  pele  bpmcan. 

Pi]?  nsebpan  bite  ept  ptfleape  appunjenu  -j  \>\\>  ptn 
jemenjeb  30b  bij>  to  bpincanne.  Yip  nsebpan  bite  ept 
celejjonie  jetpipulabe  bjunce  on  nealit  neptij  •  ill. 
bollan  jrulle.  pi]>  nsebpan  pleje  fppmjpypc  •  atoplaj^an  • 
eopopppocan  •  bipceoppyjit  ]'ypc  to  bpence. 

Pi|)  |)on  ])e  mon  Jncje  atoji  •  jenim  pa.  bajian  hunan 
jepypc  micelne  bsel  *j  nsebeppypte  cnua  tojsebepe  -j 
ppmj  f  peap  bo  pmef  }jpie  mel  on  ^j  pele  bpmcan. 
yip  nsebpan  plite  ntm  pejbpseban  •  ^  ajpimonian  •  -j 
nsebbep  pypt  pele  jejnibene  on  pme  bpmcan  •  -j  pypc 
fol.  42  b.  pealpe    op   ]?am    ileum   pyptum  •    -j  mm  |^a  ajjiimonian 

Ch.  xliv, 

LEECH  BOOK.    I.  111 

netherward  part  of  meadow  sweet,  the  netherwavd  part  Book  i. 
of  "feferthe,"  the  netherward  part  of  cynoglosson,  em- 
ploy of  all  equal  quantities,  pound  to  dust,  add  thereto 
the  white  of  a  hens  egg,  and  honey,  employ  equal 
quantities  of  the  two,  mingle  with  the  dusts,  clam  or 
maJ^e  it  cling  on  the  cancer,  put  no  water  to  it. 


1.  Drinks  or  'potio7is  and  leechdoms  against  poison. 
Pound  in  ale  betony,  marche,  wormwood,  fennel,  radish ; 
administer  this  to  drink.  Against  poison ;  put  in  hoi}' 
water  betony  and  the  small  atterlothe,  drink  the  water 
and  eat  the  worts.  Against  any  poison  ;  eat  ere  the 
danger  cometh  radish  and  clote  ;  no  man  may  then  do 
thee  a  mischief  with  poison.  Against  any  poison  ;  boil 
the  netherward  part  of  bisliopwort  and  lupin,  and  the 
netherward  part  of  springwort,  everthroat,  and  clote 
in  ale  ;  give  to  drink  frequently.  If  an  adder  strike 
a  man,  or  for  whatever  of  that  which  cometh  of  shots, 
wash  the  black  snail  in  holy  water,  give  to  the  sich 
to  drink.  Again,  rub  waybroad  thoroughly  fine,  drink 
it  in  wine.  For  bite  of  snake,  put  so  much  of  betony 
as  may  weigh  three  pennies  into  three  bowls  full  of 
wine,  give  it  the  man  to  drink. 

2.  For  bite  of  snake  again  ;  cinqfoil  wrung  and  min- 
gled with  wine  is  good  to  drink.  For  bite  of  snake 
again;  celandine  bruised,  at  night  fasting,  let  the  man 
drink  three  bowls  full.  For  adders  wound,  work  eu- 
forbia,  attorlothe,  stemless  carline,  ammi,  into  a  drink. 

3.  In  case  a  man  swallow  poison,  take  then  hore- 
hound,  work  up  a  mickle  deal  of  it,  and  adder  wort, 
pound  them  together  and  wring  the  juice,  pour  thereon 
three  measures  of  wine  and  give  this  to  the  poiso7ied 
man  to  drink.  For  hurt  from  snake ;  take  waybroad, 
and  agrimony,  and  adderwort,  administer  them  rubbed 
up  in  wine  to  be  drunk  ;  and  work  up  a  salve  of  the 

112  L^CE   ROC. 

jepyjic  anne  hpmj  ymb  ];one  j-lice  ucan  ne  ofepfciliS 
hit  }:up}'op  •  "j  bmb  ]?a  pypce  ept  opeji  ]3  bolh.  Pi]j 
nasbjian  yle^e  bo  op  }>inum  eajian  ]3  ceojio  -j  fmipe  niib 
ymb  *j  fmj   j^pipa   Jjsep  haljan    See  lohannep    jebeb   -j 


From  the  beup  meup  et  pateji    et   piliup    et  fpipitup  Sanctup, 

Assumptio  sci    ^111    omnia    ]-ubiecca    funt.     Cui    cm  nip    cpeatnijia   be- 
lohaunis  Seuuic  ec  ommr  pocercai-    rubiecta    eSc    et   mecuic  ec 

apostoli.  J  \.  PI  1 

expauej'cit  et  bpaco  pujic  ec  lilic  uipepa  et  jiubeta 
ilia  que  bicitup  pana  quieca  toppepcit  et  pcoppiuS  ex- 

^phalangiusAl.  j-ijij^j-uj^  et  pejulup  iimcituji  et  fpelaiu]"'^  nihil  iioxmm 
opepatup  et  omnia  uenenata  et  abhuc  pepociopa  pepen- 
tia^  et  animaha  noxia  te  iiepentup"  et  omnej-  abueppe 
Saluti^  humane  pabicep  ajiepount.  Tu  bomme  extinjue 
hoc  uenenatum  uipuf  extmjue  opepatjonef  eiuf  mopti- 
pepaf  et  uipef  quaf  In  ye  habet  euacua  et  ba  In  con- 
fpectu  tuo  omnibuf  quof  tu  cpeaftj  •  oculof  ut  uibeant 
aujiep  ut  aubiant  cop  ut  majnitubmem  tuam    Intelle- 

fol.  43  a.  jant  '*  et  cum   hoc    bixij'j'et   totum    femet  jpfum  fijno 

cpuci]'  apmauit  et  bibit  totum  quob  epat  In  cahce  • 
pep  pijnum  Sancte  cpucif  •  et  pep  te  xpe  ihu  et^ 
beo  fummo  patpe  umiS  faluatop  munbi  In  umtate 
fpipitup  Sancti  pep  omnia  Ssecula  Sseculopum  amen  ; 

])i])  pleojenbum  atpe  "j  selcum  jetejmum  fpile  •  on 
ppijebseje  ajjpep  butepan  J^e  fie  jemolcen  op  anej-  bleoj- 
nytne  o1S^e  hinbe  •  'j  ne  fie  pi]?  p?etpe  jemenjeb  • 
aj-mj  opep  nijon  fi]?um  letania  •  "j  mjon  pi]?um  patep 
noptep  •  -j  nijon  fi]?um  J>ip  jealbop  •  Acpse  •  sepcpse  • 
fepnem  •  nabpe  •  gepcuna  hel  •  sepnem  •  nijjsepn  •  ?ep  • 
afan  •  buipme  •  abcpice  •  sepnem  •  meobpe  •  sepnem  • 
jejjejm  •  sepnem  •  allu  •  honop  •  ucuf  •  ibap  •  abcept  • 
cunolaju  •  paticamo  •  helse  •  icap  xpita  •  hsele  •  tobsept 
tejia  •    pueh  •    cui  •    pobatep  •    plana  •    mil  •    '^  beah    to 

'  pepentje,  MS.  i       '  -gunc,  MS. 

^  tenebancuji,  MS.  ^  Supply  cum.     This  doxology  is 

^  abiK'ri'e  SaluciS,  MSS.  |  an  addition,  not  in  the  legend. 

LEECH    BOOK.    I.  113 

same  worts,  and  then  take  agrimony,  form  a  ring  ai-ound       Book  T. 
the  incision  on  the  outside,  (lie  mischief  will  proceed   no       *"''  '''^" 
further,    and    bind    the    wort    also    over  the  sore.     For 
stroke  of  viper,  remove  from  thine    ears   the  wax  and 
smear    around    therewith,    and    say  thrice    the   prayer 
of  Saint  John. 

4.  Dominus  mens  et  pater  et  fdius  et  spiritus  sanctus  ; 
cui  omnia  subiecta  sunt ;  cui  omnis  creatmu  deservit 
et  omnis  potestas  subiecta  est  et  metuit  et  expavescit; 
et  draco  fugit,  et  silet  vipera,  et  rubeta  ilia  qu?e  dicitur 
rana  quieta  torpescit,  et  scorpius  extinguitur  et  regulus 

tho.  hcLfiU he  \mc\iviY  et   o-TrijAajoj^  nihil  noxium    opera- ^  The  tarantula 

tur,  et  omnia  venenata  et  adhuc   ferociora,   repentia  et  i^*^,^  ^'"^ '"  '? 

.  ^  hole  watching 

anmialia  noxia,  te  verentur ;    et  omnes  adversse   saluti  for  prey. 

human?e  radices  arescunt ;  tu,  domine,  extingue  hoc  ve- 

nenatum  virus,  extingue  operationes  eius  mortifera,s,  et 

vires,  quas  in  se  habet,  evacua,  et  da  in  conspectu  tuo 

omnibus  quos  tu  creasti,  oculos  ut  videant,  aures  ut  au- 

diant,  cor  ut  magnitudinem  tuam  intelligant.     Et  cum 

hoc    dixisset,  totum  semet  ipsum  signo  crucis  armavit, 

et  bibit  totum  quod  erat  in  calice  :  per  signum  sancttc 

crucis,  et  per  te  Christe  lesu,  qui  cum,  domino  summo 

patre  vivis,  salvator  mundi,  in  unitate  Spiritus  Sancti, 

per  omnia  secula  seculorum.     Amen. 

5.  For  flying  venom  and  every  venomous  swelling, 
on  a  Friday  churn  butter,  which  has  been  milked  from 
a  neat  or  hind  all  of  one  colour  ;  and  let  it  not  be 
mingled  Avith  water,  sing  over  it  nine  times  a  litany, 
and  nine  times  the  Pater  noster,  and  nine  times  this 
incantation.  The  charm  is  said  in  the  tahle  of  contents 
to  be  Scottish,  that  is  Gaelic,^  but  the  ivord.s  themselves 
seem  to  belong  to  no  known  language.     That  is  valid 

'  Or  Gadhelic,  or  Irish.    An  early   I   as  not  Scotland,  occurs   in  TIClfrics 
instance  of  the  mention  of  Ireland,  1  Homilies,  vol.  ii.  p.  .T  JG. 

VOL.  XL  H 

114  LMCE  BOa 

[Blciim  -j  liujiu  CO  beopum  boljum.  Sume  an  j^ojib  piS 
nrebjian  bire  IsejuaS  co  cpe])enne  f  ip  fanl  ne  mrej  liim 
bejuan.  ])i^  nveh]\ai\  yhte  31]:  he  bejefc  "j  yt  pmbe  fio 
pe  cyniS  oj:  neojixna  pon^e  ne  bepeS  him  nan  atteji  • 
fol.  43  b.  J>onne    cpoe];    pe    pe    ]?ap    boc    ppat    p    hio    psejie    tO]i 


Ttp  lipa  bjiince  pypm  on  poetejie  op  fniSe  fceap  paSe 
bjnnce  hax:  p  j'ceapep  blob.  Tip  mon  fie  jyjituin  poji- 
bojien  pele  fpjimjpypt  p  he  ete  -j  hahj  pasteji  pupe. 
]}\])  }Jon  ]>e  mon  fie  popbopen  •  jip  lie  hsey]?  on  him 
fcyttifc  peax  •  J^a  fmalan  attoplaSan  o^^e  on  ajjylbnm 
ealaS  bjnnce  ne  msej  hme  pyptum  popbepan. 

•  XLVI. 


qIP  ana  p3^]im  on  men  peaxe  •  fraijie  mib  prepe  blacan 
pcalpe  jip  he  nt  pnjih  ete  -j  ]>ypel  jepypce  •  jentm 
hnni^ep  bjiopan  bpype  on  j^ast  pyjiel  •  hapa  ]>onne  je- 
bpocen  ^Isep  jeapa  jejpunben  fceab  on  p  pypel  ponne 
pona  fpa  he  J^rep  onbipij^  ponne  fpilt  he.  Sealp  piS 
anapypme  •  ]nif  mon  j-ceal  pypcean.  Tentm  qiimque- 
polian  p  ip  pipleape*  .puban  pyl  on  butejian  ^efpet  mib 

bpenc  qumquepolian  p  ip  pipleape  pele  on  ealaS  bpm- 
can  pipitij  nihta.  bpenc  ]>iS  ];on  prebicef  fj©b  -j  caulep 
jnib  on  eala  o]>])e  on  pm  bjimce  yi])  anapyjime  lanje  -j 
jelome  op  f  pel  fie.  Clam  yip  ];on  ])a  jieaban  tijelan 
fcl.  44  a.  jecnnpa  to  biifce  -^emenj  ]nt>  5]iut  abjiaeb  cicel  leje  on 

])  bolli  ]'y]ic  o]H;pne  ;5ip  J^'ajip  fie. 

LEECH   BOOK.    T.  115 

for  every,  even  for  deep  wounds.     Some  teacli  us  against      Book  I. 
bite  of  adder    to    speak    one  word,    that   is,    Faul;'  it      Cii.  xlv. 
may  not  linrt  him.     Against  bite  of  snake,  if  the  oiian 
procures  and  eateth  rind,  which  cometli  out  of  paradise, 
no  venom  will  damage  him.     Then  said  he  that  wrote 
this  book,  that  the  rind  was  liard  gotten. 

6.  If  one  drink  a  creeping  thing  in  water,  let  him 
cut  into  a  sheep  instantly,  let  him  drink  the  sheeps 
blood  liot.  If  a  man  be  "restrained"  with  worts,"  give 
him  springwort  for  him  to  eat,  and  let  him  sup  up 
holy  water.  Incase  that  a  man  be  "withheld;"  if  he 
hath  on  him  Scottish  wax,  and  the  small  atterlothe  ; 
or  let  him  drink  it  in  boiled  ale,  he  may  not  be 
"  restrained  "  by  worts. 


1.  If  0ns   worm  ^  grow  in  a  man,  smear    with    the  "  See  Glos- 
l)lack   salve.     If  tJie  worm  eat  through  to  the  outside  ^^'^^' 
and  make  a  hole,  take  a  drop  of  honey,  di'op  it  on  the 

hole,  then  have  broken  glass  ready  ground,  shed  it  on 
the  hole,  then  as  soon  as  the  worm  tastes  of  this  he 
will  die.  A  salve  against  an  0ns  worm,  thus  shall  a 
man  work  it  :  take  cinquefoil,  that  is  five  leaved  grass, 
and  rue,  boil  them  in  Ijutter,  sweeten  with  honey. 

2.  A  drink;  administer  in  ale  cinquefoil,  that  is  five 
leaved  grass,  or  'potentilla,  to  drink  for  thirty  nights. 
A  drink  for  that ;  rub '  down  into  ale  or  into  wine 
seed  of  radish  and  of  colewort,  let  the  man  drink  that 
long  and  frequently  against  0ns  worm,  till  that  Ids 
case  be  bettered.  A  plaster  for  the  same  :  pound  to 
dust  a  red  tile  or  hrick,  mingle  with  groats,  bake  a 
cake,  ky  it  on  the  wound  ;  work  another  ];>laster  if 
need  be. 

'  Cf.  "  Duo,"  to  drive  away  scor-  I       -  From  hajnieb)niis.     See  yoiibe« 
pious,  Plinius,  lib.  xxviii.  5.  |  jian  in  Glossary. 

H    2 

U6  L^.CE   P.OC. 


Lgecebomaf  ]'i5  |ieo]iabliim  •  reycjnnb  •  sejpan  jiinh  • 
elm  jmib  •  cpicjnnb  •  fio  micle  popjnj  uerle  nio]:»opea]ib  • 
pepniob  •  InnbhioloSe  •  befopeaba  ]ja  pmba  ealle  iitan  *j 
j^ecnua  fpi)  e  p}^  tofomne  •  bo  ealpa  empela  op  jeot 
nnb  hlutujie  ealo];  \vex:  fcanban  ];one  bpenc  nihtejnie 
on  pate  sd]\  mon  Line  bpmcan  pille  •  bpince  on  mop- 
jenne  fcenc  pulne  J'lj'ep  bjiencep  •  to  mibbep  mepi^enef 
fcanbe  eaft  peajib  'j  bebeobe  hme  jobe  -^eopiihce  -j  liine 
jepenije  cyjipe  hiue  fun;j;on5ep  ymb  {epteji  J^am  bjieiice 
;;^an;t;e  pij^J^an  -j  ftanbe  fume  lipile  ve]\  lie  Iniie  jiefte 
jeoce  fpa  micel  on  fpa  lie  J^seji  op  bo  •  bjiince  jnpne 
bjienc  nijon  nilit  -j  Jncje  fpilcne  mete  fpa  he  pille. 
b)ienc  pj]^  ]7eo]iable  •  funb'  oinpjian  ymb  help  fmj  ]?pipa 
pateji  ]i]i  •  bjieb  up  p>onne  ]?u  cpe];e  fet  -  libepa  nof  a 
malo .  j^enim  J'jepe  pip  fiifieba  -j  feopon  pipoji  cojm 
jecnua  tojsebejie  'j  j'onne  ]m  f  pypce  fmj  .xii.  fi|pura 
fol.  441).  ])0iie  pealm  •  mipejiepe    mei  beup  •  -j   jlopia  In  excelpif 

beo  •  'j  patep  nopteji  •  opjeoc  J>onne  nub  pine  ];onne  brej 
•j  nilit  pcabe*^  bjunce  ]>onne  ]7one  bpenc  *j  beppeoli  6e 
peapme,  Tenim  Jjonne  hinb  hiolopan  ane^  6p7;eot  mib 
yrete]\e  bjiince  o]?]ie  mojijne  fcenc  pulne  |?onne  o]>pe 
]-i])e  feopon  fiifeba  -j  iiijon  pipojicopn  •  ];pibban  pipe 
1115011  fnreba  -j  xi.  pipojicojin.  6]iinc  pij>)\an  fpi<Sne  bjienc 
pepe  pille  up  yjinan  'j  op  biine  •  l?et  ponne  blob  unbeji 

'  Head  fiipe  ?  {        '  At  morning  tM'iliglit. 

-  That  is.  I'ch  ;    the  MSS.  usually    |        '  Some  Avords  nvc  here,  it  seems, 
set.  I   omitted. 

LEECH    i;0OK.    (.  117 


1.  Leechdoms  for    '"dry"  diseases;'^  ash  rind,   aspen 


Book  I. 
Oil.  xlvii. 

rind,    elm   rind,    (piickbeaui  rind,  the   netherwai'd    i>art    '  ^^     °^" 

of  the  niickle  highway  nettle,  wormwood,  hindheal, 
that  is,  luater  agrimony,  empurple  all  the  rinds  on  the 
outside,  and  pound  them  thoroughly,  boil  them  togetlun-, 
apply  equal  quantities  of  all,  souse  them  with  elear  ale, 
then  let  the  drink  stand  for  the  space  of  a  night  in  a 
vessel,  before  a  man  shall  choose  to  drink  it.  Let  him 
in  the  morning  drink  a  cup  full  of  this  drink  ;  in  the 
middle  of  the  morning  hours,'  let  him  stand  towards 
the  east,  let  him  address  himself  to  God  earnestly,  and 
let  him  sign  himself  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  let 
him  also  turn  himself  about  as  the  sun  goeth  fivrii 
east  to  south  and  west ;  after  the  drink  let  him  next 
go  and  stand  some  while  ere  he  repose  himself;  let 
him  pour  as  much  liqmd  into  the  vessel  as  he  removes 
from  it  :  let  him  drink  this  potion  for  nine  nights  and 
eat  what  meat  he  will.  A  drink  for  the  "dry"  disease  ; 
delve  about  sour  ompre,  that  is,  sorrel  dock,  sing 
thrice  the  Pater  noster,  jerk  it  up,  then  while  thou 
sayest  sed  libera  nos  a  malo,  take  five  slices  of  it 
and  seven  pepper  corns,  bray  them  together,  and  while 
thou  be  working  it,  sing  twelve  times  the  psalm 
Miserere  mei,  deus,  and  Gloria  in  excelsis  deo,  and 
the  Pater  noster,  then  pour  the  stuff  all  over  with 
wine,  when  day  and  night  divide,  then  drink  the  dose 
and  wrap  thyself  up  warm.  Then  take  hindheal  alone, 
souse  it  with  water,  drink  the  next  morning  a  cu}) 
full,  then  the  next  time  seven  slices  and  nine  pepper 
corns,  the  third  time  nine  slices  and  eleven  pepper 
corns ;  afterwards  drink  a  strong  potion  which  will 
run  up  and  adown  ;  ^  then  let  blood  below  the  ancle. 

1  This    .should    be    read   as    be-      o'clock.     The  middle  will  be  about 
ginuing  the  morning   at  dawn,  and      seven  on  the  average, 
ending    it    at    unbejm,    our    nine  I       ■  Purgative  and  emetic. 

118  LJECE  BOC. 

bpenc  ])i\>  ]78opable  mnie  liealj:  pubu  'j  bulent-jfan  j-a 
linalan  •  Jninoji  j'yjic  •  ]Hibiipeaxau  moj'opeajib  •  pealpyjit; 
mojjopeajibe  jecnua  ]?onne  ealle  topomne  pypce  liim  Co 
bjieiice  bo  on  pylifc  ealo  •  o]?J?e  on  beo]\  Imt  fcanban 
nilicepne  •  bpmce  ]?onne  I'pilcue  nijon  mopjenai'  •  nime 
]jy  teoj^an  mopjne  ]7Pep  bpincef  tpa  bleba  pulle  •  bepylle 
on  aue  -j  j^a  pyjita  fien  mib  apeoli  ]?u]\li  claj?  apete 
tip  ]78eji  hio  eo]i]7an  hjiman  ne  mreje  o]?  ■^  hic  mon 
bpmcan    mseje  ;  ^    ];onue  }?u  hit  ~  jebjuincen  lisebbe  be- 

fol.  45  a.  ppeoh  ]?e  peapme  lije  on  J^a  fiban  'pe  he  J»onne  jecenje 

lie-  jip  he'^  on  J^am  mnoj^e.biS  J^onne  abpifS  hme  )?el' 
bpinc  ur.  Sealp  pi]?  ])eope  mm  japleac  -j  jjieate  J'yjic  • 
pepmob  leabe*  netlan  ciS  jecnua  fmale  "j  hiopoc  fmepu 
gemanj  p  hit:  fie  fpilc  fpa  bah  bo  ]?onne  on  hnenne 
claS  pyjime  ]?onne  ^ehppejjeji  je  ]5  he  je  jja  pealjre  co 
pype  ]?onne  ]7U  hit  fmypian  pille  Jjsep  fio  abl  fie  fylje 
htm  mib  ]7ippe  fealjie  -j  mib  ])yp  ^  bpence.  bpenc  pi)? 
|?eopable  bjiije  pejimob  •  pebic  pealpypt  ealpa  J?]ieopa 
em  }:ela  bo  on  eahi  gnib  pel  hi3te  set  jepefran  fcanban 
]?peo  nihc  iep  pon  he  hme  bjunce  •  -j  pi]?]?an  he  hme 
bjimce  ymb  feopon  mhc  pojilcece  blob  uiibep  |;am  an- 
cleope  bpmce  poji]?  ]?one  bjienc  peoj^ejit^me  nih'c  •  Isete 
jponne  ept  blob  unbep  ]?am  o])]ian  ancleope,  bjnnce 
eallep  pone  bpenc  j'pitig  nihta  on  unbejm  jobe  blebe 
fulle  oj'pe  ]7onne  ]?n  pefcan  pille.  pi]?  ];eo]ipypme  on 
pet  mm  ]?a  peaban  iietlaii  gecnua  bo  pseteji  to  leje  on 

fol.  -15  b.  hatne  fuan  liBt  appeo]?an  binb  on  ]?one  pot  neahtejme. 

6pt  pealp  setan  jecnua  leje  on.  pi]?  ]?eope  on  pet 
jejmb  pealpypt  on  jefpet  pm  •  -j  hpitcpnbu  -j  pipoji 
bpince  p. 

'  nBEgc,  MS.  I  ■'  This  word  seems  corrupt  ;  per- 

■•■■  hr,  MS.  I  haps     jieabe ;    red    nettle,   a   plant 

,^  The  only  antecedent  abl  ought  |  ofit.'ieB.-t^'uui  1(i> 

to   be  followed  by    feminine   pro-  j  =  )'y)*,  MS.,  understand  as  hyj-um. 

LEECH   LOOK.    1.  I  10 

2.  A  drink   against   the   "  dry  "   disease  ;   take   liekl      ^o""^  {■. 
balm^  and  the  small  bulentse,  thunderwort,^  the  nether  a  Calaminth'a 
lYcXvt   of   woodAvax,    the   netherward   jiart   of  wallwort,  ncpeta. 
then  pound  all  toojether,  work  it  for  him  (the  patiejtt)  '  ^^"'P<^'''''^- 

1-        ,  .  V         J.  /  vuiii  teclorum. 

for  a  driidv,  put  it  into  foreign  ale  or  beer,  let  it 
stand  for  the  space  of  a  night,  then  let  him  drink 
such  drink  for  nine  mornings,  take  on  the  tenth  morn- 
ing two  cups  full  of  the  drink,  boil  them  both  in  one, 
and  let  the  worts  be  therewith,  strain  through  a  cloth, 
set  it  up  where  it  may  not  touch  the  eartli,  till  that 
a  man  may  drink  it ;  when  thou  have  drunken  it, 
wrap  thee  up  warm;  lie  on  the  side  to  which  the  imin 
is  incident,  if  it  be  in  the  inwards,  then  this  drink 
will  drive  it  out.  A  salve  against  the  "dry"  disease  ; 
take  garlic  and  great  wort,  wormwood,  a  plant  of  net- 
tle, pound  small,  and  along  with  it  harts  grease,  that 
it  may  be  such  as  dough  is,  place  it  then  on  a  linen 
cloth,  then  warm  both  the  body  and  the  salve  at  the  fire ; 
when  thou  wilt  smear  the  body  or  the  spot  where  the 
disease  may  be,  follow  up  the  'patient  with  this  salve 
and  with  this  drink.  A  cMnk  for  the  "dry"  disease; 
dry  Avormwood,  radisli,  wallwort,*^  of  all  these  equal "  Saiabucas 
quantities,  put  into  ale,  rub  the  herbs  doivii  well,  the 
man  should  have  the  liqmd  stand  at  first  for  three 
nights  before  he  drink  it,  and  subsequently  let  him 
drink  it  for  about  seven  nights,  let  him  let  blood 
under  the  ancle,  let  him  drink  the  drink  straight  on 
for  fourteen  niglits;  let  him  next  let  blood  under  the 
other  ancle.  Drink  the  dose  for  thirty  nights  in  all, 
a  good  cup  full  at  nine  A.M.  or  when  thou  wilt  go  to 
bed.  For  a  "dry"'  worm  in  the  foot;  take  the  red 
nettle,  pound  it,  add  water  to  it,  lay  it  on  a  hot 
stone,  make  it  froth,  bind  it  on  the  foot  for  the  space 
of  a  night.  Again,  a  salve ;  pound  oats,  lay  on.  For 
the  "dry"  rot  in  the  foot,  triturate  wallwort  into  sweet- 
ened wine,  and  mastic  and  pepper  ;  let  him  drink  that. 

120  L/ECE   BOC. 

Oxa  liejibe  |nj-ne  lajcobom  •  jeiiiine  pealpyjic  "j  cluj:- 
j^unj  -j  ciieopliolen  ^  ejrelaptau  "j  cainecou  "j  tunjilj'in- 
pyjit  •  vim.  bjuuie  bij-ceop  pypt  •  "j  attojilaj^an  'j  peabe 
net  Ian  •  -j  jioabe  ]io]:an  --j  pepmob  -j  jeappan  •  "j  hunan 
■j  boljjiiman  •  -j  bj^eopje  bpolrlan  bo  ealle  ]>a]'  pypta 
on  pylipc  ealo  -j  bjnnce  ponne  nijon  bajal'  "j  blob  Isete. 
])i])  J^eop  pfBpce  pypc  to  bjience  alexanbpe  •  finpulle 
pejunob  •  tpa  cneopliolen  •  paluian  •  lapme  •  pealmope  • 
lupefcice  •  pepep  puje  •  mepce  •  cofc  •  japleac  •  tej'C- 
I'jiotu  •  beconice  •  bifceop  pyjic  •  on  tj^ybpopnum  ealaS 
jepypce  (pet  mib  Imnije  bjmic  nijon  mopjenaf  nanne 
o];epne  poetan  bjunc  repcep  Ipijme  bpenc  "j  Iset  blob 
fol.  4G  a.  oxa  laepbe  jnfne  lascebom.      j^i]?  JjBope  cneopliolen  nij^e- 

peajib  •  acumba  •  cpiS  •  -j  bpune  pyjit  ealjia  empela  bo 
on  pililc  ealii  •  bepyl  o]?  ]?pibban  bsel  -j  bpmce  ]m  hpile 
]>a  lie  jnijipe  •  -j  ]?a3p  lio  abl  jefitce  pylje  hmi  fiinle 
nnb  ti^e  hopne  o]?  ]3  Lai  fie. 

"E\iJ.iv0es.  1  Pij;  |,ain  pyji  mumjje  mnan  ejlaS  j)am  men  •  jennn 

l^e^bpteban  jetjupula  -j  Ji  peaj)  j-ele  on  cuclepe  fupan 
•j  ]>a  p3^]it  ]-elpe  Ipa  jecnupabe  leje  on  j^one  napolan. 
PrS  cilba  mnoj'ep  pypnmm  •  jennn  jpene  mmtan  penne 
gelm  jebo  on  ppy  ]'e]-t]iaf  pa?tepel"  peo5  o]?  ]?pibban  bsel 
apeoli  ]?onne  pele  bpincan.  piS  cilba  mno])  I'ape  bpeopje 
bjiolrle  •  "j  cymen  jernm  jebeat  jemense  pij;  pjietep 
le^c  opeji  Sone  napolan  Ibna  biS  hal.  Vi&  pypmum  ]>e 
innan  ejIaS  •    ^enelbep  lieojirej-   hopnep  ahfan  oSSe  bufc 

Jfcrb.  Apul.,  ii.  10. 

LEECH    BOOK.    I.  121 

3.  Oxa  taught  an  this  lecchdoin  :  take  wall  wort,  ;>nd  Hook  1. 
clofting,  and  kiieeholn,  and  everlasting,  and  cainniock,'  ''  ^  ^"' 
and  white  hellebore,  in  the  proportion  of  nine  to  one, 
brownwort,  bishopwort,  and  atterlotlic,  and  red  nettle, 
and  red  hove,  and  wormwood,  and  yarrow,  and  hore- 
honnd,  and  pellitory,  and  pennyroyal,  put  all  these  worts 
into  foreign  ale,  and  then  let  tJte  rnan  driidv  for  nine 
days  and  let  blood.  For  the  "dry"  pain;  make  into  a 
drink,  alexanders,  sedum,  wormwood,  the  two  kneeholns,- 
sage,  savine,  carrot,  lovage,  feverfue,  marche,  costmary, 
garlic,  aslithroat,  betony,  bishopwort,  work  them  up 
into  double  brewed  ale,  sweeten  with  honey,  drink 
for  nine  mornings  no  other  liquid  ;  drink  afterwards  a 
strong  potion,  and  let  blood.  Oxa  taught  this  leecli- 
dom.  Against  "dry"  rot;  put  into  foreign  ale,  the 
netherward  part  of  kneeholn,  tow,^  matricaria  (?\  and 
brownwort,  of  all  equal  quantities;  boil  down  to  one 
third  part,  and  let  the  patient  drink  while  lie  may 
re(piire  it ;  and  where  the  disease  has  settled,  follow 
him  up  ever  with  the  drawing  horn*  till  the  place 
be  hole. 


Against  tlie  worms  which  ail  men  witliin ;  take  intestinal 
waybroad,  triturate  it,  and  give  tlie  juice  in  a  spoon  worms, 
to  sup,  and  lay  the  Avort  itself,  so  pounded,  on  the 
navel.  Against  worms  of  the  inwards  of  children ; 
take  green  mint,  a  handful  of  it,  put  it  into  three 
sextariuses  of  water,  seethe  it  down  to  one  tliird  part, 
strain,  then  give  to  drink.  For  inward  sore  of  chil- 
dren take  pennyroyal  and  cunmiin,  beat  them  up, 
mingle  them  with  water,  lay  them  over  the  navel,  soon 
it   will  be  whole.     Against  worms    which    ail  a   mail 

'  Pcucedanuin  officinale. 

■  Only  Muscus  aculcalus  grows 
wild  in  England.  There  are  three 

^  Understand  as  reduced  to  ashes. 
See  note  on  I.  xxxiii.  1. 
*  Cupping  glass. 

122  L^CE  BOC. 

jemenj  pi6  himij  jefmijie  mib  J^one  bpecj^eajim  ^  jjone 
napolan  mib  ]?y  jjonne  jreallaS  hie,  ^  pib  pyjimum  \)e 
innan  ejla^  jerpijrolab-  cofc  to  bufce  •  jebo  jobne  ba3l 
in  hat  paeteji  yele  bpmcan. 

fol.  46  b.  ^P^P  pj^jimiim  eyt  jate  cojib  iieajib  -j  I'piSe  bjnje  je- 

menj  -j  jejmb  yip  liunij   pele   bjimcan  pset  abjiip]>    liie 

]Marcellus,  apej.  piS  pyjimiiin  ]^e  mnan  ejlaS  ept  jiebtc  feo"6  on 
psetjie  oj?  pone  ]?]ubban  bsol  menje  pi];*  pm  pele  bpmcan. 

Marcellus,  6pt  pib  bon  gate  ^eallan  jebo  on  puUe  lege  "j  biub  on 
'  '  ]>one    napolan.      yip  ]>on  ilcan  •  mmtan  pel  jetpipulabe 

menj  pij?  Imnij  py]ic  to  lytluin  clipene  Itet  popfpeljan. 
6pt  ele  -j  ecebep  em  micel  gemenjeb  pele  J^py  bajap 
bjiincan.  Gpt  eopojij^jiote  •  mejice  •  Ijetonice  •  nepte  • 
jiScojm  pyl  on  jnne.  pi]>  pyjunuin  pe  innan  ejlab 
pyptbjienc  op  oiitpan  •  op  pelbmopan  lele  bjnncan- 
Sealp  •  ete  celej^onian  •  b]iunep3qit  a]:»ylle  on  mojiobe  • 
bo  ]7onne  Icip  teajio  -j  fpepl  to  imi]ie  mib. 

AoKapts.  y^p  ]'3,m  I'malan  pyjime.     pipepmban  tpij  pojiepeajib  • 

•j   ]7a    pealpan    boccan    njep    pa    jieaban  •    -j    pip    jpeate 
pcalt  jcbeatcn  toja-'bepe  fpiyjc  I'male  *j  lytel  butejian. 


y  ip  lionb   pyjimum  -j  beap  pyjimuin  •    jenim  boccan 
fol.  47  a.  obSc  clataii  pa  pe  i'pnnman  polbe  pa  pyjittjiuman  men;^ 

pi6   plccan    "j    prS   j'calt    last   I'ranban    pjico    iiilit  -j   ]>y 
pcoppan  bajje  iinipc  inib  pa  j'apian  fcopa. 

'  riiiiius  Valerianus,  ut  infra.         l       '  Piiniuw  Valerianiis,  fol.  41,  c. 
■-'  Head  secjujola.  | 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  123 

within ;    minsrle    with    hone^',  tishes   or    dust  of  burnt     ^^H  \\. 
harts   horn,   smear   therewith   tlie  fundament  and    the 
navel,    then    they    fall   away.      For   worms   which   ail 
Avithin ;    triturate  costmar}'  to  dust,  put  a   good    deal 
into  hot  water,  give  to  drink. 

2.  For  worms  again ;  mingle  and  rub  up  vriih  honey 
a  hard  and  very  dry  goats  tord,  administer  it  to  be 
drunk,  that  will  drive  them  awaj*.  Against  worms 
which  ail  a  man  within,  again;  seethe  in  water  radish 
to  the  third  part,  mingle  with  wine,  give  to  drink. 
Again  for  that ;  put  goats  gall  on  wool,  lay  and  bind 
it  on  the  navel.  For  that  ilk ;  mingle  with  honey,  mint 
well  triturated,  work  it  into  a  little  bolus,  make  him 
swallow  it.  Ao-ain,  give  for  three  davs  to  diink  oil 
and  of  vineg-ai-  an  equal  quantity.  Again,  everthroat,^ 
marehe,  betony,  nepeta,  githcorn ;  boil  them  in  wine ; 
For  worms  which  are  troublesome  within ;  give  to 
drink  a  wort  drink  of  •*ontre'"  and  of  parsnip.  A 
salve  ;  let  him  eat  celandine  ;  let  him  boil  brownwort 
in  inspissated  wine,  then  add  thereto  ship  tar  and 
sulfur ;    smear  therewith. 

For    the    small    worm;    the   forepart   of  a    twig    of  Hair  worm, 
withe  wind,    and    the   tallow    dock,*    not    the   red  one,  ^i?«'"f  r  "•«"- 
and  this  coarse  salt  beaten  together  very  small  and  Apalustris. 
little  butter. 


1.  For  hand  worms-  and  dew  worms  ;  t-ake  dock  or 
clotes,  such  as  would  swim,  mingle  the  roots  with  cream 
and  with  salt,  let  it  st^aJid  for  three  nights,  and  on 
the   fourth  day  smeai"  therewith  the  sore  places. 

'  Curlina  acttulis.  Keipjoi  =  tacniaj  ?  tape  worms,  \ronas 

-  Souse   Gl.   make  gad  dies   the  I  like    ribands    or    tapes  ;    i-ead    as 
hand  worms  ;  are  they  rather  here  I  x^'P'"*- 

124  L^CE  BOC. 

tT):  pypm  hanb  ete  •  jentm  mejifc  meaji  jeallan  'j 
jieabc  netlaii  -j  jieabe  boccan  "j  I'mjele  clifan  yy\  on  cu 
butejian  j^onne  fio  j'ealj:  jelbben  I'le  pipj^um  nun  Jjonne 
j'ealtej'  ])]iy  men  Iceab  on  hpeji  colbnme  •  -j  Innjie  nnb  • 
ly)7]ie  mib  lapan  ymb  mhc  fmijie  inib.  pi})  beappypme 
Icseppe  on  liar  col  cele  nnb  pfetjie  itseppe  on  Ipa  hat 
Ipa  he  harol'r  mpeje,  pib  beappyjiine  •  fume  mmaS 
peajim  cpeab  monnef  ]?ynne  bnibab  neahtepne  on  • 
fume  fpinef  lunjenne  peapme.  ])i^  honb  pypme  Nmi 
fcijVceapo  •  "J  fpepl  'j  pipop  •  -j  hpir  j-ealr  menj  coSomne 
fmijie  nnb.  peax  pealp  pi)>  pyjime  •  peax  pealp  •  butepe 
pipo]i  hptr  yealt:  menj  tofomne  fmijie  nnb. 


Pi])  pyjimum^    ])e    mannep  plsej'C   etaS    jiam    jeallan 
|;one    pajan    cnua  on  ni]ie    ealo  seji  ])on  Inc    aj'ipen    pe 
fol.  47  b.  pele  ]5  opeji  p3'llo  bjiincan  ))]ieo  nihr.     6pt:  jemm  jjiunbe 

fpeljean  ]?e  on  eojipan  peaxe]?  -j  fceapej-  fmejiu  menj 
tofomne  jelice  pela  leje  on.  6j:t  jennn  bepen  eap 
befenj  leje  on  fpa  hat  'j  hat  pjietep  lapa  on.  ]}ip 
plccpc  pyjimum  jenim  monnep  fnjian  |a  leap  gejiel 
tojtebjie  jebjiifib  on  jtejife  jecuna  ]7onne  leje  on  fpa 
j'u  hatofc  nuieje  ajipepnan, 


yi])  Infiim  acjiiub  -j  hpon  pepmob  jccnua  on  ealn 
pele  bjuncan.  UiS  lulum  c])'ic  peolpoji  "j  ealb  butejie 
an  pemnj  peolpjiep  •  -j  tu  pennij  pa'je  butepan  menj 
on  ajipot  eal  toSomne. 

'  'POnplacrii  ? 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  125 

2.  If  a  worm    cat    the    hand  ;  take  marsh  mareo-all''^       Book  i. 

f'l   1 
and  red  nettle,  and   red  dock,  and  tlte  small  bur,  boil  ^         " 

in  cows  butter;  when  the  salve  is  sodden,  then  further  ^,„,.,„/,„/,«)(/// 

take  of  salt  three  parts,  shed  thereuj>on,  shake  together, 

and  smear  therewith ;   lather    with    soap,    about   night 

timie   smear    therewith.     Against  a  dew  worm;  let  the 

man  step  upon  a  hot  coal,  let  him  cool  tlie  foot  with 

water  ;  let  him  step  upon  it  as  hot  as  he  hottest  maj". 

For  a   dew   worm,    some    take    warm    thin    ordure   of 

man,  they  bind  it  on   for   the  space  of  a  night ;  some 

tahe  a  swines  lung  warm.     Against  a  hand  worm  ;  take 

ship  tar,  and  sulfur,  and  pepper,  and  white  salt,  mingle 

them  together,  smear  therewith.     A  wax  salve  against 

a   worm  ;    a    wax   salve  ;    butter,   pepper,    white    salt, 

mingle  them  together,  smear  therewith. 


Against  worms  which  eat  a  mans  flesh ;  pound  into 
new  ale,  before  it  be  strained,  the  party  coloured  ram 
gall,'  give  the  running  over  to  drink  for  three  nights. 
Again,  take  groundsel  which  waxeth  on  the  earth,  and 
sheeps  grease,  mingle  thein  together,  alike  much  in 
qwtntlty,  lay  on.  Again,  take  an  ear  of  beer  or  bar- 
ley, singe  it,  lay  it  on  so  hot,  and  hot  water,  leave  it 
on.  Against  flesh  worms;  take  mans  sorrel,  boil  the 
leaves  together,  spread  them  out  on  the  grass,  then  pound 
them,  lay  them  on,  as  thou  hottest  may  endure  them. 


Against  lice ;  pound  in  ale  oak  rind  and  a  little 
wormwood,  give  to  the  lousy  one  to  drink.  Against 
lice ;  quicksilver  and  old  butter  ;  one  pennyweight  of 
quich^Wev  and  two  of  butter;  mingle  all  together  in 
a  brazen  vessel. 

'  Menyimthea  trifoliafa. 

12G  LiECE   BOO. 


V iS  fmejca  j'yjmie  nipe  cyye  -j  beob]ieab  'j  lipfietenne 
lilap  ete.  Gyx:  monnej"  lieapob  ban  bj\3]in  to  aliyan  bo 
jnib  pipan  on. 


J)]]>   pyjimaecura    lice    "j    cpelbehtnm     acjnnbe    bnfc  • 
{rpcjiinbe    bufc  •    ellen   pnibe    bnfc    on    no]i}jan    neo];an 
fol.  48  a.  jam  cpeope  •  eolonan  mopan  bufc-  boccan  mopan  bufc' 

j'yjim  acmehipep  bnfr  pipopef  bnfr  fijlan  bufc  •  fpejrlep 
bnfc  •  ele  •  'j  li0]i]-ep  fmejiu  Co  pope  -j  pcipteajiof  leefc  ' 
]>ip]"a  ealpa  empela  -j  })a]ia  biifca  ealjia  empela  jemenj 
eal  cealb  to)-omne  p  hic  pjiam  ])ani  ])ofuni  eal  pel 
fmitenbe  fmipe  mib  on  nihc  *j  on  mojijen  ale]:>]ie. 


Pi])  aplejennni  lice  .  bpom  •  peltejie  •  ^eappe  •  Iiope 
p3'l  on  butepan  -j  on  hiui  ^  fmipe  mib. 


>  ypc  bse}*  pi])  aplejenum  lice  •  jentra  'p  micle  peapn 
nio])opeapb  •  -j  elm  jtmbe  jpene  jecnua  cofomne  -j  meb- 
bjiofna  bo  CO  pretan  jnib  fpiSe  cofomne  leje  on  lanje 
lij'ile  o]>  p  he  peapm  fie  o])}^e  onfcaeppe. 

pip  aplejenum  lice  pealp  eolone  fpiSe  jefoben  "j 
niSepeajib  homoppecj  "j  ealb  fpic  cniia  eal  topomne 
jjyjim  ])U]ih  cla(5  co  pyjie  fmijie  mib  •  pceappa  ];onne 
fimle  ymb  .  YIT.  niht  ]-ere  liojni  on  pa  openan  pceajipan 

Iluro  ail  erasure  occurs,  as  if  luuiise  laud  been  meant,  but  not  filled  ii 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  127- 

liii.  Book  r. 

Ch,  liii. 
Against  a  boring  worm  ;  let  the  man  eat  new  cheese 

and  beebread  and  wlieaten  loaf.     Again,  burn  to  ashes 

a  mans  liead  bone  or  skull,  put  it  on  with  a  pipe. 


For  a  wormeaten  and  mortified  body ;  dust  of  oak 
rind,  dust  of  ash  rind,  dust  of  elder  rind,  taken  on  the 
north  of  tlie  tree,  and  the  nether  part,  warm,  dust 
of  the  root  of  helenium,  dust  of  root  of  dock,  dust  of 
acorn  meal,  peppers  dust,  dust  of  rye,  sulfurs  dust,  oil, 
and  horses  grease  for  a  liquid,  and  the  least  propor- 
tion of  ship  tar,  of  all  these  equal  quantities,  and  of  all 
the  dusts  equally  much ;  mingle  all  cold  together,  so 
tliat  by  means  of  the  liquids  may  be  all  well  smudg- 
ing, or  tJiorougJily  unctuous,  smear  therewith  at  night, 
and  in  the  morning  lather. 


For  slain,  that  is,  stricken,  body,  broom,  fel  terrre,^ » Enjthraa 
yarrow,  hove,  boil  these  in  butter  and  in  honey,  smear  '^(^"'""'^'^""'^ 


1 .  Work   a   fomentation   for  a  stricken   body ;   take 

the   mickle   fern,'^   the   netherward    part,  and  elm  rind  ^  AsphHum 
green,  pound  them  together,  and  for  a  liquor  add  mead'"'' 
dregs,    rub   them   up   thoroughly  together,    lay   on   foi- 
a  long   while,  till   tliat   the  sufferer  be  warm  or  walk 

2.  For  a  stricken  body,  a  salve;  heieniurn  thorouglily 
sodden,  and  the  netherward  part  of  hammersedge,  and 
old  lard,  pound  all  togetlier,  warm  through  a  cloth 
at  the  fire,  smear  therewith ;  then  scarify  continually 
about  the  bruise   for   seven   nights,    set  a  horn '  upon 

'  A  cupping  horn. 

128  LtECE  boc. 

fol.  48  b.  fmijie    mib    ])[e]ie    Macan    yealje    fpa    mht    fj^a   tpa   fpa 

];eapp  fie  'j  liy  opeiie  yynb. 


^ukTi.  j^ip  }-'ice  hjienc  ^  pealj:  •    py]ini  J'jpt  pylle   on  meolce 

^    b)\ince.      Sealp  cnua  jlaep  co  bufte  bo  hiniije]-    tfaji 
on  lacna  \>  bolj  niib. 

.LVII  I. 

lo  penj-ealpe  'j  pen  byliim  •  pyjic  hie  op  nio]  opea]ibjie 
nerlan  "j  op  hemlice  'j  op  ])B?]ie  clupihran  penpyjite  "j 
op  p[epe  fmalan  mo]ipy)ire  pyl  ealle  peopep  on  bnrejian 
'j  on  pceapep  fineppe  o]?]?  jenoli  j'le  jecnna  ept  ]>a 
ilcan  pyjita  on  ]>ie]\e  pealpe  -j  j'cip  ceapo  -j  japleac  -j 
cjiopleac  -j  pecjleac  "j  pealr  menj  pel  bo  on  claS  p^^jnn 
ro  pype  fpi^e^  fmipe  mib. 

Penj'ealp  ourjie  cejipan  peai^e  neclan  pejunob  •  tpa 
penpyjita  •  ellen  jimbe  •  pejbp.tebe  •  fujmn  •  bipceop  pyjit  • 
bulor  niSepeapb  •  fmepe  pypt  •  peak  •  pcipteaj\o  •  -j 
pceapen  fmejia.  pij)  pen  byle  Nim  cpopleac  •  ontpe  • 
fol.  49  a.  eolone  •    clupelite   penpypr  •  jecnna  ealle  J^a  )'/)ita  fpi])e 

pel  leje  on. 

Penj-ealp  hiojiorep  meajih  •  ipij;  teapo  -j  jebeaten  pipop 
'j  fcip  ceapo. 

^  [P^V  ]^^  blacan  blejene  fyle  })am  men  etan  cpejeu 
cjioppaf  oSSe  ])]\y  op  )  sepe  pypte  ]?e  man  on  J>peo  pifan 
hace^  myxenplante.] 

fpi«,  MS. 

In  the  margin,  in  a  different  and  later  hand. 

LERC'Tr    BOOK.    I.  129 

the  open  scarifications,  smear  with  tlie  black  salve,  bo        Book  I. 
it  for  a  night,  be  it  for  two,  as  need  be,  and  as  they  "  ^'' 

be  open. 


For  the  disease  called  fig,  a  drink  and  a  salve  ;  let 
him  boil  worm  wort  in  milk  and  drink  it.  A  salve  ; 
pound  glass  to  dust,  add  a  drop  of  honey,  leech  the 
wound  therewith. 


1.  For  a  wen  salve  and  for  wen  boils  ;  work  the  salro 
of  the  netherward  part  of  nettle  and  of  hendock,  and 

of  the  wenv/ort  which  has  cloves  or  bulbed  roots^'^  and  ="  Probably 

of  the  small  moorwort,  boil  all   four  in  butter  and  in  f  ""f"^"^"^' 

sheeps   grease   till   there  be  enough,   pound   again   the 

same  worts  in  the  salve,  and  ship  tar,  and  garlic,  and 

cropleek,  and   sedgeleek,^  and    salt,    mingle    well,    put  i>  AHium 

on  a  cloth,  w^arm  thoroughly  at  the  fire,  smear  tliere-  •'^fhienoprcmm. 


2.  A  salve  for  wens  ;  ontre,  cress,  I'ed  nettle,  worm- 
wood, the  two  wenworts,  elder  rind,  w^aybroad,  sorrel, 
bishopwort,  the  nether  part  of  bulot,  smearwort,  salt, 
shi]i  tar,^  and  sheeps  grease.  For  a  wen  boil ;  take 
cropleek,  ontre,  helenium,  the  clove  rooted  wenwort, 
]iound  all  the  worts  thoroughly  well,  lay  the  stuff  on. 

8.  A  wen  salve  ;  harts  marrow,  ivy  tar,  and  beaten 
pepper,  and  ship  tar. 

4.  [Against  the  black  blain,  give  to  the  man  to  eat 
two  bunches  or  three  ofl:'  the  wort,  wdiich  is  called  in 
three  ways,  the  mix  en  plant.^] 

'  Pix    uavalis    is   occasionally  prescribed  by    the  medical  authors,  as 
Nic.  Myreps,  481,  c,  in  the  Medicte  Artis  Principes. 
-  Atropa  belladonna. 

VOL.  ir.  I 

130  L^CE   BOC. 


^  PiJ>  If  ft  able  •  mm  j^cenc  jrulne  peallenbef  psetejief 
o)>e]ine  elep  •  *j  bpicef  yealtey  fpilc  fpa  mseje  mib  j:eo- 
pep    pmjpum    jemman  •    hpep   tojsebepe  op  5?  hit   eall 

V'  on  an  fie.     bpmc  eall  be  bpopan  pefc  hpile  fanj  pmjep 

on  ciolan  afpip^  epc  eall  -j  ma  51]:  ]>u  masje  •  ]?onne  on 
mor^5en  foplset  blob  oj:  eapme  •  oS6e  of  fpeopan  fpa 
msept  apsefnan  mseje  •  -j  j-ceappije  •  *j  hpon  onfette 
opep    eall   fmipe   }>onne   mib   liacan  ele  "j  htm    sejhpset; 

^-  j-ealrep  beopje  •  bpuce  jlsebenan  "j  eop ojipeapnep  uppe  on 

rpeope  -j  mib  hnej'ce  puUe  opep  ppiSe  ealle  J)a  fceappan 
]7onne  hie  fien  jefmyjiebe.  ])i]>  neujiipne  banpypt  bo 
on  fupe  plecan  'j  on  hunij  sejep  jeola  menj  tofomne 
fmijie  mib.     Gpt  jienpypmaf  cnua  bo  on. 


P16  bjiyne  pypc   pealpe  •  jemrn   jate  tojib  "j  hpsete 
fol.  49  b.  liealm    jebsepn  to  bufce  jemenj   burn  pij)  butepan  bo 

on  pannan   opeji    pyp  a]>yl   fpi^e   pel   apeoli   |)U]ib    cla5 
fmipe  mib. 

Pi]>  bpyne  jemm  pmulep  ni})epea]ibe]-  jebeat  piS 
ealbne  pypele  -j  leje  on.  Bpc  jentm  lilian  -j  jeappan 
pyl  on  butepan  fmipe  mib.  pij),  pon  ilcan  pylle  pibban 
on   butejian  -j  fmipe  mib. 

Pi]7  J;on  ilcan  pylle  jeappan  on  butepan  fmijie  mib. 

Pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  pylle  coccuc  on  pceape]'  fmeppe  -j 
atcojilajjan  -j  eopoppeapn  bo  on  hunij  oSSe  on  peax. 
Pi]>  }>on  bo  as^ej-  ]3  hpite  on  jelome. 

napAxvati.  |        =  afpi])e,  as  third  persou  better. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  131 

lix  Book  I. 

Ch.  lix. 

Against  palsy ;  take  a  cup  full  of  boiling  water, 
another  of  oil,  and  of  white  salt  so  much  as  one  may 
pick  up  with  four  fingers  ;  shake  together  till  that  it 
be  all  one  :  drink  all  this  by  drops,  rest  awhile,  poke 
thy  finger  into  the  gullet,  spew  up  again  all  and  more 
if  thou  ^  may ;  then  in  the  morning  let  blood  from  the 
arm  or  from  the  neck,  as  much  as  he '  may  bear ;  and 
scarify  and  let  him  put  something  on,  then  after  all 
smear  with  hot  oil  and  let  him  taste  a  trifle  of  salt; 
employ  gladden  and  everfern  picked  high  up  on  the 
tree,  and  cover  over  with  nesh  wool  all  the  scarifica- 
tions when  they  have  been  smeared.  Against  "neu- 
risn"  put  bone  wort  into  sour  cream,  and  into  honey, 
mingle  together  with  this  the  yolk  of  an  egg,  smear 
therewith.     Again,  pound  up  earthworms,  apply  them. 


1.  Against  a  burn  work  a  salve;  take  goats  tord  and 
halm  of  wheat,  burn  them  to  dust,  mingle  both  with 
butter,  put  into  a  pan  over  the  fire,  boil  thoroughly 
well,  strain  through  a  cloth,  smear  therewith. 

2.  For  a  burn,  take  some  of  the  netherward  part  of 
fennel,  beat  it  up  with  old  grease,  and  lay  on.  Again, 
take  lilly  and  yarrow,  boil  them  in  butter,  smear 
therewith.  For  the  same,  boil  ribwort  in  butter  and 
smear  therewith. 

3.  For  that  ilk,  boil  yarrow  in  butter,  smear  there- 

4.  For  th^t  ilk,  boil  mallow  in  sheeps  grease,  and 
attorlothe,  and  everfern,  put  them  into  honey  or  into 
wax.  For  that  same,  put  the  white  of  an  egg  on 

The  careless  use  of  pronouns  belongs  to  the  text. 

I  2 

132  L^OE  BOC. 

P'P  l>]iyn<3  pab  jecniia  pyl  on  butejian  finipe  raib. 


^  Pib  liS  psejice  cnua  li5  pyjit;  ])i'6  Imnije  o])])e  ceop  -j 
leje  on.  6}?u  pulpep  heapb  ban  baejin  fpi'Se  -j  jecnua 
fmale  ajyfc  ]m]\]\  claS  bo  on  f  bolj.  PiS  li]?  psepce 
cnua  pejtniob  pi];  teojipe  -j  pencepfan  apjiinj  f  feap  op 
menj  tolbnme  clceni  on  J3  li'S  j;e  ]?ie]i  faji  pie  jebnib 
peepte  on.  pi]>  liS  peape  jelob  pyjit  •  bjiune  pyjit:  • 
■j  ba)\e  pypt  lytelu  optofe  peaxe];  on  cune  hsepS 
fol.  50  a.  hpire  blofcman    jecnua  Sa  }?peo  pyj^ta   jemenje   ]3  bi}> 

/  30b    j-ealp.      O^anejum    men   li'S    j-eau    pyb6^   jepjun;^ 

seplej"  feap  on  'j  bojmep  fceapof'an  fjnSe  fmale  jepceap 
cpnn  on  p  bolb  ninan  bo  f  op  "j  fnnle  nipe  on.  pi]? 
b'S  feape  h];py]it  liunbep  beapob  jebspjine  "j  jecnupije 
-j  jebjipebebne  jeppel  •  menj  ]3  eall  tofomne  bo  ]3  on. 
6pt  j-ennn  fujme  ?eppel  jebpreb  'j  leje  on  •  bo  jpuc 
on  upan  ]jone  reppel  :• 

Pi];  lib  peape  •  jeiiim  ina5e]7an  menj  piS  hunij  bo  on 
]>  bolj  -j  Ijinb  ppefce.  pi])  peape  jenim  acpmbe  -j  bjiije 
'j  I'lpc  to  fmebman   -j    plahpopn  pmbe  nio])opea]ibe  fypt 

'  'Apdp~rts.  I   Dooms,  p.  42.  art.  53.     "  Si  quis  in 

-  Subluvium.     We  find  the  out-  |   "  hnmevo    plagietur    ut    glutinum 

flowing  of  the   synovia  an    object  "  compagum  efflnat:"  Laws,  Henry 

of  enactment.     See  vElfrecLs  I.,  p.  2G5. 

LEECH   B(K)K.    1.  133 

5.  For  a  burn,  pound    up  woad,   boil    it    in   buttci-,       ■^^'jok  I. 
•smear  therewith.  ^^-  '"• 


1.  Against  racking  pain  iu  the  joints,  pound  lith- 
wort  with  honey,  or  chew  it  and  lay  it  on.  Again, 
burn  thoroughly  the  head  bone  or  skull  of  a  wolf  and 
pound  it  small,  sift  it  through  a  cloth,  put  it  on  the 
wound.  Against  pain  in  the  joints,  pound  w^ormwood 
with  tar  and  fen  cress,  wring  out  the  juice,  mingle 
together,  stick  the  residue  upon  the  joint  where  the 
sore  is,  bind  it  on  fast.  For  the  synovia  of  the  joints, 
silver  weed,  brown  Avort,  and  the  little  harewort,^  it 
oftenest  waxeth  in  a  garden,  it  hath  white  blossoms, 
})0und  tlie  three  worts,  mingle  them,  that  is  a  good 
salve.  With  many  men  the  synovia  of  the  joints  oozeth 
out,^  wring  on  the  spot  the  juice  of  an  apple,  and  shave 
very  small  some  shavings  of  horn,  crumble"^  them  on 
the  wound  within  it,  remove  that  and  ever  apply  the 
same  anew.     For  the  synovia  of  the  joints,  burn  lith- 

wort,-'^  hound shead,  and    pound    them    up   with  roasted  •■■  Samlmcus 
apple  ;  mingle  all  that  together,  apply  it.     Again,  take  ^  "  "*' 
a  sour  apple,  roast  and  lay  it    on  ;   ap|)ly  groats   over 
above  the  apple. 

2.  For  the  synovia  of  the  joints,  take  maythe,  mingle 
it  with  honey,  apply  it  to  the  wound  and  bind  it  fast. 
For  the  secretion  of  the  joints,  take  oak  rind  and  dry 
it  and  work  it  to  a  fine  Jiour  or  smede,  and  further 
sloethorn   rind,   the    netlierward   part   of  it,  sift   tlieni 

'  Lepidium  ?  !   "  siipincntiir,  aut  vicinis  adfixi  in- 

-  "  Tunc  articiili  tumcntesinflau-  "  cunibant,    ct    aliquanclo    Immore 

"  tui',  ac  cleinde  durcscunt  ft  soli-  |   "  piirulento  vel  miicilento  collecto, 

"  dati  saxeam  faciunt  qualitatem  ;  "  aut  viscoso,  gcnerent  poros,  quos 

"  turn    etiam  nigriores    cfficiuntur,  !   "  cos  transitus  dicere  potcrimus.'" — 

"  atque    contort!,    ut    in    ohliquas  Cnrlius  vV^.irclianus,  about  A.D.  230, 

"  partes  digiti  vcrtantur,  aut  rcflexi  Chron.  lib.  v.  cap,  2. 

134  "  L^ECE   BOG. 

]>A  }?ujili  claS  -j  fceab  on  f  bolj.  pi8  li8  j^eape  •  jeiiiin 
cetelhjitim  *j  bejieiihealm  jebaejm  'j  jnib  tojsebepe  'j 
fcab  on.  Jif  li]?ule  utyjine  ^entm  mepce  nio]?opeapbne 
•j  hunij  -j  Lpsetenef  melupep  fmebman  "j  picjjan  Innel ' 
bejnib  tofomne  leje  on.  Gpt  5emm  mebopypte  nioj^o- 
peapbe  ^ecniia  fniale  menj  pi]>  hmiije  leje  on  ]?8et 
jebatob  fie. 

fol.  50  b.  Ttp  lijmle  ticypne  jennn  eceb  -j  fujie   cpuman   bejie- 

nep  hlapep  -j  jienpyjimap  men^^  toSomne  bmb  on  pset; 
p  h]?  mib  ecebe  o]7]?e  mib  fupan  eala^.  Jip  lijjule 
tityjine  •  jentm  pepmob  -j  jecnua  bo  on  teojio  clsem 
on  -j  bmb  on  yssyte. 


^  Pi]?  pepeji  able  •  elehtjian  •  ^yj^pipe  •  pejbjiasbe  jecnua 
on  ealu  Iset  fcanban  tpa  nilit  pele  bpmcan.  P1J7  peppe 
ept  betonican  bpmce  fpiSe  •  -j  ete  Jjpeo  fnseba.  6pt: 
bjunc  on  Llutrcptim  ealaS  pepmob  •  jyj^jiipan  •  betonican  • 
bipceoppypo  •  pen  mmte  •  bojen  •  fio  clupilite  •  pen- 
pyjit  •  mappulDie  •  bpmce  J'pitij  baja.  bpenc  ]n]>  ]7on  • 
beronican  •  fppmjpypr  attojilaSe  •  bepbme  •  eopopj^pote  • 
Imnbeptunje  •  bpeopje  bpoMe  •  pepimob.  pi8  J^pibban 
baejep  pepjie  on  peajimum  psetpe  bpmce  betonican  tyn 
popan  ]?onne  to  pille.  piS  peo-^J'an  bsejep  pepjie  bpimce 
pejbpseban  feap  on  fpetum  psetpe  tpam  tibum  sep  him 
fol.  51  a.  fe    pepep    to    pille.       pi]?    selcej-    bsejef    pepepe    bpmce 

on    cealbum    paetepe   betonican    bufcep  f  senne   penmj 
jepeje  •  o]?ep  fpilc  pejbppeban. 

Pi]?  peppe  ept  hylpS  fynbpijo  majiubie  to  bjimcanne. 
Pi]?  lencten  able  pepmob  eopop  ]?jiote  •  elebtpe  •  pej- 
bpsebe  •  pibbe  •  ceppille  •  attoplaSe  •  pepeppuje  <  alex- 
anbjic  •  bipceoppyjit  •  hipefcice  •  Saluic  •  capj-uc  pypc  to 

'  Read  Innelye  ?  1      •'  Uvpirus,  Febris. 

-  men,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  135 

throuo'h   a   cloth,    and   shed   that  on   tlie  wound.     For      ^"^"^  ^• 

.  .    .  Ch.  1x1. 

synovia  of  the  joints,  take  kettle  soot  and  barley  halm, 
burn  and  rub  them  together,  and  shed  on.  If  the 
synovia  run  out,  take  the  nether  ward  part  of  marche 
and  honey,  and  the  smede  of  wheaten  meal,  and  the 
bowels  of  an  ear  wig,  rub  them  together,  and  lay  on. 
Again,  take  the  netherward  part  of  meadowwort,  pound 
it  small,  mingle  with  honey,  lay  on  till  it  be  mended. 
3.  If  the  synovia  run  out,  take  vinegar  and  sour 
crumbs  of  a  barley  loaf,  and  earthworms,  mingle  to- 
gether, and  bind  on  ;  wet  the  joint  with  vinegar  or 
with  sour  ale.  If  the  synovia  run  ou€,  take  worm- 
wood and  pound  it,  put  it  on  tar,  plaster  it  on,  and 
bind  it  on  fast. 


1.  For  fever  disease ;  pound  in  ale  lupins,  githrife, 
waybroad,  let  it  stand  for  two  nights,  administer  to 
drink.  For  fever  again ;  let  him  drink  betony  much, 
and  eat  three  bits  of  it.  Again,  drink  in  clear  ale 
wormwood,  githrife,  betony,  bishopwort,  fen  mint,  rose- 
mary, the  clove  rooted  wenwort,  marrubium,  drink  for 
thirty  days.  A  drink  for  that,  betony,  springwort, 
attorlothe,  vervain,  everthroat,  houndstongue,  dwarf 
dwosle,  wormwood.  For  a  tertian  fever,  let  the  sick 
drink  in  warm  water  ten  sups  of  betony,  when  the 
fever  is  approaching.  For  a  quartan  fever,  let  him 
drink  juice  of  waybroad  in  sweetened  water  two  hours 
before  the  fever  will  to  him.  For  a  quotidian  fever, 
let  him  drink  in  cold  water  so  much  of  the  dust  of 
betony  as  may  weigh  a  penny  ;  as  much  more  of  way- 

2.  For  fever  again  it  helpeth,  to  drink  marrubium 
alone.  For  lent  addle,  or  typhns  fever,  work  to  a  drink 
wormwood,  everthroat,  lupin,  waybroad,  ribwort,  cher- 
vil, attorlothe,  feverfue,  alexanders,  bishopwort,  lovage. 



fol.  ol  b. 

*  Head  Indc. 

bjience  on  pelfcum  ealaS   bo    halij  piereji  to  •  -j  Ipjunj 

pij-  mon  yceal  pjiitan  on  hu]*lbipce  "j  on  j'one    bpeuc 
inib  habj  pajrejie  ])pean  -j  jnnjan  on  • 

+  +  +A+  +  +  +  +CD+  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + 
In  ppmcipio  ejiat  uejibum  et  nejabum  epat  apnc 
beum  et  beup  ejiat:  ue]ibum.  ]Doc  ejiat  In  p]nnci})io 
apuo  beum  omnia  peji  ij^Siim  ysczn  Sunt,  pj'eah  J'onnc 
■])  ^epjut  mib  bab^  j'a^cjie  op  ]?am  brfce  on  }7one  bjienc* 
Inij  •  ]jonne  cjiebo  ^-j  pateji  nopteji  -j  \ny  leo]?.  bcati 
Jniii  cubxtj  ]>one  feabn  mib  ab  bommum  ]?am  .xii. 
jebeb  pealmmn.  Abiuro  uoS  ppijopef^  et  pebpeS  •  pep 
beum  patpem  omnipotentem  et  pep  eraf  pibum  lepum 
cjnptum  peji  apcenfum  et  bipcenfum^  SaJuatopip  noptpi 
ut  jiecebatiS  be  boc  pamulo  bei  •  et  be  cojipuSculo 
eiu]-  quam^  bomniup  noptep  Inbimmape  Inftituit.  Um- 
cit:  nop  leo  be  tpibu  niba  jiabix  bauib.  Uincic  uoj-  qui 
umci  non  poteSt  •  +  xpp  natuf  •  +  xpp  pafsup  •  + 
xpf  uentujiuf  •  +  aiuj-  •'*  +  aiup  •  +  aiup  •  +  Sc)-  • 
+  Sep-  +  Sop*  Jn  bic'''  Salutipepip  mceben]- jpepiibup 
upbe]-  •  oppiba  jiupa  uicop  captjia  cafcella  pejia^pani". 
Omnia  bepulpq-  fanabat  cojipopa  mopbi]-  -^  -j  J>pi])a  ];onne 
onfupe  ]nep  psetepef  fpelcef  3ebp?e]7e]i  pajia  manna. 



Pi]?  peonb  leociim  men  •  ]?onne  beopol  |)one  monnan 
pebc  obSe  bme  iiinan  jepealbe  mib  able.  Spipebpenc 
ebibtpe  •  bifceoppyjit  •  beolone  cpopleac  jecnua  toSoinne 
bo  eala  to  psetan  Iget  franban  ncabtejine  bo  piptij 
lybcopna  on  -j  babj  pa^tep,  bjienc  pip  peonbfeocum 
men  op  cijucbellan  to  bpmcanne  •  jyj^jnpe  •  jlsep  •'^  jeappe  • 
elebtpe  •   betonice  •    attopbape  •    cappiic  •    pane  •    pinul  • 

'  Frigora. 

^  Descensum. 

^  Quern. 

■*  an\y  =  aytos. 

'■"  Head  Oppida,  rura,  casas,  vicos, 

castella  pcragrans  ;  Sedulius, 
Carm.  Pascli ,  Lib.  III.,  23.  Inter- 
■floven  in  the  text  of  Beda,  III. 

"  For  nej^la:)-,  cynajglaei-j-an  ? 

LEECH    BOOK.    I.  137 

Hage,    cassock,    in    foreigu    ale ;   add    holy   water    and       i^<>'>^  I. 

Ch.  Ixii. 
spring  wort. 

8.  A    man    shall    write   this   upon    the   sacramental  An  exorcism 

paten,  and  wash  it  ofi'  into  the  drink  with  holy  water, 

and  sing  over  it    ....     In  the  beginning,  etc.  (John 

i.   1.)     Then  wash  the  writing  with  holy  Avater  ott'  the 

dish    into    the    drink,   then    sing    the    Credo,    and    the 

Paternoster,  and  this  lay,  Beati  immaculati,  the  psalm  ;' 

with  the  twelve  prayer  psalms,  I  adjure  you,  etc.     And 

let  each  of  the  two^  men  then  sip  thrice  of  the  water 

so  prepared, 

Inde  salutiferis  incedens  gressibus  urbes, 

Oppida,  rura,  casas,  vicos,  castella  peragrans 

Omnia  depulsis  sanabat  corpora  morbis. 



For  a  fiend  sick  man,  or  demoniac,  when  a  devil 
possesses  the  man  or  controls  him  from  within  with 
disease ;  a  spew  drink,  or  emetic,  lupin,  bishop  wort, 
henbane,  cropleek ;  pound  these  together,  add  ale  for 
a  liquid,  let  it  stand  for  a  night,  add  fifty  libcorns, 
or  cathartiG  grains,  and  holy  water.  A  drink  for  a 
fiend  sick  man,  to  be  drunk  out  of  a  church  bell  ;  cimrch  bell. 
githrife,  cynoglossum,  yarrow,  lupin,  betony,  attorlothe, 
cassock,  flower  de  luce,  fennel,  church  lichen,  lichen,  of 

'  Psalm,  cxix. 

-  Two,  the  leech  and  the  sick  ;  two  is  in  j^ehpaj^cji. 

138  LMCE  BOC. 

cipicjiaju  •  cjiifcef  msele]*  jiai^u  •  lupefcice  •  ^epyjic  ]7one 
fbl.  52  a.  bjienc  oj:  liluttjium  ealaS  jefmje  feofon  msej'yan  0}:e]\ 

]7am  pyjitum  bo  ^apleac  'j  halig  psetep  to  -j  bjiype  on  selcne 
bpincan  ]?one  bpenc  ]^e  he  bpmcan  piUe  ept*  'j  fmje 
];one  fealin  •  bean  Inmaculati  -j  exupsat;  •  -j  Saluum 
me  pac  beuj-  •  *j  j^onne  bjimce  J;one  bpenc  op  cipicbellan  -j 
fe  mseppe  ppeofe  him  finje  seprep  pam  bpence  }>if  opep. 
bomme  Sancte  parep  omnipocenf.  Pi]?  bpsecfeocum 
men  •  cofc  •  jotpoj^e  •  eluhtpe  •  betonice  •  attoplaSe  • 
cjiopleac  •  hoiecepfan  •  hope  •  pmul  •  afm^e  mon  msep- 
pan  opep  pypce  op  pylifcum  ealoS  -j  op  halij  pastepe. 
bjimce  ]?ipne  bpenc  per  jejhpilcum  nipe  nijon  mopjenaf 
'j  nane  o]?pe  pseran  f  ]7icce  -j  fcille  fie  •  -j  selmeppan 
pelle  "j  htm  apena  30b  jeopnhce  bibbe.  pi^  peben 
heopte  bifceoppypt  •  elehcpe  •  banpypt  •  eopoppeapn  • 
jij^pipe  •  heahhiolojje  j^onne  bsej  fcabe  ^  -j  niht  ]?onne 
fmj  ]>u  on  cipicean  letaniaf  f  ip  ]?apa  hahjpa  naman  • 
•j  patep  noptep  mib  j^y  fanje  ]m  5a  ]5  ]ni  fie  aeC  })am 
pyptum  'j  ]ppipa  ymbja  *j  ]>oma.e  ]>n  hie  111  me  janj  ejrc 
to  cipicean  mib  ])j  ilcan  panje  •  -j  jepmj  .xii.  m^p- 
pan  opep  -j  opep  ealle  ])a  bpencan  ]>e  to  j^sepe  able 
fol.  52  b.  belimpaj)  on  peop^mynbe  |?apa  tpelpa  apoftola. 


Pi|>  selcpe  ypelpe  leobpunan  -j  piS  a3lppibenne  j^ij- 
3ep]ut  ppit  him  ]>iy  ^pecifcum  ftapum  •  +  +  A  +  4 
O  4-y°+ipByM  iHli:-  B  e  p  p  N  NIKNEttANI. 
Gpt  •  o]7e]i  buft  'j  bpenc  pi]?  leobpunan  •  jemm  bpembel 
jeppel  -j  elehtpan  "j  pollesian  jecnua*  fipt  }?onne  bo  on 
pohhan  leje  unbeji  peopob  fmj  1113011  mgeppan  opep  bo 
on    meoloc  f  buft  bpyp  ]7pipa  on   halij    psetepef^   pele 

'  At  morning  twilight. 

-  A  partitive   genitive  ;    balij;    in    haliS    )i!cce)i    is    commonly    unde- 
clincd,  or  regarded  as  part  of  a  compound. 

LEECH   BOOK.    [.  ISO 

Cluists  mark  or  cross,  lovagc  ;  work  up  the  driuk  off  '^ook  I. 
clear  ale,  sing  seven  masses  over  the  worts,  add  garlic  and  '^ ''  '''"' 
holy  water,  and  drip  the  drink  into  every  drink  which 
he  will  subsequently  drink,  and  let  him  sing  the  psalm, 
Beati  immaculati,  and  Exurgat,  and  Salvum  me  fac,  dens,  Psalm  cxix. 
and  then  let  him  drink  the  drink  out  of  a  church  bell,  Psaim  Ixix.' 
and  let  the  mass  priest  after  the  drink  sing  this  over 
him,  Domine,  sancte  pater  omnipotens.'  For  a  lunatic; 
costmary,  goutweed,  lupin,  betony,  attorlothe,  cropleek, 
field  gentian,  hove,  fennel;  let  masses  be  sung  over, 
let  it  be  wrought  of  foreign  ale  and  of  holy  water  ; 
let  him  drink  this  drink  for  nine  mornings,  at  every 
one  fresh,  and  no  other  liquid  that  is  thick  and  still, 
and  let  him  give  alms,  and  earnestly  pray  God  for  his 
mercies.  For  the  phrenzied ;  bishopwort,  lupin,  bonewort, 
everfern,^  githrife,  elecampane,  when  day  and  night  di- 
vide, then  sing  thou  in  the  church  litanies,  that  is, 
the  names  of  the  hallows  or  saints,  and  the  Pater- 
noster ;  with  the  song  go  thou,  that  thou  mayest  be 
near  the  worts,  and  go  thrice  about  them,  and  when 
thou  takest  them  go  again  to  church  with  the  same 
song,  and  sing  twelve  masses  over  them,  and  over  all 
the  drinks  which  belong  to  the  disease,  in  honour  of 
the  twelve  apostles. 


Against  every  evil  rune  lay,^  and  one  full  of  elvish  A  holy  amultt. 
tricks,    write  for   the    bewitched   man  this  writing  in 
Greek  letters :  alfa,  omega,  iesvm  (?)  beronikh.*     Again,  ix0Y5  ? 
another  dust  or  powder  and  drink  against  a  rune  lay  ; 
take  a  bramble  apple,^  and  hipins,  and  pulegium,  pound  ^  ^  oiackhary. 
them,  then  sift  them,  put   them  in  a  pouch,  lay  them 
under  the  altar,  sing   nine   masses  over  them,  put  the 

'  A     formula    of    Benediction  ;  !       ^  Heathen  charm, 
several     such     are    found    in    the  '  Invoking   the    miraculous    por- 

Missals.  trait  of  Christ   on  the  kerchief  of 

-  Polypodium  vnhjare.  \    St.  "Veronica. 

140  L^CE   BOC. 

bnincan  on  bjieo  tiba  •  on  unbejin  •  on  mibb^ej  •  on 
non*  jij:  I'lo  abl  netnum  fie  jeot:  mib  lialij  jiterpe  on 
muS  f  lice  bnfc.  Sealf  elehtjie  hejejufe  •  biyceoppyjit  • 
pa  peaban  majojmn  •  ajimelu  •  cjiopleac  •  yealr  pyl  on 
butejian  to  fealjre  fniijie  on  f  heapob  "j  J'a  bjieolr. 
bpenc  hapan  fppecel  •  alexanbjne  •  jmbe  •  elehrjie 
hejejiipe  •  bipceoppyjit  •  mnjope  •  cpopleac  •  apmelu  • 
fio  cneoelite  •  j'enpyjit  bo  on  lialij  psetep.  Jip  mon 
inape  pibe  •  jenim  elehtjian  'j  japleac  •  "j  betonican  • 
fol.  53  a.  -j    jiecell"   biiib    on    mepce    lipebbe    liim    mon    on    "j    lie 

janje  in  on  pap  j'ypte. 


6 pt  bpenc  piS  lenc~en  able  pepejipuje  •  hpam  jealla* 
pmul  •  ]'e;5bppebe  •  jefinje  mon  pela  meeppan  opep  ]  sepe 
j^yjite  -^  opjeot;  mib  ealaS  bo  halij  pa?t:ep  on  pyl  fpipe 
]'t'l  bjunce  ponne  Ipa  lie  hatofc  mseje  micelne  fcenc 
pnlne    sep    pon    fio    abl    to    pille  :•     peopeji  jobfpellapa 

-'— H- 
naman  "j  jealbop  "j  jebeb  •  -1-^,-1- .      COatheup  •    +  +  +  -}-  + 


CtJa]icuS+  +  +  +  +  •  lucaS  •    -j4^-  •  Iobannep_L;^_lt^.  Inteji- 

cebite  ppo  me  •  Tiecon  •  leleloth  •  patjion  •  abiiipo  uoS. 

6pt  jobcunb  jebeb  •  Jn  nomine  bommi  fit  benebic- 
Runes.  tiim  •  b^j^onice  •  bepomcen  •  et  babet  In  uefnmento  et 

In  pemope  fuo  •  fcjuptum  pex  pejmii  et  bominnj-  bomi- 
Kev.  xix.  jiantjum*'   6pr  jobcunb  jebeb.     Jn  nomine   fit  bene- 

(lictnm  .  M  M  IVl  R  IV1  ]>  •  N  cj  .  ],  T  X  X  M  R  F  p  N  -j  •  ]J  T  X  .'-^ 
e"-   pceal  mon  ipijcnbe  pi"]*  j'jutan    -j    bon    paf  pojib 

fpijenbe    on    pa    pmfrjian    bjieoft    -j    ne    ja    be    m    on 

'];  jepjut    ne    m    on   beji  •  -j   eac    fpijenbe   pif  on    bon  • 

HAMMANy"EL  •   BPONice-   NOy" e pTAy^EPT. 

'  This  use  of  the  singular  is  mere   '.     {xjMRMl'  •  Ni  'hTX,  and    unckr- 
carelessness.  i    stand  the  T  as  an  J. 

-Head  ><MIV!RW|'-  NjlTX- 

LERCTl    BOOK.    T. 


dust  into  milk,  drip  thrice  some  lioly  water  upon  tlnni,       ijook  T. 
administer  this  to  drink  at  tliree  hours,  at  undern,  or      ^'''-  '^i^'- 
nine  in  the  morning,  at  midday,  at  noon,  hora  nana, 
or  three  in  the  afternoon.     If  the  disease  be  on  cattle, 
pour  that   ilk   dust   into   the    mouth  with  holy  water. 
A    salve  ;    boil    lupin,    hedgerife,    bishopwort,    tlie    red 
may  the,   harmala,^  cropleek,  salt,  in   butter  to  a  salve, '  P''<iii>ium  har- 
smear  it  on  the    head   and   the  breast.     A  drink  ;    put 
into  holy  water,  vipers  bugloss,  alexanders,  rue,  lupins, 
hedgerife,    bishopwort,   maythe,   cropleek,   harmala,    the 
wenwort  which  hath  knees.^^     If  a  mare  ^  or  hag  ride  ''  •^"''''"" 
a  man,  take  Ivipins,  and  garlic,  and  betony,  and  frank- 
incense, bind  them   on  a  fawns  skin,   let    a    man    have 
the  worts  on  him,  and  let  him  go  in  to  Ms  home. 


1.  Again,  a  drink  against  lent  addle  or  iijplivs  ; 
feverfue,  the  herb  rams  gall,^  fennel,  waybroad  ;  let  a 
man  sing  many  masses  over  the  worts,  souse  them 
with  ale,  add  holy  water,  boil  very  thoroughly,  let  tlte 
man  drink  a  great  cup  full,  as  hot  as  he  may,  before 
the  disorder  will  be  on  him  ;  say  the  names  of  the 
four  gospellers,  and  a  charm,  and  a  prayer,  etc.^  Again, 
a  divine  prayer,  etc.,  deeee]?-  hand-  |?IX'  DEI^e]). 
HAND  •  ]?IN  •  thine  hand  vexeth,  thine  hand  vexeth. 

Again,  a  man  shall  in  silence  write  this,  and  silently 
pvit  these  words  on  the  left  breast,  and  let  him  not 
go  in  doors  with  that  writing,  nor  bear  it  in  doors. 
And  also  in  silence  put  tliis  on,  Emmanuel,  veronioa."* 

'  As  in  niglit  mare. 

^  Menyanthes  trifoliata. 

^  Leliloth    is    an     Arabic- 


(Freytag.)  Cf.  Alilat  Herod,  iii. 
'  The  imaore  on  the  kercliief. 


L^CE   EOC. 

fol   53  h. 


yi])  unjemynbe  "j  jnS  by)-;5un;5e  bo  on  ealo  bij'ceop 
pyjit .  elehtjian  •  berouican  ]?a  fuj'ejman  jrmujlan  • 
nefcan  limbhioloSan  •  jyj^pijran  •  mepce  •  bpmce  j^onne. 
Pi]?  unjemynbe  'j  bifjunje  bo  on  eala  capfiam  •  'j  eleh- 
tpan  •  bifceoppyjit  •  alexanbjiian  •  Jij^pipe  •  pelbmopan 
•j  lialij  pretep  bpmce  ponne. 

.  LXVII. 

V  iS  jenumenum  mete  •  jentm  elelitpan  le^e  unbeji 
peofob  fmj  nijon  mseppan  opeji  ■^  pceal  pij>  jenume- 
num  mete  leje  unbep  f  yset  •  J7e  j^u  pille  on  melcan.' 
^tp  ealo  apejib  fie  •  jenim  ];a  elehtjian  leje  on  ]fa, 
peopep  pceattap  ]7?ep  sepnef  -j  opep  ]?a  bupu  "j  unbep 
])one  ]?epxpolb  "j  unbep  f  ealopset  bo  mib  halij  psetjie 
\>a,  pypt  on  f  eala  ; 

jtp  mete  fy  apypb  "j  anjehpsebe  mylcen  oSSe  pilb 
o]?]7e  bpyjpen  •  halja  ];a  pyj'te  bo  on  -j  unbep  f  pset  • 
•j  unbeji  |?a  bupu  •  bo  elehtpan  -j  clipan  •  -j  betonican 
•j  bifceoppypt. 

fol.  r>4  a. 


yi])  |;on  jip  hunta  jebite  mannan  f  ij-  fpij^pa  pleali 
J)py  pceajipan  neali  pjiompeapbef  lait  yjman  f  blob  on 
3peimne  Iticcan  h^ejienne  peopp  ponne  opep  pej  aj^eg 
]?onne  ne  hip  nan  ypel.  Gpt  apleali  ane  pceappan  ou'  n 
]?am  bolje  jecnua  Ijecepypt  leje  on  ne  bij?  Mm  nan 
ypel.      pi]?    jonjelpseppan    liite  •    mm    ?epep]?an    nio]?o- 

'  The  Saxons  used  milk  and  pre- 
parations of  anilk  for  the  food  of  the 
churls   family.     Hence    the   churls 

cow  is  called  his  Meat  cow,  DD, 

187,  188, 

LEECH    BOOK.    L  143 

Ixvi  Book  I. 

Ch.  Ixvi. 

Against  mental  vacancy  and  against  folly;  put  into 
ale  bishopwort,  lupins,  betony,  the  southern  or  Italian 
fennel,  nepte,  water  agrimony,  cockle,  marclie,  then  let 
the  man  drink.  For  idiotcy  and  folly,  put  into  ale, 
cassia,  and  lupins,  bishopwort,  alexanders,  githrife,  field- 
more,  and  holy  water  ;  then  let  him  drink. 


1.  For  the  better  digestion  of  meat  taken ;  take  lu- 
pins, lay  them  under  the  altar,  sing  over  them  nine 
masses,  that  shall  avail  for  meat  taken;  lay  it  under 
the  vessel  into  which  thou  hast  in  mind  to  milk.  If 
ale  be  spoilt,  then  take  lupins,  lay  them  on  the  four 
quarters  of  the  dwelling,  and  over  the  door,  and  under 
the  threshhold,  and  under  the  ale  vat,  put  the  wort 
into  the  ale  with  holy  water. 

2.  If  meat  be  spoilt,^  and  a  good  quantity  of  milken 

food,  or  a  milking,^  or  brewing,  hallow  the  worts,^  put  '  ^'^^  m-  ^"' 
them  into  and  under  the  vat,  and  under  the  door ;  use 
lupins,  and  clifwort,  and  betony,  and  bishopwort. 


In  case  that  a  hunting  spider^  bite  a  man,  that  is 
the  stronger  spider,  strike  three  scarifications  near,  in 
a  direction  from  the  bite,  let  the  blood  run  into  a 
green  spoon  of  hazel  wood,  then  throw  it  over  the  road 
away;  then  no  harm  will  come  of  it.  Again,  strike  a 
scarification  on  the  wound;  pound  leechwort;  lay  it 
on,  no  harm  will  happen  to  the  man.  Against  bite  of 
a  weaving  spider,*  take  the  netherward  part  of  seferthe, 

'  Cf.  Luke  xiv.  34.     Marshall.  j   appropriate  for  the  Aranea  taran- 
-  By  one  of  the  henisons  in  the       tula,    the     habits    of    which    our 

ecclesiastical  Manuale.  :   author  had,  doubtless,  learnt. 
^  Salticus    scenicus    is    now  de-  '  Aranea  viatica, 

scribed  by  this  name  ;  but  it  is  very  | 

144  L^CE   P.OC. 

pefijibe  "j  ]'lah]?0]in  •  paje  ahjiii;  to  hufre  ;5e]>ren  mib 
Imnije  lacna  ]3  bolh  mih.  pi]?  liuntan  bite  blace  fnejlaj' 
on  hatt]\e  pannan  jeliypfce'  ^  to  bufte  jepiibene  •  -j 
pipop  •  -j  betomcan  ete  p  buft  -j  bjimce  ^  on  lecje. 
PiS  Inintan  bite  Nim  ni];epea]ibne^  cottuc  leje  on 
])  bolli.  Gpt  ayleali  •  V.  yceajipan  ane  on  J»am  bite 
"j  }:eopeji  janbutan  peopp  mib  fticcan  fpijenbe  ojreji 


yi])  pebe  liiinbej-  plite  ajjiimonian  -j  pejbjireban  ;i;e- 
menje  mib  hunije  -j  aejep  ■]>  hpite  lacna  pa  pnnbe  mib 
]/y.  pi]>  hunbep  bolje  poxep  elate  •  jjiunbefj^elje  pyl 
on  batepan  fmijie  mib.  6pt  betomcan  jetpipula  leje 
on  |:ione  bite.  6pt  pejbp^eban  jebeat  leje  on.  6pt 
fol.  .54  h.  x:\'>a  cipan  obSe    j^peo  feoj?   3eb]ia?b    on   ahfan  men;^  pi'S 

jiyple  "j  luinije  leje  on.  Gpt  jebtepne  fpmef  ceacan 
to  ahfan  yceab  on.  6pt  jemin  pejbpseban  mojian 
jecnua'"'  pi]^  py]"le  bo  on  ]>  bolh  J^onne  afcjiyp'S  hio  \> 
atep  apej. 


Zip  mon  fie  to  pjirone  pyl  hmbheolojmn  on  pilifctlm 
ealaS  bjunee  on  neaht  neptij.  Gtp  mon  fie  to  nn- 
pppene  ]'yl  on  meolce  pa  ilcan  py]^t  ponne  apptenpt  pu. 
Pyl  on  eope  meolce  ept  hmbhiolopan  alexanbjiian  po]i- 
netep  polm  hatte  pyjit  ponne  bip  hit  fpa  Inm  leopofc 

For  j;ehy))jTc'he. 
'  nijjepeapbe  corrected  to  the  masculine,  MS. 
'  secna,  MS. 

LKKCIl  Book.  I.  145 

and  lichen  from  Llie  l)lackt1i()vn,  dry  it  to  dust,  moisten  Book  I. 
with  lioney,  tend  the  Avound  therewith.  Against  hite  ^  ''•  '^''^'"" 
of  Inuititig  spider,  bUiek  snails  fried  in  a  hot  pan  and 
rubbed  to  dust,  and  pepper,  and  betony,  let  the  man 
eat  the  dust,  and  drink  it,  and  lay  it  on.  For  l)ite  of 
hunting  spider,  take  the  netherward  part  of  mallow, 
lay  it  on  the  wound.  Again,  strike  five  scarifications, 
one  on  the  bite,  and  four  lound  about  it,  throw  the 
blood  with  a  spoon  silently  over  a  wagon  way. 


For  bite  of  mad  dog;  mingle  with  honey  agrimony 
and  way  broad,  and  the  white  of  an  agg,  dress  the 
wound  with  that.  For  wound  by  a  hound  ;  foxes 
dote,-''  groundsel,  boil  these  in  butter,  smear  ihnve.w'iiU.'' Burdock. 
Again,  triturate  betony,  lay  it  on  the  bite.  Again, 
beat  wayl)road,  lay  it  on.  Again,  seethe  two  or  tliroe 
onions,  roast  them  on  ashes,  mingle  with  fat  and 
honey,  lay  on.  Again,  burn  a  s wines  cheek  or  jaw  to 
ashes,  shed  this  on.  Again,  take  more  or  root  of  way- 
broad,  pound  it,  put  it  on  the  wound  witli  lard,  then 
it  will  scrape  the  venom  away. 


If  a  man  be  too  salacious,  boil  waiter  agrimony  in 
foreign,  ale,  let  him  drink  thereof  at  night  fasting.  If 
a  man  be  too  slow  ad  venerem,  boil  that  ilk  wort  in 
milk,  then  thou  givest  him  corage.  Boil  in  ewes 
milk,  again,  hindheal,  alexanders,  the  wort  which  bight 
Fornets^  pahn,''^  then  it  will  be  with  him  as  he  would  '  Uukuown. 
liefest  have  it  be. 

'  For  Fornet  or  I''ornjot,  see  llie  index  of  name.'?. 
VOL.    II. 

144  L^CK   EOC. 

peajihe  ^  ylali]:'0]ni  •  ji.aje  a^jiii;  to  bufre  jej^ren  mib 
Imnije  laciia  ]3  bolh  inih.  ])i]}  liuntan  bite  blace  fiiejlaj' 
on  hatt]\e  pannan  jeliyjifce'  'j  to  biifte  jejnibene  •  -j 
pipoji  •  -j  betonican  ete  p  bnft  -j  bjiince  *j  on  lecje. 
Pi'S  Inmtan  bite  Nim  ni];epeapbne^  cottuc  leje  on 
\)  bolli.  6j:t  ayleah  •  V.  j'ceajipan  ane  on  ];am  bite 
•j  ):eopeji  ymbutan  peopp  raib  fticcan  fpijenbe  ofeji 


y\])  pebe  Ininbej-  plite  ajpimonian  -j  pejbjifeban  -^e- 
menje  mib  hunije  -j  tejey  ]>  hpite  lacna  ]>a  pnnbe  mib 
]'.y-  P^l^  hnnbep  bolje  poxep  elate  •  jjiunbefpelje  pyl 
on  butepan  fmipe  mib.  Gpt  betonican  jetpipula  leje 
on  J^one  bite.  6pt  pejbpfeban  jebeat  leje  on.  6pt 
fnl.  54  b.  "cpa  cipan  oSSe    j^peo  feo]»   jebjia^^b    on  ahfan  menj  pi'5 

pyple  -j  hunije  le;5e  on.  Gpt  jebrejme  fpinef  ceacan 
to  ahfan  yceab  on.  6pt  jemm  pejbjifeban  mopan 
^ecnua"'^  pi]>  Jiyj'le  bo  on  f  bolh  jjonne  afcpypb  hio  ]3 
atep  apej. 


Xi)-  mon  fie  to  p]ia^ne  pyl  hinbheolo];an  on  pilifcuni 
ealaS  bjunce  on  neaht  nepti;^.  Glp  mon  fie  to  nn- 
pprene  j'yl  on  meolce  pa  ilcan  pypt  };onne  appanpt  ]?u. 
Pyl  on  eope  meolce  ept  hinbhioloJ>an  alexanbpian  poji- 
netep  pobn  hatte  pyjit  ];unne  \n\>  hit  fpa  htm  leopoft 

For  t;ehyji)Tc-be. 
'  ni})epeapbe  corrected  to  tlie  masculine,  MS. 
jecna,  MS. 

LEECH  Book.  I.  1 4o 

and  lichen  from  the  blackthorn,  dry  it  to  dust,  moisten        Book  I. 
with  honey,  tend  tlie    wound  therewith.     Against  }»ite  xlvui. 

of  hunting  s}jider,  black  snails  fried  in  a  hot  pan  and 
rubbed  to  dust,  and  pepper,  and  betony,  let  the  man 
eat  the  dust,  and  drink  it,  and  lay  it  on.  For  bite  of 
hunting  spider,  take  the  netherward  part  of  mallow, 
la}'  it  on  the  wound.  Again,  strike  five  scarifications, 
one  on  the  bite,  and  four  round  about  it,  throw  the 
blood  with  a  spoon  silently  over  a  wagon  way. 


For  bite  of  mad  dog;  mingle  with  honey  agrimony 
and  waybroad,  and  the  white  of  an  egg,  dress  tho 
wound  witli  that.  For  wound  by  a  hound  ;  foxes 
clote,^  groundsel,  boil  these  in  butter,  smear  tlierewith.  "^'c'^'wA. 
Again,  triturate  betony,  lay  it  on  the  bite.  Again, 
beat  waybroad,  lay  it  on.  Again,  seethe  two  or  three 
onions,  roast  them  on  ashes,  mingle  with  fat  and 
honey,  lay  on.  Again,  burn  a  swines  cheek  or  jaw  to 
ashes,  shed  this  on.  Again,  take  more  or  root  of  way- 
broad, pound  it,  put  it  on  the  wound  with  lard,  then 
it  will  scrape  the  venom  away. 


If  a  man  be  too  salacious,  boil  waiter  agrimony  iu 
foreign  ale,  let  himi  drink  thereof  at  night  fasting.  If 
a  man  be  too  slow  ad  venerem,  boil  that  ilk  wort  iu 
milk,  then  tliou  givest  him  corage.  Boil  in  ewes 
milk,  again,  hindheal,  alexanders,  the  wort  vjJtich  hight 
Fornets'  palm,*  then  it  will  be  with  him  as  he  would  ^  l^ul^uown. 
liefest  have  it  be. 

'  For  Foinet  or  Fonijot,  see  the  iudex  of  names. 
VOL.   II.  K 

146  LiECE  BOC. 


Vi]?  pseje  peofan  jiuban  fpa  jpene  feoJ»  on  ele  'j  on 
peaxe  fmipe  mib  Jjone  psejepeofan.  6f r  mm  jate  hsep 
fmec  unbeji  );a  bpec  pi  J?  ]?8ep  J^seje  peofan.  jtp  hoh 
fmo  popab  fie  .  mm  popnetef  folm  feo^  on  paetpe 
be|7e  mib  f  lim  -j  J^peali  mib  ^  lim  'j  pypce  yestlye 
op  butepan  fmipe  tieptep  ba]?e. 

.  LXXII. 

On  hpilce    tib    blob    fie    to    popjanne    on   lipilce  to 
fol.  55  a.  Isetenne.     bloblsep  ip  to  popjanne   ptptyne  nihtum  sep 

hlapmsejje  -j  septep  pip  -j  J^pitij  nihtum  pop  ]?on  ]?omie 
ealle  setepno  J^mj  pleoja};  "j  mannum  fpi'Se  bepia^  • 
laecap  Isepbon  ]>a  |?e  pipofte  psepon  f  nan  man  on  ]?am 
monj^e  ne  bpenc  ne  bpunce  ne  ahpsep  hif  lichoman  panije 
butan  htp  nybj>eapp  psepe  •  -j  j^onne  on  mibbelbajtim 
mne  jepunobe  poji  |^on  |?e  fio  lypt  bi]>  J^onne  fpijioft  je- 
menjeb.  Romane  him  pop]?on  'j  ealle  fuS  pole  pophton 
eop]^  huf  pop  psepe  lypte  pylme  *j  setepneppe.  6ac 
pecjea^  Isecap  'pte  jeblopene  j'ypta  |7onne  fien  betfte 
to  pyjicenne  je  to  bpencum  je  to  pealpum  je  to  bufte. 
JOu  mon  fcule  bloblaefe  on  ];apa  fix  pipa  selctim  on 
monSe  popjan  -j  hponne  hit^  betft  fie  •  Ipecap  IsepaS 
eac  ]J  nan  man  on  }?on  ptp  nihta  ealbne  monan  "j  ept 
X.    nihca    -j    piptyne    'j    tpentijef  'j    yiy    *j    tpentijef  -j 

'  The  idea  is  blob  j-oplsecan,  for  bloblaese  is  feminine. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  147 

,       .  Book  i. 

IXXl.  Ch.  Ixxi. 

For  the  dorsal  muscle,  seethe  in  oil  and  in  wax,  rue 
so  green,  smear  the  dorsal  muscle  therewith.  Again, 
take  goats  hair,  make  it  smoke  under  the  breech  up 
against  the  dorsal  muscle.  If  a  heel  sinew  be  broken, 
take  Fornets  palm,  seethe  it  in  water,  foment  the  limb 
therewith,  and  wash  the  limb  therewith  ;  and  work  a 
salve  of  butter,  smear  after  the  fomentation. 


On  what  season  bloodletting  is  to  be  foregone,  on 
what  to  be  practised.  Bloodletting  is  to  be  foregone 
fifteen  nights  ere  Lammas,^  and  after  it  for  five  and 
thirty  nights,  since  then  aU  venomous  things  fly  and 
much  injure  men.^  Leeches  who  were  wisest,  have 
taught,  that  in  that  month  no  man  should  either  di^ink 
a  potion  drink,  nor  anywhere  weaken  his  body,  except 
there  were  a  necessity  for  it ;  and  that  in  that  case, 
he  during  the  middle  of  the  day  should  remain  with- 
in, since  the  lyft  or  air  is  then  most  mingled  and 
impure.  The  Romans  for  this  reason,  and  all  south 
folk,  wrought  to  themselves  earth  houses,  for  the  boil- 
ing heat  and  venomousness  of  the  lyffc.^  Also  leeches 
say  that  blossomed  worts  are  then  best  to  work,  either 
for  drinks,  or  for  salves,  or  for  dust.  Here  is  set  forth 
how  a  man  shall  forego  bloodletting  on  each  of  the 
six  fives  in  the  month,  and  when  it  is  best.  Leeches 
teach  that  no  man  on  the  five  nights  old  moon,  and 
again  on  the  ten  nights  old,  and  fifteen  nights  old, 
and  twenty,  and  five  and  twenty,  and   on   the   thirty 

'  August  1. 

-  This  refers  to  Italy  and  to  its 
plumbeus  auster,  Autumnusque 
gravis,  Libitinse  qusestus  acerbse. 

^  The  Italian  sirocco,  per  autum- 
nos  nocentem  corporibus. 

K    2 

14S  L^CE   EOC. 

Jjpitnjef  nilira    ealbne   monan  ne  lisre  blob  ac  betpeox 
])a]ia    ]'ex    ppa    selcum  •    -j    nif  nan  Ijloblaeytib  fpa  50b 
fpa    on    ]:ojiej>eapbne    lencten    J^onne    jni   yjrelan    pEetan 
)1.  :>')  1).  beoj^   jejabejiobe   |)e   on   pmrjia    jebjiuncene    beoS  -j  on 

kalenbaf    apjiilif    ealpa    j-elefc    ];onne     tjieop   -j    pyj^ta 
a?pefc    tip    ffijiyttacS  ];onne    peaxeS  fio  ypele  jiUefcpe  -j 
v^  p  ypele  blob  on  J^am  holcnm  j^sep  lichoman.     r'iy  mon- 

ne]-  l)lob  bolli  ypelije  jentm  ]7onne  jeojiraeu  leap  apylle 
on  ptetjie  'j  be]7C  inib  •  "j  jccniia  nioj^opeajibe  leje  on. 
Tip  |hi  pille  on  fnibe  blob  pojih^tan  •  ntni  cerelef  hpum 
;^e;5mb  ro  bufce  pceab  on  ]^a  punbe.  Temin  jnjen  healm 
ept  'j  bejien  jebsejm  to  bufue  •  jip  |m  ne  mtpje  blob 
bolli  appij^an  5en1"in  hojipep  tojib  nipe  abjure  on  funnan 
o'S^e  be  pypie  je^nib  to  bnfre  fpi];e  pel  leje  }5  buft 
Ipij'e  ]?icce  on  Imenne  claS  ])]n}>  niib  ]?y  p  blobbolh 
neahtepne.  Jip  ]n\  jeotenb  tebpe  nc  niajje  apjiipan 
jennn  p  ]'elpe  blob  Jie  opypji'^i  ;5eba3]in  on  Latum  ftane 
•j  jejnib  to  bufte  leje  on  pa  sebpe  p  buft  "j '  appi''6 
fpiSe.  Ttp  mon  ?et  bloblpetan  on  fmpe  beplea  menj 
topomne  j'eax  -j  ptc  -j  fceapen  fmepa  lege  on  cla8  ^j 
on  p  bolh.    . 


V  Qip    men  cnje  hpilc   hm  ^^enim    jnjen   niela  bo  on   ]> 
hm  -j  nane  psetan  •    jip    pu    psetan   bel'u  to  oppe  fraejia 

A.  oG  a.  pealpe  ne  mealit  pu  hit  jelacnian  -j  ]'e  man  j'ceal  fpipe 

I'tille  beon  py  j-u  pcealt  hme  lialue  ;^ebon. 


V  jhy  peajrcuiu  ^j  pcajijiuui^  Gn  lime  •   i^entni  iinjjieuan 
•j   hunijef  peap    menj    tojsebejie    bo    on  pa  ])eaptan   -j 

'  So  in  Latiu  Verruccc  arc  disiinguisiiod  from  Vari. 

LEECH   BOOK.    I.  149 

nights  old  moon  .sliouKl  let  blood,  but  betwixt  eacli  nl"       ijook  I. 

the  six  fives:  and  there  is  no  time  for  bloodletting  so      ^'^-  ^■"^^"" 

good    as    in    early   lent,    when    the    evil    luimom-s   arc 

gathered    which    be    drunken   in    during    winter,    and 

on  the  kalends  of  April  best   of   all,    when   trees  and 

worts    first   up    sprout,  when    the    evil  ratten  waxeth, 

and    the    evil    blood,    in    the  liulks  or    holloiv  /ntme- 

vjorks  of  tlie  body.     If  a  lancet   wound   grow  corrupt 

in  a  man,  then  take  mallow  leaves,  boil  them  in  water, 

and  bathe  therewith,  and   pound   the  netherward  part 

of  the  wort ;  lay  on.     If  thou  wilt  stop  blood  running 

in  an  incision,  take  kettle  soot,  rub  it  to  dust,  shed  it 

on  tlie  wound.     Again,  take  rj'e  and  barley  halm,  burn 

it  to  dust;  if  thou  may  not  stanch  a  lAooMeiting  wound, 

take  a  new    horses    toi'd,  dry  it  in  tlie  sun,  or  by  the 

fire,  rub  it  to  dust  thoroughly  well,  lay  the  dust  very 

thick   on    a    linen    cloth,  tie  up  for  a  night  the  blood- 

letting  wound  with  that.     If  thou    may  not    stanch  a 

gushing  vein,  take  that  same  blood  which  runneth  out, 

dry  it  on  a  hot  stone  and  rub  it  to  dust,  lay  the  dust 

on  the  vein,  and  tie  up  strong.     If  in   bloodletting   a 

man    cut    upon   a   sinew,    mingle    together    wax,   and 

])itch,  and    sheeps   grease,  lay  on  a  cloth,  and    on    the 



If  for  a  man  any  limb  of  his  become  chinked  or 
chopped,  take  rye  meal,  apply  it  to  the  limb  and  no 
wet  ;  if  thou  puttest  wet  to  it,  or  a  grease  salve,  thou 
mayest  not  cure  it,  and  the  man  sliall  be  very  still,  in 
that  way  thou  shalt  make  him  h.ole. 


Against  warts  and  callosities  on  a  limb  ;  take  sin- 
green,  and  juice  of  honey,  mingle  together,  apply  to  the 

150  LMCE   BOC. 

peajijiaf.  6j:t  cealjrej"  fceapn  'j  ahfan  jemenj  piS  eceb 
•j  leje  on.  Gy-  yipiey  jimbe  jebsepn  to  ahfan  bo  eceb 
to  tpipula  fpiSe  "j  leje  on. 


y\]}  fcujipebum  nsejle  •  mm  jecypnabne  friccan  pete 
on  ]>one  nsesl  piS  ]?a  peapta  pleah  ]7onne  f  ^  blob 
I'ppmje  tit  •  pypc  Jjonne  ]?ymel  to  -j  lege  ealb  fpic  on 
upan  ]?one  nsejl  healb  ppitij  nihta  pi]?  psetan  •  Nim 
]^onne  hpseten  copn  'j  hunij  menj  toSomne  leje  on  bo 
]>  to  o]?  f  hal  pie. 


yip  5ic]?an  boccau  -j  pypm  melu  "j  pealt'  ealpa  empela 
menj  piS  fupe  pletan  -j  fmipe  mib  J?y.  ])!]>  jicj^an 
mm  fcipteapo  'j  ipijteapo  ~j  ele  jnib  tojeebepe  bo 
Jipibban  bsel  fealtep^  fmipe  mib  ]?y. 

^ol-  56  b.  .LXXVII. 

Zip  ]7U  pille  ^  ypel  fpile  paSe  utbepfte  mm  peax  -j 
hemlic  hatte  pypt  jebeat  jepypmeb  toSomne  pypc  to 
pealpe  bmb  on  ])a  fropa. 


vTip  men  unlui't  fie  jetenje  •  nime  betomcan  f  pille 
}?py  penejap  jepejan  bptnc  on  fpettim  psetepe. 


Xiy  mon  ppam  lonjum   peje  jeteopob  fie  bpmce  be- 

'  Sebon  in  the  margin  of  MS.,  by  later  hand  ;  gebo  on  was  meant. 
-  After  fealce)-  add  on. 

LEECH    BOOK.    I.  151 

Avarts  and  the  callosities.     Again,  mingle  with  vinegar       ^^^qJ^  j 
calfs  sharn  and    ashes,  and    lay    on.      Again,    burn   to     Ch.  ixxiv 
ashes   withys   rind,    add    vinegar,  triturate  thoroughly, 
and  lay  on. 


For  a  scurfy  nail ;  ^  take  a  granulated  bit  of  vv^ood, 
set  it  on  the  nail  against  the  warts,  then  strike,  so  that 
the  blood  may  spring  out,  then  work  a  thumbstall  for 
it,  and  lay  old  lard  above  upon  the  nail,  hold  it  for 
thirty  nights  against  wet,  then  take  wheaten  corn  and 
honey,  mingle  these  together,  lay  on,  apply  that  till 
all  be  well. 


For  itch,  take  dock  and  worms  reduced  to  meal,  and 
salt,  of  all  equally  much,  mingle  with  sour  cream,  and 
smear  with  that.  Against  itch,  take  ship  tar,  and  ivy 
tar,  and  oil,  rub  together,  add  a  third  part  of  salt, 
smear  with  that. 


If  thou  shouldst  desire    that  an  evil  swelling  should 
rathely    burst,    take  wax   and   a    wort   hight   hemlock, 
beat  them   together   when    warmed,    work  to  a  salve, 
bind  on  the  places. 


If  to  a  man  loss  of  appetite  happen,  let  him  take 
betony,  so  much  as  will  weigh  three  silver  pennies, 
and  drink  it  in  sweetened  water. 

If  a  man  is  tired  by  a  long  journey,  let  him  drink 

'  Thus,  "  Ungumm  scabritiem  "  ;  Plin.  xxx.  37. 

152  L^CE   BOC. 

tonican    on  }''am    liiSpenaii    oxiimelle  •    jp'    eceb    bpenc 

])e    pe    te]\  bepojum    pjiiton    pi]?    J^repe    liealp     beaban 


yip  jwn  }>e  mon  hme  popbjiince.  bjimce  beronican 
on  pcGCjie  teji  oj?epue  bjiincan.  €pr  pyl  betonican  -j 
eo]l^  jeallan  on  hlurcpum  eala'5  oj^j^e  on  fpilcjie  pae~an 
I'pa  he  bjiincan  I'cyle  bpmce  fimle  neji  mete.  GjTu 
5en1"ni  Ipmep  lunjenne  jebjiaeb  -j  on  neaht  nej-tij  ^enun 
pip  Ihseba  fnnle. 

.  LXXXI. 

yip  miclan    celc    mm    netelan    peo]?    on    ele  I'mijie  -j 
;i;nib  ealne  ]7]nne  lichoman  mib  fe  cyle  jepit  apej. 


Qip  men  I'le  micel  psgce  jetenje  popij  jejnib  on  ele 
imipe  Jnnne  ■ji^litan  niib  -j  J^one  lichoman  ealne  pun- 
boplice  pa]7e  him  bi]>  fio  pjiacce  jeinetjob. 


1  o  monnep  I'cemne  mm  cejipillan  -j  pnbucejipillaii 
bifceoppyjit  ontjpan  •  jjiunbefpeljean  I'ypc  to  bpence  on 
hlntrptim  ealaS  •  xim  j^peo  fneeba  butepan  jemenje 
],>i(S  hj'seten  mela  -j  jepylte  jjije  mib  j-y  bpence  bo  f'pa 
mjon  moji^enaf  ma  jip  hip  j^eapp  fie. 

'  i^jienc  is  piasculine,  j^  may  have  I  most  likely  ;  or  even  as  early  as 
been  written  since  ecei>,  neuter,  this,  i>  may  begin  lo  stand  for  any 
comes  as  the  next  word,  and  so  seems   I   gender. 

LKECll    HOOK.    ]. 


betony  in  the  southern  drink,  oxyniel ;  tlie  acid  driidc       Book  l. 
of  whicli  we  before  wrote  in  treating  of  the  half  dead      ^  '  '^''''^' 


In  case  a  man  should  overdrink  himself;  let  him 
drink  betony  in  water  before  his  other  drink.  Again, 
boil  betony  and  earthgall  in  clear  ale,  or  in  such 
drink  as  he,  tlte  drunkard,  may  have  to  drink,  let 
him  drink  this  always  before  meat.  Again,  take  a 
swines  lung/"^  roast  it,  and  at  night  fasting  take  five  =■^i. 
slices  always. 


Against  mickle  cold ;    take   nettles,''  seethe   them  in  •>  See  Catullus, 
oil,  smear  and  rub  all  thine  body  therewith :  the  cold  ^ 
will  depart  away. 


If  to  a  man  there  betide  much  wakefulness,  rub 
down  a  poppy  in  oil,  smear  thy  foi'ehead  therewith, 
and  all  thy  body,  wonderfully  soon  the  wakefulness 
will  be  moderated  for  him.- 


For  a  mans  voice  ;  take  chervil,  and  wood  chervil, 
bishopwort,  "  ontre,"  groundsel,  work  these  to  a  drink 
in  clear  ale.  Take  three  slices  of  butter,  mingle  with 
wheaten  meal,  and  salt  it,  swallow  this  with  the  above 
drink  ;  do  so  for  nine  mornings,  more  if  tliere  be  need 
of  it. 

'  No  such  disease  had  been  men- 
tioned in  this  book ;  it  is  found,  II. 
lix,  with  the  receipt  for  oxymel. 

-  The  change  of  pronouns  is  an 

error  of  the  text. 

154  L^CE   BOC. 


Zip  mon  \>un^  ete  aj^eje  butepan  "j  bjuiicc  •  i'e  Jmnj 
jepit  on  )?a  butejian.  Gfx:  pi]?  Ipon  franbe  on  heapbe 
aplea  him  mon  pela  fceappena  on  |7am  pcancan  Jjonne 
jepit  iir  '^  attep  j^upli  }?a  pceappan. 


iTip  mon  punbije  pi]?  hif  peonb  to  jepeohtanne  frsej? 
fpealpan  bpibbaf  jefeoj^e  on  pine  ete  }?onne  sep  •  o]>]>e 
pylle  psetpe  feoSe. 


yi]>  miclum  jonje  opep  lanb  })y  Isep  he  teopije 
mucjpypt  nime  him  on  hanb  o}7]?e  ho  on  hip  pco  }?y 
Isep  he  mejnje  "j  ]7onne  he  niman  pille  sep  j-unnan 
upjanje  cpe]7e  ]?af  pojib  sepefc.  Tellam^  te  aptemepia 
ne  lapfup  fum  ^  In  uia  •  jefena  hie  ]?onne  J7U  up  teo  :• 


Zip  mannep  peax  pealle  pypc  him  pealpe  mm  ]7one 
miclan  J^unj  -j  hajian  fppecel  -j  eapypte  nio]?opea]ibe  • 
■j  pepbpyjit  .  pypc  op  ]?8epe  pypte  -j  op  ]7ifum  eallum 
})a  pealpe  -j  op  ]78epe  butepan  J^e  nan  psetep  on  ne 
come.  Jip  peax  pealle  apylle  eopoppeapn  -j  be]?e  f  heapoh 
mib  ])y  I'pa  peapme.  pi]?  ]?on  jip  man  calu  fie  •  pliniup 
fe  micla  Isece  fej]?  ]?ipne  Isecebom  •  jentm  beabe  beon 
jebsepne  to  ahfan  -j  linfasb  eac  bo  ele  to  on  f  feo}?e 
fpij?e  lanje  opep  jlebtim  afeoh  }?onne  -j  appmje  'j  nime 
peliep  leap  jecnupije  jeote  on  ]?one  ele  •  pylle  ept 
hpile  on  jlebtim  afeoh  J?onne  fmipe  mib  geptep  ba]?e. 

'  Bead  ToUam.  I        -'  Read  fim. 

LEECn  BOOK.   J.  155 

l^^V-  Book  I. 

If  a  man  eat  wolfs  bane,  let  him  eat  and  drink  but-    ^^'  ^^^^^"''' 
ter,  the  poison  will  go  off  in   the   butter.     Again   for 
that,  let  him  stand  upon  his  heid,  let  some  one  strike 
him  many  scarifications  on  the  shanks,  then  the  venom 
departs  out  through  the  incisions. 


If  a  man  try  to  fight  with  his  foe,  let  him  seethe 
staith  swallow  nesthngs '  in  wine,  then  let  him  eat 
them  ere  the  fight,  or  seethe  them  in  spring  water. 


For  mickle  travelling  over  land,  lest  he  tire,  let  him 
take  mugwort''^  to  him  in  hand,  or  put  it  into  his  shoe,  Vol.  I.  xi.  i. 
lest  he  should  weary,  and  when  he  will  pluck  it,  be- 
fore the  upgoing  of  the  sun,  let  him  say  fu-st  these 
words,  "  I  will  take  thee,  artemisia,  lest  I  be  weary  on 
the  way,"  etc.  Sign  it  with  the  sign  of  the  cross, 
when  thou  puUest  it  up. 


1.  If  a  mans  hair  fall  off,  work  him  a  salve,  take 
the  mickle  wolfs  bane,  and  vipers  bugloss,  and  the 
netherward  part  of  burdock,  and  ferdwort,  work  the 
salve  out  of  that  wort,  and  out  of  all  these,  and  out 
of  that  butter  on  which  no  water  hath  come.  If  hair 
fall  off,  boil  the  polypody  fern,  and  foment  the  head  Avith 
that,  so  warm.  In  case  that  a  man  be  bald,  Plinius, 
the  mickle  leech,  saitli  this  leechdom :  take  dead  bees, 
bm-n  them  to  ashes,  and  linseed  also,  add  oil  iipon  that, 
seethe  very  long  over  gledes,  then  strain,  wring  out, 
and  take  leaves  of  willow,  pound  them,  pour  the  juice 
into  the  oil,  boil  again  for  a  while  on  gledes,  strain 
them,  smear  therewith  after  the  bath. 

'  Sand  martins,  hirundines  riparia>. 

i5G  L.ECE   BOC. 

JOeayob  1)03]?  pits  ]70n  •  pelijej-  lea]:  pylle  on  psecejie 
Jjpeah  mib  ])f  tep  ]7ii  hit  I'mejiupe  -j  ])a  leap  cnua  I'pa 
jefoben  pjuj?  on  niht;  on  o])  f  hio  fie '  bjuje  ^  ]m  mseje 
I'meppan  septep  mib  ]7?epe  fealpe  bo  Ipa  .xxx.  nilita 
lenj  jip  hip  ]?eapp  lie.  ^i]?  ]?on  J^e-  hpep  ne  peaxe 
fo!.  58  a.  lemetoan  rejpu  jenini  jnib    fmit  on  ]\a  frope  ne  cymS 

]?a3p   niBppe  senij  peax  tip  ; 

Tip  hseji  to  j^icce  lie  jentm  Ipealpan  jebsejm  unbeji 
cijelan  co  ahfan  "j  \?et:  fceaban  ]?a  ahpan  on. 


Pi])  hojipep  hpeople  •  mm  ]?a^  liapanpyjit  cnua  pel 
jemenj  ]?onne  pi8  pepfcjie  butepan  j^yl  fpi8e  on  but- 
]ian  bo  on  •]>  hoji]'  fpa  hit:  hatofc  masje  fmipe  selce 
bseje  bo  fimle  };a  pealpe  on  •  jip  fio  hjieopol  fie  micel 
jentm  hlonb  jehast  inib  fcanum  ]?peah  mib  ]?y  hlonbe 
fpa  hatum  -]5  hopf*  ]?onne  hit:  bjnje  fie  fmipe  mib 
])iepe  pealpe  lacua  nine,  Gpt;  jemm  pynian  fealtr- 
l^eliset  ])peah  mib  ];y  •  'j  Sonne  bpije  fie  fmipe  mib 
pipcep  fmejipe.  Jip  hopf  jeallebe  fie  •  mm  fej^elpep&nj 
jiypt:  -j  jotjjojmn  •  'j  majej^an  jecnua  j^el  bo  butejian 
to  pjnnj  pagrenbe  ]mph  claS  bo  hpit  fealt  on  hpeji 
fjn])e  lacna  j'one  jeallan  mib.  ]>iy  hopj'ep  jeallan  ntm 
a?pc]7potan  ^j  jotpoj^an  npepeapbe  -j  bojen  eac  fpa  cnua 
tofomne  yyl  on  pyple  "j  on  butepan  afeoh  ]7uph  claS 
fmipe  mib,  :• 

Tip  hojip  fie  6j:feoten  o]>])e  o].ep  neat  mm  omppan 
fol.  5Sb.  3'ieb  "j  fcittifc  peax  jej-mje  mon  .xii.    mpeppan   opep  -j 

bo  halij  ptetep  on  ]3  hopp  o'SSe  on  fpa  hpilc  neat  fpa 
hit  fie  hapa  Se  J^a  pyjite  fimle  mib. 

Pih  pon  ilcan  mm  tobjiecenjie  nseble  eaje  fcinje 
hinban  on  ];one  byjilan  ne  l)i])  nan  teona.  :• 

'  For  fien. 
-  Read  p4'  hon  ]/. 
^  After  ha  a  -word  appears  want- 

*  Read  jiynian  fealrej",  as  before, 
xxxii.  2.  ? 

LKEflf    HOOK.    I.  ]')7 

2.  A  head  bath  for  that ;  boil  willow  leaves  in  water,       Book  T. 
wash   with    that,  ere    thou    sinear    it,    and    pound    tlie    ^'''-  l^xxvn. 
leaves  so  sodden,    bind   on   at   night,  till  they  be  dry, 

that  thou  may  after  smear  with  the  salve  ;  do  so  for 
thirty  nights,  longer  if  need  for  it  be.  In  order  that 
the  hair  may  not  wax  ;  take  emmets  eggs,  rub  them 
up,  smudge  on  the  place  ;  never  will  any  hair  come 
up  there. 

3.  If  hair  be  too  thick,  take  a  swallow,  burn  it  to 
ashes  under  a   tile,  and  have  the  ashes  shed  on. 


1.  For  a  horses  leprosy,^  take  the hare- 
wort,  pound  it  well,  then  mingle  with  fresh  butter, 
boil  thoroughly  in  butter,  put  it  on  the  horse  as  hot 
as  possible,  smear  every  day,  always  apply  the  salve. 
If  the  leprosy  be  mickle,  take  piss,  heat  it  with  stones, 
wash  the  horse  with  the  piss  so  hot ;  when  it  is  dr}'', 
smear  with  the  salve,  apply  also  leechdoms  inwardl3^ 
Again,  take  runnings  of  salt,  heat  them,  wash  with 
that,  and  when  it  is  dry,  smear  with  fishes  grease.  If 
a  horse  be  galled,  take  stichwort,  and  goutweed,  and 
maythe,  pound  well,  add  butter,  wring  it  wetting  it 
through  a  cloth,  add  white  salt,  shake  thoroughly, 
leech  the  gall  therewith.  For  a  horses  gall,  take  ash- 
throat,  and  the  upward  part  of  goutweed,  and  rosemary 
also,  pound  together,  boil  in  fat  and  in  butter,  strain 
through  a  cloth,  smear  therewith. 

2.  If  a  horse  or  other  neat  be  elf  shot,^  take  sorrel 
seed  and  Scottish  wax,  let  a  man  sing  twelve  masses 
over  it,  and  put  holy  water  on  the  horse,  or  on  what- 
soever neat  it  be,  have  the  worts  always  with  thee. 

o.  For  the  same  ;  take  an  eye  of  a  broken  needle, 
give  the  horse  a  prick  luith  it  behind  in  the  barrel, 
no  harm  shall  come. 

'  Grease  in  the  legs  ? 

-  The  Scottish  phrase  for  this  disease  ;  see  the  Glossary. 

158  LMCE  EOC. 

Book  11. 

.1.  J9as  laecebomap  belimpaS  to  eallurn  inuo]pa  met- 
cjiymnejjum.  :• 

.II.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  majan  yajie  ealjia  •  x.  -j  jip  fe 
maja  a]?eneb  fie  -j  hptet  he  j^icjean  pcyle  on  jjsejie 
able.  :• 

.III.  Laeceboma]'  be  jefpelle  *j  j-ajie  ]>2d\  majan  hu 
him  mon  fcyle  blob  Isetan.  :• 

.illi.  Lsecebomap  pi]?  heajibum  fpyle  ]>8e]-  majan  "j 
fmepenej'pa  -j  hpfet  he  Jncjean  j'cyle.  :• 

.V.  Lseeebomap  pi]?  majan  a]?unbenepj'e  -j  hpset  he  on 
Jjsejie  able  J'lcje.  :■ 

.VI.  Lfficebomal"  pi)?  unlulre  -j  plsetan  ]?e  op  majan 
cymS  -j  hpset  he  ]?iC5ean  fcyle  •  nil.  cpsepraf  :• 

.VII.  Lgecebomaf  pi^S  abeabobum  majan  'j  jip  he  pop- 
Ibjen  fie  -j  tracn  abeabobej'  majan  hu  ]?  ne  jemylt  ]? 
he  Jjije]?  •  VI.  IsBcebomap.  :■ 

fol.  59  a.  .VIII.  Lsecebomap    pi]?  j'ape  'j  unlufce  ]?aBp  majan   pe 

}?e  ne  msej  ne  mib  mece  ne  mib  bpmcan  beon  jelacnob 
•j  bitepe  hjisecetunje  J?popa5  •  nil.  cpseptap. 

.villi.  Lsecebomaf  pi]?  mpimbe  majan.  :• 

.X.  Lsecebom  piS  plsettan   'j   to    hsetenne    untpumne 

majan ; 

.XI.  Lsecebom    pi]>    a]?unbene]'pe     majan    pmbijjie    -j 

ejjunje.  :• 

.XTI.  Lfecebom  pi]?  fpip]?an  -j    pi]?    ]?on    Se   hiin  mete 

unbeji  jepunian  nelle.  :• 

.XIII.  Lsecebom  pi]?  majan  fppmje.  :• 

.Xllli.  Lsecebom  pi"S  ealliim  majan  untjmmneppum.  :• 
.XV.  Lsecebom    pi]?    ]?8e]-   majan   fpjiinje    ]?onne    ]?ujih 

luu)?    bitejie    h]i?ecS    o]?}?('^    bealcet    o]?]?e    Mm    on    }?am 

LEECH   BOOK.    U.  159 

Book  II. 

Book  n. 

i.  These    leechdoms    belong  to   all   disorders    of  the     Contents. 

ii.  Leechdoms  for  sore  of  the  maw,  in  all  ten,  and 
if  the  maw  be  distended,  and  what  the  patient  shall 
eat  in  that  disorder. 

iii.  Leechdoms  for  swelling  and  sore  of  the  maw, 
how  one  must  let  him,  the  patient,  blood. 

iv.  Leechdoms  for  hard  swelling  of  the  maw,  and 
smearings,  or  unguent'^,  and  what  the  patients  diet 
shall  be. 

V.  Leechdoms  for  puffing  up  of  the  maw,  and  what 
the  'patient  shall  partake  of  in  this  disorder. 

vi.  Leechdoms  for  want  of  appetite  and  for  nausea, 
which  Cometh  of  the  maw,  and  what  the  patient  shall 
eat ;  four  crafts,  or  skilful  recipes. 

vii.  Leechdoms  for  deadened  maw,  and  if  it  have  bad 
lymph,  and  tokens  of  deadened  maw,  how  that  digests 
not,  which  it  eateth ;  six  leechdoms. 

viii.  Leechdoms  for  sore  and  want  of  appetite  of  the 
maw,  which  may  be  cured  neither  with  meat  nor 
drink,  and  suffereth  bitter  risings  in  the  throat ;  four 

ix.  Leechdoms  for  an  inward   wound  of  the  maw 

X.  A  leechdom  for  nausea,  and  to  heat  an  infirm 

xi,  A  leechdom  for  windy  inflation  of  the  maw,  and 
for  puffing  up. 

xii.  A  leechdom  for  spewing,  and  in  case  that  a 
'mans  meat  will  not  keep  down. 

xiii.  A  leechdom  for  flux  of  the  maw. 

xiv.  A  leechdom  for  all  infirmities  of  the  maw. 

XV.  A  leechdom  for  imtation  of  the  maw  when  there 
is  a  bitter  heart  burn  in  the  mouth,  or  there  is  belching. 


majan  ye  mete  abit-e]iai5  -j  ]'yje])^  ^  Im  fio  ablafmnj; 
|?a?j'  inajaii  cyin5  oj:  ])am  blacuin   ODiuin. 

.XVI.  La^ceboma]'  -j  taen  Jnej-  batan  omihtan  majan 
unjemer  psej'ta  "j  ]?sey  unjefceabbce  cealban  majan 
taen  hu  ]'e  hata  omihta  ma^a  unjemet  ]?ujilt  -j  fpol 
l^jiopaS  'j  nea)ionej'j'e  *j  jefpojunja  "j  jemobep  tpeonunje 
unluf-  je  pla3tta  •  -j  bii  iSone  cealban  majan  unjebc- 
bce  metta]'  lyfte  •  Ifecebomaf  to  bosm  micle  -j  e]?ele  • 
fbl.  59  ]>.  ^  ]jQ  lattjie   meltunje  fumpia  metta. 

.XVII.  L;ececpa?}:ta]"  be  bppe  mipSenbce  jecynbo  -j 
.•ibliim  -j  liu  bio  on  ])Si  fpiSpan  iiban  apeneb  bi|>  o]> 
^  ]7one  nufeo]?an  •  -j  bu  bio  bi]>  ptplieppebu  •  -j  bii  bio  ip 
blobep  timl)ep  'j  bup  -j  jjte  pex  ];m;i;  pypceap  lipeji- 
pcBjice  "j  lacnunj  J^ajia  ealjia  "j  fpeotol  tacn  ]?a]ia  ealjia 
;^e  be  micjean  ^e  be  unlufce  •  je  be  bip  Inpe  •  -j 
(/j^jiiim  manejum  tacnnm. 

.XVIII.  LfBcap  laepaS  ]?ipne  kecebom  pip*  bpjie  fpyk'  ^j 
ajninbeneppe.  :• 

.XVIIII.  Lssceap  fecjea];  ]?ap  tacn  be  afpollenjie  ^ 
jepunbabpe  bppe  •  'j  Ifecebomaf  pr5  ]?on  •  'j  be  ]ja3jie 
bpjie  beajibunge. 

.XX.  Lsecap  lfepa'5  jnj-  pi]?  )>Depe  bppe  punbe  ]?onne 
pe  fpyle  je  pypmp  tobyjift. 

.XXI.  LfBcebomap  "j  tacn  abeapbobjie  bppe  •  ^  ablaj'- 
enju'  on  manijpealbe  pifan  je  on  ]>am  Ineppum  je  on 
pam  upejuim  je  on  ]?am  pibneniira  je  on  ])am  liolcum 
])m\\e  bpjie. 

.XXII.  Lfecebomaj'  yij)  jTOjie  jepelan"  lieajibneppe  ];repe 
fol.  coa.  lipjie  'j  ]-ealpa    -j    j^yptbjiencaf  o]?]?e    jip    bio    tobyjifu   -j 

nipeji  J,e]nz  oS'Se  upaftihtS  o];]'e  to  Lanjfiim  ]>y]iS  I'lo 
iinjefele  abeajibnn^  ];a^pe  bpjie  ; 

'  The  text  has  j-use'S.  j  llie  full   text   we   cannot  alter    to 

-  As  the  same  reading  occurs  in    |  unj;e|elfln. 

LEFX'Tr  ]]ooK.  rr.  161 

or  if  the  meat  turns    bitter    in    the    maw  and  lie  hie-       Uook  II. 
kets,  and  liow  the    upblowing    of   the    maw  Cometh  of     Contents. 
black  bile. 

xvi.  Leechdoms  and  tokens  of  the  hot  inflamed  maw, 
immeasurably  fast,  and  not  to  he  moved,  and  of  the 
unreasonably  cold  maw  ;  tokens  how  the  hot  inflamed 
maw  suffers  infinite  thirst,  and  swealing  heat,  and  op- 
pression, and  swoonings,  and  vacillation  of  the  mind, 
loss  of  appetite  or  nausea ;  and  how  variety  of  meats 
pleases  the  cold  maw ;  leechdoms  for  both,  mickle  and 
noble  ;  and  of  the  late  digestion  of  some  meats. 

xvii.  Leech  crafts  of  the  various  nature  and  disorders 
of  the  liver,  and  how  it  is  extended  on  the  right  side 
as  far  as  the  pit  of  the  belly,  and  how  it  is  five  lobed, 
and  how  it  is  the  material  and  home  of  blood  ; 
and  that  six  things  work  acute  pain  in  the  liver,  and 
the  cure  of  all  these,  and  a  plain  token  of  them  all, 
either  by  the  urine,  or  by  loss  of  appetite,  or  by 
tJie  mans  complexion,  and  l^y  many  other  tokens. 

xviii.  Leeches  teach  this  leechdom  for  swelling  and 
puffing  up  of  the  liver. 

xix.  Leeches  speak  of  these  tokens  of  a  swollen  and 
wounded  liver;  and  leechdoms  for  that;  and  of  harden- 
ing of  the  liver. 

XX.  Leeches  teach  this  for  wound  of  the  liver,  when 
the  swelling  or  matter  bursteth  forth. 

xxi.  Leechdoms  and  tokens  of  a  hardened  and  })uffed 
up  liver  in  manifold  wise,  either  in  the  lobes,  or  in 
the  margins,  or  in  the  membranes,  or  in  the  hollows, 
of  the  liver. 

xxii.  Leechdoms  for  the  sense  of  hardness  of  the 
liver,  and  salves,  and  wort  drinks,  or  if  it  burst  and 
descend  downwards  or  mounteth  up  upwards,^  or  if 
the  insensibility  and  hardness  of  the  liver  become  too 

'  All  the  viscera  were  supposed  to  get  out  of  place. 
VOL.  11.  L 

102  L^CE   BOC. 

.XXIII.  Lsecebomaf    hyvet    him    fie    to   popjanne    on 

lipep  able  hpaet  him   fie   co  healbanne    je    on    Isecebo- 

\/         mum   je    on    mete  •  -j  tacn  ]3  ]^e  fpile  J^pinan  ne  msej 

ne  utypnan  on  J^repe  hppe.  :• 

.xxiiii.  Lsecebomaf  -j  pyptbjiencaf  pij?  eallum  hpeji 
psepcum  ealjia  ]7peotyne  "j  pj:  Lfep   peaxe, 

.xxv.  Lsecap  eac  be  eallum  pambe  coj^um  'j  abltim 
fpeocol  tacn  funbon  -j  Isecebomap  'j  hu  mon  ]?a  yj:elan 
pa3tan  j)fepe  pambe  lacnian  fcyle  -j  ];onne  abl  to  )?fepe 
pambe  pile  pop  j^sepe  yjrelan  omihtan  psetan  cneop 
hatiaS^  lenbenu  hepejiaS  yapiaS  Jmjia  lenbena  lipan  • 
tojeotep  betpeox  fculb]ium  utjonj  jemenjeb. 

.XXVI.  Lijecebomaf  ^ip  fio  pamb  punb  biS  hu  f  mon 
onjitan  ma^je  -j  jelacnian  •  v.  cpseptaf.  :• 

.XXVII.  La3ceboma]'   be  pambe    mipSenlicpc    jecynbo 
o];J>e  mijfbypbo   hu    p    mon    ma35e  onjitan  "j  jelacman 
-j    be   pambe    hattpe    jecynbo  •  -j    be    cealbjie  -j   psetpe 
fol.  GOb.  jecynbo  -j  be  hattjie  "j  bpijjie  jecynbo  -j  f  h?emeb  ]>n\^ 

ne  buje  •  J^yppum  lichoman  -j  ne  fcejjej;  hatum  ne 
palatum  •  feopon  cpa3ptap  -j  ^^te  hsemeb  j^mj  fpiSoft 
e^laS  ]?am  Se  hopn  able  habbaS.  :• 

.  XXVIII.  Laecebomaf  pi]?  J?on  j?e  monnej-  f  upe]ipe  hjup 
fie  ;5epylleb  pi^  ypelpe  paetan  "j  be  ptnbijpe  pambe. 

.xxviiii.  Lsecebomaf  pi}?  ]jon  pe  mete  untela  mylte 
•j  cijijie  on  pule  -j  yple  pastan  o]?]?e  pcittan.  :• 

'  Read  healria'S  ?  but  hacia'S  is  in  i       2  JJe^^J   cosetcep   from   the    full 
the  full  text.  tost. 

LEECH   BOOK.    IT.  163 

xxiii.  Leechdoms,    telling    what   the  sick   man  hath      Book  11. 
to  forego  in  hver    disorder,  what   he  hath  to  hold  by,     Contents. 
either  in  leechdoms   or  in  meat,   and   tokens   that  the 
swelling  may  not  dwindle  nor  run  off  in  the  liver. 

xxiv.  Leechdoms  and  wort  drinks  for  all  liver  pains, 
thirteen  in  all,  and  if  the  liver  wax. 

XXV.  Leeches  also  have  found  a  plain  token  for  all 
wamb '  diseases  and  disorders,  and  leechdoms,  and  how 
a  man  shall  treat  the  evil  humours  of  the  wamb,  and 
when  disease  will  be  at  the  wamb,  for  the  evil  in- 
flammatory humours ;  the  knees  "  are  hot,''  the  loins  are 
lieavy,  the  sinews  of  the  loins  are  sore,  there  are 
spasms  between  the  shoulders,  the  discharge  is  of  a 
mixed  nature. 

xxvi.  Leechdoms  if  the  wamb  be  wounded,  and  how 
a  man  may  understand  that,  and  lioiv  cure  it ;  five 
crafts  or  receii^ts. 

xxvii.  Leechdoms  regarding  the  various  nature  and 
misbehaviour  of  the  wamb,  how  a  man  may  under- 
stand and  how  treat  that,  and  of  the  hot  nature  of 
the  wamb:  and  of  its  cold  and  moist  nature,  and  of 
its  hot  and  dry  nature,^  and  how  the  congressus 
sexuum  is  not  holesome  for  a  dry  body,  and  how  it 
scatheth  not  a  hot  nor  a  wet  one :  seven  crafts :  and 
that  swiving  most  severely  hurteth  them  who  have 
the  disease  of  foul  humours. 

xxviii.  Leechdoms  in  case  that  the  upper  part  of  the 
belly  of  a  man  be  filled  with  evil  humour,  and  of 
the  windy  wamb. 

xxix.  Leechdoms  in  case  that  meat  digest  not  well, 
and  turn  to  foul  and  evil  humour  or  feeces. 

'  The  maw  is  the  organ  of  di- 
gestion, the  stomach  ;  the  wamb 
is  the  venter,  -whatever  that  may 

3  The  "  hot  and  cold,  wet  and 
"  dry  "   theory  was  an  attempt  of 

the  "  rationalis  disciplina  "  of  the 
Hellenes  to  arrive  at  scientific 
generalizations ;  it  is  traceable 
among  the  works  attributed  to  Hip- 
pokrates  and  in  Aristoteles. 


16-i  L^.CE   BOC. 

.XXX.  Lfecebomaf  jij:  ]m  jnlle  ]3  ]nn  pamb  fie 
fimle  jefimh  -j  be  co'Se  'j  fape  be  pambe  co\Se  -j  mne- 
}:ajuiu  lajie  -j  to  pambe  jemetlictinje  fyxtyne  cptep- 
taS.  :• 

.XXXI.  Lseceboma]-  "j  taenuiij  on  J;am  poppe  -j  fmcel 
]>ea]\me  'j  on  utjoiije  hu  liie  JjjiopiaiS  opma^'cne  }>upfc  • 
•j  unlult  .  -j  be  hiopa  hipe  -j  ]?am  naj:olan  -j  jisejpeofan 
-j  bsec  ];ea]iine  -^  nipefeo}?an  --j  mike'  pcape  -j  bu  un- 
Irecaj-  penaS  p  •]'  lie  lenbenabl  o]>]7e  milu  pasjic  -j  lipaep 
pa  pamb  feocan  ]\a  able  |?]io]nen  ^  hu  liim  pie  •  -j  liu 
fol.  Gia.  hiopa  mon  tilian  ycyle  peopep  ]npa."  :• 

.XXXII.  Ltecebomap  bvi  mon  I'pa  jepabne  man  lacnian 
pcule  •  je  mib  blobltepe  "j  pealpe  -j  ba6o  "j  lacnunj  on 
]'  lipip  to  Senbanne  •  -j  ];ap  liBcebomap  ma^on  piS 
leiibenece  •  -j  jip  mon  fonbe  mije  •  ]n|?  nt;  piiepce  •  piS 
majan  ablum  -j  c-lapunja  "j  pij:a  beb-epneppum  •  -j  be 
]>a3pe  coSe  hu  man  lyfce  utjan  -j  ne  mjej  •  -j  jip  pe 
ucjanj  fie  pinbi;j;  'j  psetepij  "j  blobij  .  xii.   pifan. 

.  XXXIII.  Lseceboma]-  pr6  j^asjie  ppecnan  co8e  J>e  fe 
mon  hip  utjanj  ]mph  'Sone  muS  liim  ppam  pypp^)  "j 
afpjipan  jx-eal  •  ^  pib  [nnobpunbum  'j  fmpel  ];ea]ima 
fajie  •  -j  ]n8  tobjiocenum  mnoj^um  "j  ]n|j  poptojenepj-e 
mnan  •  ^  piS  ]?riepe  pambe  ];e  late  my  It  -j  j-e  ]?a)ia  lajce- 
boma  ne  jimS  ];onne  becym"(5  hirn  on  paiteji  bolla  lipeji 
psepc  milte]'  ]'a)i  mic;^ean  pojiha?pbnep  pambe  ablapun^ 
lenbenpa'jic  fonb  -j  f-anaf  on  bla-bpan  peaxaS  j'jieotyne 
cpa3ptap.  :• 

'  Head  milte  ■].  j      -  I3ef'ore  erasure,  jnj-an. 

LEECH  LOOK.   u.  165 

XXX.  Leeclidoms  if  tliou  will  that  tby  wamb  Ix;  al-      pook  II. 
ways  sound,  and  of  disease  and  sore ;  and  of  disease  of        ^^^■^^''• 
the    wamb    and  •  sore   of  the  intestines,    and    foi-    the 
moderation '   of  the  wamb ;  sixteen  receipts. 

xxxi.  Leechdoms  and  symptoms  marking  of  the  ro])e 
gut  and  small  gut,  and  of  the  ftocal  discharge  ;  how 
they  suffer  unbounded  thirst  and  loss  of  appetite;  and 
of  their  complexion  or  hue,  and  of  the  navel,  and  the 
dorsal  muscles,  and  rectum,  and  pit  of  the  belly,  tvnd 
milt,  and  share  or  puhes,  and  how  bad  leeches  ween 
that  that  is  loin  disease  or  milt  wark,  and  where  the 
warnbsick  suffer  the  disorder,  and  how  it  is  with  them, 
and  how  a  man  shall  treat  them  :  four  methods. 

xxxii.  Leechdoms  how  a  man  shall  cure  one  so 
afflicted,  Avhether  with  bloodletting,  and  salve,  and 
baths,  and  Icoiv  to  send  curatives  into  the  belly. 
And  these  leechdoms  are  efficacious  against  loin  ache, 
if  a  man  mie  sand,  for  dysentery,  for  diseases  of  the 
maw,  and  gripings,  and  womens  tendernesses,  and  of 
the  disease  where  a  man  would  evacuate  and  is  not 
able  (tenesmus),  and  if  the  discharge  be  windy,  and 
watery,  and  bloody.     Twelve  methods. 

xxxiii.  Leechdoms  for  the  perilous  disease  in  which 
a  man  casteth  from  him  and  speweth,  as  they  sa}^,  his 
excrement  through  the  mouth  ;  and  for  wounds  of  the 
inwards,  and  sore  of  the  small  guts,  and  for  laceration 
of  the  inwards,  and  for  inward  spasm  ;  and  for  the 
wamb  which  digests  late,  and  the  man  who  is  not 
affected  by  the  leechdoms ;  there  cometh  on  him 
dropsy,  pain  in  liver,  sore  of  spleen,  retention  of  urine, 
inflation  of  belly,  pain  in  loins,  sand  and  stones  wax 
in  the  bladder.     Thirteen  receipts. 

'  The  "  temperies  "  and  "  commoderatio  vcutri;-,"  that  it  be  neither  too 
hot  nor  too  cold. 

166  L^CE   BOC. 

.XXXIIII.  Lsecebomaj-  "j  be  j;{x?]'  manne]'  mihtum  fceal 
fol.  61  b.  mon    ])a   Iseceboinaf  j'ellan    |>e   ponne   jejroje   lynb  •  je 

heajzbe  •  je  heoptan  •  "j  pambe  •  *j  blaebpan  "j  pojejnm. 
-j  hu  jeajiep  hit  fie  be  lipeto  -j  cele  -j  ])i];  lattpe  inel- 
tunje  •  o'SSe  jtp  pamb  pojipeaxen  "j  pojipunbob  fie  • 
■j  jip  mon  fie  mnan  pojiblapen  •  -j  pi8  jniinbe  ppmum ' 
■j  jicjmm*  nyjaii  pipan.  :■ 

.XXXV.  Lsecebomap  be  cilba  opeppyllo  'j.paiiibe  "j  pp 
htm  mete  tela  ne  mylte  -j  htm  fpat  opja  'j  ft  nice 
pule.  :• 

.XXXVI.  Laecebomaf  be  milte  psepce  "j  f  he  bi5  on 
])a  pinptpan~  fiban  "j  tacn  Ssepe  able  hu  hijeleafe  hi 
beoS  "j  hu  lanj  fe  milte  fie  "j  be  'psdy  miltep  pilmene 
on  ]?a  pmfcpan  healpe  be  hleahtpe  ]7e  op  milte  cyiiiS  • 
hu  pe  milte  sejhpset  ]?popaS  Jjsep  l^e  oJ?ep  limo  je  hat 
je  cealb  •  -j  be  bsecSe  ^j  hpemeb  J^mje  "j  hpanan  fio 
hseto  cume  -j  cele  J^aep  miltep  eahta  cpseptaf  :• 

.XXXVII.  Laecebomaf    hu    mon    fcyle    ]7one    monnan 
Innan  -j  utan  mib  cealbum  -j  hatum    Isecebomum   lac- 
fol,  62  a.  man  'j  hpilc  mete  him  fie  to  J^icjenne  -j  hpiJc  him  fie 

to  pojijanne. 

.XXXVIII.  Laecebomaf  hu  mon  pceal  J?a  psetan  -j  pon- 
pceapta  utan  lacnian  *j  be  ];am  psetum  yplum  pajp 
miltep  'j  jnS  plipunje  ptetan  J^sep  miltep.  :• 

.xxxviiii.  Lsecebom  pij?  pinbijpe  a]mnbeneppe  hsey 
miltef  fio  cjm^  op  ?epla  sete  -j  hnuta  •  --j  pyfena  •  "j 
hunijej-    iete    "j     ];one    jiop    -j    mnepojian    'j    pambe   -j 

'  jtyjimum  in  the  full  text.  |        -  jnntjjan,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    TI.  167 

xxxiv.  Leechdoms;  and  the  leeclidoms  which  are  Book  II. 
suitable  to  the  case  sliall  be  administered  accordino-  to  ^^^'^'^^'^^- 
the  mans  powers,  whether  in  head,  or  heart,  and  of 
wamb,  and  bhidder,  and  lynipli;  ^  and  according  as 
the  time  of  year  may  be,  in  regard  to  heat  and  cold; 
and  for  late  digestion,  or  if  the  wamb  be  overgrown 
and  wounded  ;  and  if  a  man  be  blown  out  inwardly ; 
and  for  prurience,  and  itchings  of  the  wamb  ;  nine 

XXXV.  Leechdoms  for  the  overfilling  07'  surfeit  of 
children,  and  for  their  wamb,  and  if  their  meat  digest 
not  well,  and  if  sweat  pass  from  them  and  stink 

xxxvi.  Leechdoms  of  pain  in  the  milt,  and  that 
the  milt  is  on  the  left  side,  and  tokens  of  the  disease, 
how  reckless  the  sick  are,  and  how  long  the  milt 
is,  and  of  the  film  or  membrane  of  the  milt  on  the 
left  side,  and  of  splenetic  laughter,  which  cometh  of  the 
milt,  how  the  milt  suffereth  everything  of  that  which 
other  limbs  suffer  either  hot  or  cold;  and  of  the  bath, 
and  of  sexual  commerce,  and  whence  the  heat  cometh 
and  the  cold  of  the  milt :  eight  receipts. 

xxxvii.  Leechdoms  how  a  man  shall  tend  the  man 
within  and  without  with  cold  and  hot  leechdoms, 
and  what  meat  he  is  to  take,  and  what  he  is  to 

xxxviii.  Leechdoms  how  a  man  shall  cure  the  hu- 
mours and  the  livid  complexion  by  external  applica- 
tions, and  of  the  evil  humours  of  the  milt,  and  of  the 
lubricity  of  the  humours  of  the  milt. 

xxxix.  A  leeehdom  for  a  windy  swollen  state  of  the 
milt,  which  cometh  of  eating  of  apples,  and  of  nuts, 
and  of  peas,  and  of  honey,  and  which  pufFeth  up 
throughout  the  rope  gut,  and   the   intestines,  and   the 

Gastric  juice. 

]68  L^CE    EOC. 

0  ma^^uu  ]ja  ^(ionb  blapab  •  -j  pit)  yo5e]7au  "j  feaban  )?e  oj: 
milte  cymS  •  'j  Im  iio  abl  jejK'iit;  on  pa^rep  bollan 
eallep  tyii  cpjcftaj'.  :• 

.XL.  Liecebomaf  be  ablapunje  -j  alieajibunje  j^ael' 
blobef  ou  pain  milce.  : 

.XLI.  Lsscebomaf  pi]>  ]>se]\e  lieajibnej-pe  -j  I'ajie  inilrc]- 
■j  liii  mon  nipej  fpinej-  blsebjian  inib  ecebe  jepylbjie 
jelmepcan  j^a  Iieajibnepj'e  -j  pi]?  ealluni  niablum  ]>]iy 
cjiiuptaS.  :  • 

.XLii.  Lsecebomaf  jtp  omihtjie  blob  'j  ypele  ptetari 
on  ]7am  milre  pyn  }?mbenbe  ponne  j^ceal  him  inun 
blob  Iseran  on  ]ni]-  pipan  pe  ])eop  Ireceboc  ^ej])  •  "j 
be  ]70ep  blobep  liipe.  :• 

.XLiii.  Lsecebomap  lipeer  hnn  on  j^sejie  able  to  |nc- 
fol.  G2  b.  jeune  fie  hpset;  to  pojijanne. 

.XLiiil.  Laicebom  eft  pe  pe  p  ypel  uttih'S  op  ];ani 
milte  fpi8e  a^J^ele  *  'j  pe  eac  beah  pi];  majan  ablapunje 
•j  Inno]ni  Imej-ce])  Jja  pambe  ])ynna]:>  j?a  oman  •  bitejie 
hjitecetunje  apej  be];  -j  bjieoft  co]>e  •  -j  pib  ptepc  •  'j 
lipeji  able  "j  milte  pcTpc  •  -j  pambe  pmb  eal  ])a  liht.     : 

.XLV.  La3ceboma]-  'j  ipi&bjienc  pijj  aipollenum.  :• 

.XLVI.  Lsecebomai"  jnj;  5elip?e];eji]ie  fiban  pajie  'j  tacn 
punboplicu  lipanan  lio  cume  'j  hu  fio  abl  topeapib  lie  • 
•j  liu  mon  papa  tilian    pcyle.  :. 

.XLYii.  Lsecebomap  pa  Se  ]?ynnun3e  lisebben  -j  fuial- 
iinje  msejen  •  ];am  lichoman  pe  pa  ha^to  mebmicle 
oppe  itjianje  ppopien  -j  hu  mon  icyle  fpinel"  blsebpan 
on  bon.  :. 

.XLViii.  Laecebomal'  pelpan  jip  pap  op'pe  helpe  ne 
I'yn  hu  him  mon  eac  blob  pcyle  l?etan.  ;. 

.XLViiii.  Laecebomal"  'j  peax  pealpa  -j  pceappunja  pip 
liban  pape  "j  lij?ajt  he  j^icjean  ]"cyle.  ;. 

LEECH   BOOK.   II.  109 

waiii]i    or   venter,   and    the  maw   or  stomacJt,    sobbing      Book  II. 
and    Avatery    congestions    which   come    from    the    milt, 
and  how  the    disease    turneth  into    dropsy  :  in  all    ten 

xl.  Leechdoms  for  inflation  and  for  hardening  of  the 
blood  in  the  milt. 

xli.  Leechdoms  for  the  hardness  and  sore  of  the  milt, 
and  how  a  man  may  with  a  swines  bladder  lilied 
with  vinegar,  make  nesh  the  hardness  ;  and  for  all 
its  inward  diseases ;  three  recipes. 

xlii.  Leechdoms  in  case  inflammatory  blood  and  ill 
humours  in  the  milt  are  enlarging  it :  then  shall  the 
sick  be  let  blood  in  these  ways  which  this  Leech  book 
saith  ;  and  of  the  hue  of  the  blood. 

xliii.  Leechdoms  telling  what  during  that  disorder 
is  to  be  the  diet,  and  what  food  is  to  be  foregone. 

xliv.  A  leechdom,  again,  a  very  noble  one,  which 
di'aweth  out  the  evil  out  of  the  milt ;  and  this  leech- 
dom is  also  efficacious  for  puffing  up  of  the  maw  and 
of  the  inwards  ;  it  maketli  nesh  the  wamb,  it  thinneth 
the  hot  secretions,  it  doth  away  bitter  throat  risings, 
and  breast  disease,  and  side  pains,  'pleurisy,  and  liver 
disease,  and  milt  pains,  and  wamb  wind  ;  all  them  it 

xlv.  Leechdoms  and  a  powerful  potion  for  the  swollen. 

xlvi.  Leechdoms  for  sore  of  either  side,  and  wondrous 
tokens  whence  the  disease  cometh,  and  how  it  is 
imminent,  and  how  it  should  be  dealt  with. 

xlvii.  Leechdoms  which  have  the  main  or  virtue  of 
thinning  and  smalling  or  small  rnaJdng;  for  the  bodies 
which  suffer  a  moderate  or  strong  heat,  and  how  a 
swines  bladder  should  be  applied. 

xlviii.  Better  leechdoms  if  these  others  are  not  for 
a  help,  how,  also,  the  patient  shall  be  let  blood. 

xlix.  Leechdoms,  and  wax  salves,  and  scarifications 
for  sides  sore,  and  a  declaration  what  he,  the  sick, 
shall  take  for  diet. 

170  L^CE   BOG. 

.L.  Lsecebomaf  ejrt  ]n8  fiban  ]-ape. 

fol  63  a.  .  LI.  Lsecebomaj-  pi^  lun3;eTi  able  "j  la]?licu  tacn  hpanan 

fio  abl  cume  -j  liu  mon  lacnian  fcyle  •  bpencaj'  'j  yealjra 

'j    bjiipaf  je  piS   lunje  punbe  -j    jip  lunjen   bpeo]?e  •  -j 

jip  liinjen  bpujije  an  "j  tpentrij  cpsefca.  :• 

.Lli.  La3cebomaf  -j  fpij'ebpencap  mannum  to  hiele  -j 
jtp  man  liine  opeji  ^emet  bjiece  to  fpi]>anne  -j  eft 
pece  hjienc  o]>]>e  jip  bjienc  op  men  nelle  eallef  tpentij 
bpencea.  .  :• 

.Liii.  Lrecebomaf  'j  leolite  bpencaf  mannum  to  hpelo 
■j  tinfpmle  bpenceap  pi]>  untpumum  mnojmm  eahta 
cp  septal'.  :• 

.Liiii.  Lfecebomap  ^  bpencaf  prS  mfcice  -j  jip  ftice 
butan  inno];e  fie.  :• 

.LV.  Lsecebomaf  *j  bpencaf  pp  mon  mnan  pojiliaepb 
fie  -j  pi])  inco]>e  "j  p;ep  co]:ie.  :■ 

.LVI.  LfBcebomaf  jip  mon  fie  on  utpsepce  *j  tacn  be 
utpibte  je  on  j^am  upeppan  hjiipe  je  on  J>am  m|;eppan 
•j  lipanan  fio  abl  cume  'j  liu  mon  hie  pcyle  lacnian  -j 
lippet  mon  Jncjean  fcyle  -j  ept  pi]?  ]?on  jip  mon  blobe 
ane  utyjme  "j  pi])  miclum  pape  -j  ablauneppe  ])SRp  in- 
fol.  63  b.  no]7ep   o]?])e    j'Tp  mon    pop  poppep  untpumnej-pe  utypne 

oppe  pp  hpa  blobpyne  J^popije  on  J)am  ni]?eppan  bjelum 
hip  lichoman  o]7])e  jip  hpam  pie  micje  on  blob  jip  hio 
jehj'ypp])  •  oS8e  jip  mon  utjanj  nsebbe  *j  ept  ut- 
ypnenbe  lipip  ptp  -j  hunb  feopontij  Iseceboma.  :• 

.LVii.  LaBcebomap  pi  J;  ]7eapmep  utjanje  -j  jip  men 
bilyhte  fie  ymb  ];one  ];eapm  'j  pi6  bla3C  *  Jjeapmef 
utjanje  nijon  pij-an. 

'  Read  baec. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  171 

1,  Leeclidoms  again  for  sides  sore,  that  is,  pleurisy.       Book  ii. 

li.  Leechdoms  for  lung  disease  and  loathsome  tokens     CoNxi-NTfe. 
oi'  symptoms,  whence  the  disease  cometh  and  how  one 
shall  cure  it ;  drinks,  and  salves,  and  brewits,  bo  it  for 
lung  wound,  or  if  a  lung  perish,  or  if  a  lung  get  dry ; 
one  and  twenty  crafts  or  recipes. 

lii.  Leechdoms  and  spew  drinks  for  men  for  their 
health  :  and  if  a  man  strain  himself  above  measure  to 
spew,  and  again  a  weak  drink,  or  if  a  chink  or  draught 
of  medicine  will  not  pass  away  from  a  man.  In  all 
twenty  drinks. 

liii.  Leechdoms  and  light  drinks  for  men  for  their 
health,  and  unspewing  drinks,  or  potions  not  emetic, 
for  infirm  inwards ;  eight  crafts. 

liv,  Leechdoms  and  drinks  for  an  inward  stitch, 
and  if  there  be  a  stitch  outside  the  inwards. 

Iv.  Leechdoms  and  drinks  if  a  man  be  inwardly 
bound  up,  and  for  inward  disease,  and  sudden  disease. 

Ivi.  Leechdoms  if  a  man  be  afflicted  with  painful 
evacuation,  and  tokens  of  dysentery,  either  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  belly  or  in  the  nether,  and  whence 
the  disease  cometh,  and  how  a  man  shall  cure  it,  and 
what  a  man  shall  take  for  diet;  and  again  in  case 
that  a  man  evacuate  with  blood  only,  and  for  mickle 
sore  and  upblowing  of  the  inwards,  or  if  a  man,  from 
infirmity  of  the  rope  gut  or  colon,  have  diarrhcea,  or 
if  one  suffer  a  bloodrunning  in  the  nether  parts  of  his 
body,  or  if  any  ones  mie  or  urine  be  of  blood,  or  if 
it  turneth,'  or  if  a  man  have  no  evacuation,  and 
again  an  outrunning  brewit  for  diarrhcEa ;  seventy- 
five  leechdoms. 

Ivii.  Leechdoms    for    outgoing    of    the    gut,   and    if  Prolapsus. 
boils  come  on  a  man  about  the  gut,   and  for  outgoing 
of  the  gut ;    nine  methods. 

>  Cloudy. 

174  L^CE   EOC. 

lol.  64  b.  iirpsejice  •  -j  jij:    mon    blobe    fpij'e  •  -j  yip   blobpyne  •  -j 

jip  lim  fsepmja  ace  •  "j  pi]>  blasce  on  -jplitan.  :■ 

.LXiiii.  LaBcebom   j-e    monian^   pi]?   mnoj^ep   poplisspb- 
/  neppe  -j    jutomori'-   pi-S   milce   ptepce  "j    frice  *j   fpican 

]n])  utpilitan  *]  bpacontjan  pi]?  pule  hojiaj-  on  men  •  -j 
alpaii  pi]?  mitpymneppum  •  'j  jalbanep  pi]?  neappiim 
bjieoicmn  •  -j  balzaman  fmipmj  pi]?  eallvim  uncpuin- 
lu'ppuni  'j  petjiaoletim  ro  bjimcanne  anpealb  pij?  innan 
-ybejmeppe  -j  utan  to  fmejipanne  •  -j  typiaca  ij*  30b 
bjienc  jn]?  mno]?  tybepnepj'um  •  -j  pe  lipica  fcan  pi6 
ealliim  uncu]?um  bpocum.  .. 

.LXV.  La3ceb6m  ^ip  liojif  pie  opl'coten  *j  pi]?  utpsejice- 
■j  jtp  utrjanj  popfeten  j'le  •  "j  pi]?  lencten  able  •  apt 
pi]?  utpsepce  -j  pi]?  unlybbum  -j  pi]?  ]?8epe  jeolpan  able 
•j  jip  men  fie  pfeplice  ypele  "j  to  jeliealbanne  lichoman 
licelo  -j  pi]?  5ic]?an  "j  ailue  -j  pi]?  lonb  able  -j  jonjel- 
pseppan  bite  •  "j  piS  utpiliCe  "j  lieapob  pealpa. 

f^j  g5  j^  .LXVI.  be  |?am  Itane  ]?e  jajatej-  liacte, 

.LXVii.  Be  pa^je  ele]-  -j  o]?e]ipa   mipSenlicjia  ])in3a. 

Alexander  P^Y  ^^^'^  ''^'^^^  abliep  majan  •  sepeft  jelome  fpsetunja 

Trailianus,  lib.  oSge    hpsGCunja  •    cipnef  -j  ]-e  man  hme  jelome  to  fpi- 

R.  Stephaui,      panne  •  "j    he    onpmbe]?    fpile   "j    ]?    ]?a  oman    beoS    mne 

^■^48.  betynbe  ]>up]i   ]?a    ablapun^e  •    "j    him  biS   unej?e   ]?upfc 

jetenje.       6ac   op   })5Bp    majan   able   cumaS   momje    -j 

mipSenlica   abla  jebopfcena   punba    "j  lipamma  h   pylle 

pu'pc  "j  pienba  abl  •    -j    luicla    mupnun^a  'j  unjiotnepj'a 

butan   J?eappe    "j   oman   -j   nnjemetlica    mete    j-ocna   -j 

unjemetlice  unluftaf  "j  cipneppa  •  "j  fapa  mable  on  pipep 

'  Kead  j-camoinan,  Avliich  is  mentioned  elsewhere  iu  this  book  II.  iii.  3., 
and  is  a  strong  purgative. 
-'  Kead  jut  amnion. 

LEECH   BOOK.    IT.  175 

blood,  and  for  blood  running  ;   and  if  a  limb  suddenly      Book  II. 
ache,  and  for   a   blotch  on  the  face. 

Ixiv.  A  leechdom ;  scamony  for  constipation  of 
the  inwards,  and  ammoniac  drops  for  pain  in  the 
milt,  and  stitch,  and  spices  ^  for  diarrhoea,  and  gum 
dragon  for  foul  disordered  secretions  on  a  man,  and 
aloes  for  infirmities,  and  galbanum  for  oppression  in 
the  chest  and  balsam  dressing  for  all  infirmities,  and 
petroleum  to  drink  simple  for  inward  tenderness,  and 
to  smear  outwardly,  and  a  tryacle,  that  is  a  good 
drink,  for  inwards  tendernesses,  and  the  white  stone, 
lapis  Alabastrites,  for  all  strange  griefs. 

Ixv.  A  leechdom  if  a  horse  be  elf  shot,  and  for  pain 
in  evacuation  of  the  fseces,  and  if  the  evacuation  bo 
stopped,  and  for  the  "  lent  disease,''  or  typhus ;  again 
for  pain  in  evacuation,  and  for  poisons,  and  for  the 
yellow  disease  or  jaundice,  and  if  sudden  evils  come 
on  a  man  ;  and  to  preserve  the  bodys  health,  and 
against  itch  and  elf,  and  for  "  land  disease "  or  nos- 
talgia, and  for  bite  of  the  gangway  weaver,  spider,  and 
for  diarrhoea  and  head  salves. 

Ixvi,  Of  the  stone  which  agate  hight. 

Ixvii.  Of  the  weight  of  oil,  and  of  other  various 

These  are  tokens  of  diseased  maw  ;  first,  frequent 
spittings  or  breakings,  choiceness  or  a  daintiness  about 
food,  and  for  the  man  to  spew  frequently ;  and  he  will 
have  a  sense  of  swelling,  and  that  the  hot  inflamed 
humours  are  shut  up  within  him  by  the  inflation ;  and 
an  uneasy  thirst  is  contingent  upon  him.  Also  from 
disease  of  the  maw  come  many  and  various  diseases  of 
bursten  wounds,  and  cramps,  and  epilepsy,  and  fiends 
disease,  and  mickle  murmuriuii'S  and  uneasiness  without 

Cinnamon  is  much  administered. 


L.ECE    EOC. 

jecynbon  "j  on  ):ot:nm  -j  lila^hjinn  •  *j  on  unmobe  •  *j 
on  iinjemet:  pteccun^'  'j  iin^jepitlico  pojib  •  ye  maja  bi]? 
neali  \\V]\e  lieoptan  -j  |)3S]ie  jelobji  -^  "j  jeabojitenje  )>am 
bjiffi5[en]e  •  oy  [am  cumat)  ]?a  abla  fjn];olu  Of  ];a3p  majan 
incmjan  "j  on^  yplum  ]'eapum  pretan  attepbepenbum  • 
jjonne  5a  pa^tan^  ])a  ypelan  peo]i]7a]7  jejabepobe  on 
]?one    inajan  •    'j    J'ffiji    jiixiaS    nnb    pceajipunja    ninan  • 

fol.  65  b.  fpijjofr   on    ]?am    monnum    ]>e    habbaS    fpijje    jepelne  "j 

fajicjienne  majan  fpa  ]3  Lie  fume  fomnunja  fpelra]?  • 
ne  rnajon  abejxan  ]ja  Icjianjan  pceajipmja  ]?0epa 
jEtejma  psetena  •  hpilum  pypmaf  op  ]?am  mjjeppan  ^ 
brelvim  5e]'ecaS  ];a  npejijian  btelap  to  }mm  majan  •  "j  eac 
lieoptcoj^e  ])ypceao  •  -j  anjnej'j-a  -j  5efpo])un5a  ipa  'pte 
hpilum  fume  men  ppam  j^ajia  pyjima  plitunje  fpelraS 
"j  poppeop|?a8  •  poji  ]>on  j^sem  mannurn  beah  ■])  him  mon 
on  pjiuman  ]?a  mettap  jipe  ]?e  celunje  -j  fujianjunje 
ma'jen  ha^bben  fpa  fjni"  beo]?  feppla  naiej-  to  fpete 
eallep  ac  ]-upmelfce  -j  pejuiii  -j  pepfucaj-  -j  hlap  jebon 
on  cealb  ])a;te]i  o]?|?e  on  luit  be  ]?se]ie  jelicunje  ])?ep 
majan  pe  ]:>a  ^^pelan  jnietan  fceoppenban  'j  fceappan 
haspS.  pip  beali  eac  on  pjiuman  ]?am  Se  |;a  heojiCcoSe 
■j  f  jefceopp  c3popia5  relcpa  jejiifc  ]3  him  mon  lytlum 
ba  mettap  j'elle  Jja  ]>e  late  melten  •  leax''  'j  Jja  pixap 
J>a  Se  late  meltan  joj'e  mneple^  -j  fpmef  pet  J)a  '5e 
nifBjen  pi]?  habban"  ]?am  yjrelan  psetan  •  -j  J?onne  him 
pel    fie    ]7onne    ]?icje   he    fpetjian    mettaf  •    ne  \n]>  hmi 

fol.  66  a.  nanpuht  pelpe  J^onne  lie  ]?a  j^icje  ]ja  ];e  late  melten '"  -j 

'  The  construction  is  faulty  ;  it 
should  be  ~j  unmoh  t  unsemerptecce. 

^  Iveacl  j;elob)ie  ?  See  Lye  in 
Seloba.     Also  b))cet;e,  LIS 

•■*  Read  o)-. 

•»  At  this  point  our  author  skips 
over  seven  folio  pages  and  goes  on 
at  lib.  vii.  cap.  id,  p.  114,  ed.  1548. 

■'  The  interpreter  omits  ol  t?/s  poas 
KoicKot,  the  seeds  of  the  pomegranate, 
and  ^oSd/ciw,  nectarines,  and  »?  avff- 
Ti)phv  Kcu  t]ivxp^v  txouira  ffTa(pvK-r], 
(/rapes  of  a  <lr?/  and  cold  Jlavoxir . 

''"  Read  nij^ejipan. 

"  The  interpreter  takes  iVi/cot  for 
salmon,  csoces,  as  was  and  is  usual ; 
and  he  neatly  escapes  Pov\$a, 
aripviov,  affraicoi,  craij  Jislt,  KTivia, 
scallops,  KTipvicta,  conch  shellfish. 

"  Jicad  mnclje. 

"  Read  habban  ]n\<. 

'"  Our  interpreter  here  varies  from 
the  printed  text,  which  recommends 
frequent  snacks  of  food  ;  very 

i.i:i':('ii  BOOK.  II.  177 

occasion,  and  eiysipelaton.--.  ca-uptions,  and  immoderatu  Uook  ir. 
desires  for  meat,  and  innneuse  want  of  appetite,  and  *  '■ 
daintinesses,  and  sore  internal  diseases  in  foemina^  natu- 
ralibus,  that  is,  tlie  uterus,  and  in  the  feet,  and  in  the 
bhidder,  and  despondency,  and  immoderately  long  wak- 
ings, and  witless  words.  The  maAv  is  near  the  heart  and 
the  spine,  and  in  communication  with  the  brain,  from 
which  the  diseases  come  most  violently,  from  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  maw,  and  from  evil  juices,  humours 
venombearino-.  Then  the  evil  humours  cct  gathered 
into  the  maw,  and  there  they  rule  with  excoriations 
within ;  esj^ecially  in  the  men  v/ho  have  a  very 
sensitive  and  soon  sore  maw,  so  that  some  of  them 
suddenly  die ;  they  are  not  able  to  beai-  the  strong 
excoriatino-  effects  of  the  venomous  humoiu"s.  At  Avhiles 
worms  from  the  nether  parts  seek  the  upper  parts,  uj) 
as  far  as  the  maw  ;  and  they  also  work  heart  disease,' 
and  oppressive  sensations,  and  swoonings  ;  so  that  some- 
times some  men  by  the  gnawing  of  the  v/orms  die  and 
go  to  the  dogs.  Wherefore  it  is  well  for  those  men,  that 
at  the  first  the  meats  lie  given  them  which  have  the 
virtue  of  cooling  and  strengthening,  such  as  be  apples, 
by  no  means  too  sweet,  but  by  all  means  sourish,  and 
pears,  and  peaches,  and  loaf  bread  put  into  cold  water  or 
into  hot,  according  to  the  liking  of  the  man  which  hath 
the  evil  humours  scarifying  and  sharp.  This  also  is  of 
importance  in  the  first  place  to  them  who  suffer  the 
heart  disease"  and  the  abrasion  ;  it  is  fitting  that  one 
should  give  them  by  little  at  a  time  the  meats  which 
tardily  digest,  as  lax  or  saltnoii,  and  the  fishes  which 
slowly  digest,  goose  giblets,  and  s wines  feet,  and  such  Contradicts 
as  have  a  virtue  against  the  evil  humours ;  and  when 
he  ^  is  better,  then  let  him   partake  of  sweeter  meats. 

'  Tlie  Saxon  version  misses    tlic  ;nU]i;)i-    had    liinisclf    many    times 

meaning  of  icapoiaKus  SiafleVeis.  said. 

-  KcpoiaXyiaf,      d/seafte     of     tin'  ■'•  The  previous  cdauses  were  plural 

diyeslive    onjun,     as    the    Hellenic  unless  "tipopia'S  stand  for  tiiiopa"?!. 
VOX,.    If.  M 

178  L^OE   TiOO. 

fpa  j^eali  ne  lynb  icitole  •  j^icje  to  unbepne]'  hiaj:  ^e- 
bjiocenne  on  hat  pseteji'  o]>]>e  seppla  bejimbebe.^  6ac 
bi]?  30b  jzulcum  on  jobum  pyjitbjiencum  fpa  Isecap 
pypcaS  •  op  ecebe  'j  op  pmolep  pypttpuman  -j  op  jimbe  • 
•j  op  alpan  -j  op  bopan  hunije  -^  jemenj  f  -j  pele  Jjsep 
cuclep  pulne  o]jJ>e  tpejen  ]?onne  hnepcaS  f  J>a  pambe  -j 
Cpyme]?  •  "j  f  beah  yip  bpeoft  psejice  -j  pi]?  lieoptco]?e  'j 
piS  pellepsepice  •  -j  pi^  ]?on  ]je  mon  fie  'on  ]?am  majan 
omi^pe  psetan  jepylleb  •  -j  pi8  manejum  ablum  f  beah  • 
^a  ]?e  cumaS  op  opeppyllo  •  -j  op  mifj'enhcum  yplum 
Alex.  Trail,  psetum.  jip  hie  cumen  op  opeppyllo  mib  fpipe  ]?an* 
cap.  iy.,  ed.  j^y  ^^^  y^^^i  lythan.  jip  hie  ]7onne  cumaS  op  o)?pum 
bifcepum  -j  ypelum  psetum  ]?a  J^e  pypiceaS  oman  ]?onne 
beo]7  J?a  elcpan  to  fciUanne  o]?^  J^e  hie  unftpanjpan 
peop)?an  •  fpi]?oft  ;<;ip  )?a  psetan  beoS  ]ncce  -j  plipejpan. 

be    pambe    coj^e    o]>]>e    jtp  op   \>se]\e   pambe  anpe  j;a 
ypelan  psetan  cumen  -y  ne  opepypnen  ealne  j7one  licho- 
man  f  mon  pceall  mib  halpenbum    mettum  anum  lac- 
fol.  66  b.  man  -^  jip  ]?onne  fio  ypele  psete  op  J^sepe  pambe    opep- 

ypne]?  ealne  ]?one  lichoman  ]?8ep  mon  pceal  mib  mapan 
lacnunje  tilian  •  hpilum  Mm  mon  pceal  op  febpan  blob 
Isetan  jip  J^sep  blobep  to  pela  jnnce  -j  jjsepe  yplan  psetan 
•j  eac  pyptbpenc  pellan.  Ac  sepeft  mon  pceal  blob 
Isetan  septeji  |;on  pyptbpenc  pellan. 


Pi]?  papum  -j  a])unbenum   majan  jenim    ele   -j  jebo 
hpit    cpiiba    'j    bile    -j    fu])epne    pepmob    on    ]?one     ele 

'  iidaip  Tpvxp6i'.     Al.  Trail.  1        '  fj.4\iros  arriKov,  A.  T. 

-'  ^  firiXou  7^  KiTpov  cKrhi-  tuv  AeVoi/y    i        '  Not  very  litei'ally. 
uvTov,  A.  T.  I       "  Alex.  Trail,  has  more  words. 

LEECH    HOOK.    If.  179 

Naught  is  better  for  Lini  than  that  he  take  those  ^^°^  ^}- 
which  digest  late,  and  are  notwithstanding  not  purga- 
tive ;  let  him  eat  at  undern,  or  nine  o^cloek,  loaf  bread 
broken  into  hot  water,  or  apples  peeled.  There  is  also 
good  support  in  good  wort  drinks,  as  leeches  work 
them,  of  vinegar,  and  of  fennels  roots,  and  of  its  rind, 
and  of  aloes,  and  of  dumbledores^  honey;  mix  that  up 
and  administer  a  spoonful  of  it  or  two,  then  that 
maketh  the  wamb  nesh  and  firm  ;  and  it  is  efiicacious 
against  breast  wark,  and  heart  disease,  and  epilepsy,  and 
in  case  that  a  man  be  filled  with  inflainmatory  hu- 
mour in  the  maw,  and  that  is  valid  against  many  dis- 
orders which  come  of  surfeit  and  of  various  evil 
humours.  If  they  are  come  of  surfeit  with  spewing,  by 
that  remedy  shall  they  be  lessened.  If  however  they 
come  of  other  bitter  and  evil  humours,  which  work 
inflammations,  then  are  the  latter  to  be  stilled  till  that 
they  become  less  strong ;  chiefly  if  the  humours  be 
thick   and  rather  slippery.^ 

2.  Of  wamb  disease,  or  if  the  evil  humours  come 
from  the  wamb  alone  and  do  not  overrun  the  whole 
body,  that  case  shall  be  treated  with  healing  meats 
alone.  If  moreover  the  evil  humour  from  the  wamb 
overrunneth  the  whole  body,  this  shall  be  dealt  with 
by  means  of  the  stronger  remedies  :  at  whiles  one  shall 
let  him  blood  from  a  vein,  if  there  seems  to  be  too 
much  of  the  blood  and  of  the  evil  humour,  and  also 
give  a  wort  drink ;  but  he  shall  first  be  let  blood 
and  after  that   have   the  wort  drink  given  him. 


1.  For  a  sore  and  swollen  maw  ;    take  oil,  and  put 
mastic,  and  dill,  and  southern  wormwood  into  the  oil, 

'  Attic.  1         -  y\i(TXP'>i- 

M   2 

1  so  {..Y.OK    V.CiC. 

\iv.~  I'raubaii  pjuM  nihc  -j  ;^ebo  \>  ]k\  I'Vjita  yyn  j^t- 
j'obene  ou  ];aiii  fk'  •  Jt^bo  L)onu(^  uii  hnt- j'ce  puUe 
i'mijie  l^one  maT;au  inib.  Bpt  jnj>  )>on  iloaii  ^emui 
ealbne  pyyle  i;eL;]npila  on  'cjieopeniiiii  mopce]ie  ineui; 
yrh  sejel'  \)  lipite  bo  on  clab  leje  on.  pij'  pajVuin 
inaran  eyx:  ^ebo  on  peajunne  elf  ]>a  j'Vpt;  •  ]^e  hactc 
}:eno5)iecum  -j  lanpep  cjioppaii  j  bile  fmipc  ]>one 
majan  mib  |;y. 

fol.  C7  a.  ]hp    pajium    niajan    pe^bjirebau    peap    -^j    cceb    bo    on 

cla'6  lege  on.  6pt;  jip  pe  maja  ajpunben  f"ie  o]>\e  a]?eneb  • 
[^emni  ]?££]•  pelefcan  ])inef  'j  jpenel'  elep  Ipilc  healp  feo]' 
pejimobep  cpoppan  bo  on  Imepce  pulle  fmipe  mib.  Sellt 
him  ])onne  plaepc  e~an  lyceljia  puhta  I'mjieljia  pnjla  ^epo- 
benjia  -j  ^ebpsebjia  -j  manijpealb  a?ppelcyn  pepan  fppenm- 
i^ap'  pi  San  op];a3nba  -j  jefobena  on  ecebe  'j  on  jjjierpe  'j  on 
pme  ])el  fceappum.  ]?i]?  j-apnm  majan  •  pofan  leapa  .v. 
o]^];e  .vii.  oS'Se  nijon  -j  pipopef  copna  empela  jei^nib 
fmale  "j  on  liatjuin  ptccepe  pele  bjimcan.  Bpr  pi]>  ]on 
ilcan  3;enrni  oj:  puihnyrc  .xx.  ;<;(*cl<ciiibbpa  cyjincla  "j 
cymene]*  fpa  nuccl  fpa  jni  niajje  nub  j^jum  pinjjinni 
po]iepeapbuni  7;eninian  jecjiipula  jionnc  bollan  pulne 
pyl  on  moprejie  jebo  cealbef  pserepep  to  .II.  jobi^ 
bollan  pnlle  pele  Sonne  (lejiefc  ]>  liealp  to  bjimcanne. 
Gy.~    ip    onlejen'   ro  trpymmanne    ]?one    niajan  "j   to 

fol.  G7  b.  Inubanue    jeptep   utj-ihtan   o])])e    i^pteji    pyp'cbpence    je- 

ha'jmebne  hlap  chenne  ieo]?  on  ealbum  j'nie  ^ip  ];u 
htebbe  •  jip  Int  lie  furaop  co  pejiniobei'  febef  bupt  to 
feoj;  a't^a?bepe  bo  on  claS  opejdmit  mib  ele  leje  on 
})one  majan  •  ;i;ip  hit  fie  pmteji  ne  ];eappt  |;u  ];oiie 
pepmob  to  bon. 


I^e  i;efpel]e  -j  j-ajie  ])8P)-  mai;an«  ^}y  iV   man  p  miejen 
hffibbe    Iff't   liim    ))lob    toptep    j^oii    mib  py  ele   fmijie    |>e 


LEKCll     HOOK.  II.  181 

let   it  .stand  three   uigiit;s,  .-ind  aiTange   tliat  tlie    worts       Bonk  11. 
be  sodden    in    the    oil,   then   })nt  tluU  vi\nn\  nesh  wool,  ^'  "' 

^niear  the  rnnvv  therewith.  Again,  for  that  ilk ;  take 
old  lard,  triturate  it  in  a  treen  mortal',  juingle  there- 
with the  white  of  an  egg,  })iit  on  a  cloth  and  lay  on. 
For  a  sore  maw,  agaiii  ;  put  the  wort  into  warm  oil. 
which  hight  fenugreek,  and  hunches  of  laurel  HoM'er.s, 
and  dill ;  sniear  the  maw  with  that. 

'1.  For  a  sore  maw  ;  put  on  a  cloth  juice  of  way- 
broad  and  vinegar ;  lay  on.  Again,  if  the  maw  be 
swollen  or  distended  ;  take  some  of  the  best  wine,  and 
of  green  oil  half  so  much,  seethe  the  heads  of  worm- 
wood tJoerein,  put  this  on  nesh  wool,  smear  therewith. 
Then  give  him  the  flesh  to  eat  of  little  creatures,  as 
of  small  fowls,  sodden  and  roasted,  and  manifold  kinds  of 
apples,  pears,  medlars,  peas  moistened  and  sodden  in 
vinegar  and  in  water,  and  in  pretty  sharp  wine.  For  a 
sore  maw ;  leaves  of  rose,  five,  or  seven,  or  nine,  and  of 
pepper  corns  as  many,  rub  them  small,  and  administer 
in  hot  water  to  be  drunk.  Again,  for  that  ilk  ;  take 
twenty  cleansed  kernels  of  the  nuts  of  the  stone  pine, 
and  of  cummin  so  much  as  thou  mayest  take  u]»  with 
the  tips  of  three  fingers,  then  triturate  a  bov/1  full,  ]"»oil 
in  a  mortar,  add  of  cold  water  two  good  bowls  fidl, 
then  give  the  half  ihercof  in  the  first  instance  to  be 

■j.  Again,  here  is  an  onlay  ■'  or  apijlicailou  to  com-  =  ini(>^fj.s.. 
fort  the  maw,  and  to  bind  it  after  the  diarrhcna,  or 
after  a  wort  drink  ;  seethe  clean  toasted  bread  in  old 
wine,  if  thou  have  it ;  if  it  b(^  summer,  add  dust  of 
the  seed  of  wormwood,  seethe  together,  put  on  a  cloth, 
smudge  over  with  oil,  lay  on  the  maw  ;  if  it  be  winter, 
thou  needst  not  apply  the  wormwood. 

Of  swelling  and  soiv  of  tlie  maw;    if  the    man   have 
Lhe    strength    lo  hrar    if,    let    liim    blood;    after    that. 

182  ].MCE  BOC. 

];a  pyyi'ca  lyn  on  jeyobene  |?e  pe  eeji  nembon  •  jeptep 
|70n  mib  hate  hunije  fmijie  -j  opejipceabe  ])oime  mib 
hpirey  cpibuep  -j  alpan  bufce  ^  pipopep  hyse'c  hpeja  • 
opeplecje  •  ]7onne  inib  Imene  claSe  oS6e  mib  eopo- 
cijpe  puUe  -j  pele  pejimob  on  peapmum  psetepe  tpam 
mhtum  sep  opjotenne  f  ye  }pam  omtim  fcille  •  *j  pele 
J70nne  gepipopobne  pyprbpenc*  "j  Sonne  pceal  mon  J>am 
men  mib  bpium  hanbum  on  mopjenne  -j  on  aepenne 
fol.  6 J  a.  ]7a   hanba  *j  ]?a  pet  jniban  fpi'Se  *j  ])yn  •    -j    51F  hit  fie 

50b  pebep  he  Wm  on  imbepne  jife  •  janje  him  ut 
hpibep  hpeja  fume  hpile  •  ^ip  hit  ne  fie  pebep  janje 
htm  m  jeonb  hip  huf. 


Pi]?  heapbum  fpile  ]?tep  majan  j-ele  ]>u  liim  pealte 
metta]'  -j  hapan  plsej^c  "j  eopopef  •  puban  pypttpuman  • 
■j  ceppan  •  'j  pcip  pm  •  *j  eaSmelte  mettaj'  -j  onlejena 
utceonbe  ]?one  heajiban  fpile  •  -j  b?eS  |7enba  fmeppunja 
pypce  op  ele  -j  op  pepmobe  •  -j  op  hpitum  cpibue  -j  pme  • 
hepe  "Sonne  fmijie  mib  ];y  •  opleje  ]7onne  mib  eopecijpe 
pulle  -j  befpe]?e  •  jenim  eac  milfce  jeppla  jebo  neah- 
tepne  on  pm  -j  Jjonne  jefeoS  •  jefpete  ]?onne  f  pop 
mib  hunijef  teape  -j  jepipepa  mib  .XX.  copna  pele 
him  )>oTiTie  on  mopjenne  lytelne  bollan  pulhie  oSSe 
cuclep  pulne  ]?up  jepophtep  bpmcan. 


Lsecebom  pi]?  J^sep  majan  a]?unbenne]'pe  •  ]?8ep  mannep 
pet  -j  hanba  man  )-cea]  fpi];e  on  mopjentibum  J^^n  • 
•j    hme    mon    pceal    fpiSe    hlubc    hacan    jpteban    oSSe 

LEECH    BOOK.  II.  18.3 

smear  with  the  oil  ou  which  the  worts,  which  we  ere  Book  ir. 
named,  have  been  sodden  ;  after  that  smear  with  hot  ^^'  "'• 
honey,  and  sprinkle  over  with  dust  of  mastic  and  aloes, 
and  somewhat  of  pepper;  then  overlay  this  with  a 
linen  cloth  or  with  ewes  wool,  and  give  him  worm- 
wood in  warm  water,  ponred  off  the  worimvood  two 
nights  (days)  previously,  that  it  may  still  the  inflam- 
mation,' and  then  administer  a  peppered  wort  drink ; 
and  then  one  shall  at  morning  and  evening  rub 
smartly  and  squeeze  the  mans  hands  and  feet  with  dry 
hands,  and  if  it  be  good  weather  let  him  at  undem, 
that  is  at  nine  in  the  morning,  by  Gods  grace,  go  out 
somewhither  for  a  while  ;  if  it  be  not  fair  weather, 
let  him  walk  about  within  liis  house. 


For  a  hard  swelling  of  the  maw  ;  give  the  sick  salt 
meats,  and  hares  and  boars  flesh,  roots  of  rue,  and 
cresses,  and  sheer  {clear)  wine,  and  easily  digested 
meats,  and  applications  drawing  out  the  hard  swelling, 
and  baths  ;  work  moist  smearings,  that  is,  lotions,  of  oil 
and  wormwood,  and  of  mastic  and  wine  ;  bathe  him, 
then  smear  with  that,  then  overlay  with  ewes  wool, 
and  swathe  up ;  take  also  mild  apples,  put  them  for 
the  space  of  a  night  into  wine  and  then  seethe  them ; 
then  sweeten  the  wash  or  infusion  with  virgin  honey, 
and  pepper  it  with  twenty  peppercorns  ;  then  give  him 
in  the  morning  a  little  bowl  full  or  a  spoon  full  of 
the  thus  wrought  'potion  to  drink. 

A  leechdom  for  swelling  of  the  maw ;  one  shall  in 
the  morning  hours  squeeze  hard  the  mans  feet  and 
hands,  and  one  shall  bid  him  cry  or  sing  very  loud, 

'  fK^jfiovr],  I  suppose. 

184  LMCE  BOC. 

I'lnjau  -J  liuie  mou  j-cel  uealitrnej-cijue  '  cylicaii  'j  jjie- 
niiau  to  fpipanue  •  'j  on  iiiojijen  iinijicpjin  mib  elf  on 
)?aiii  Se  fie  jeyoben  jiube  'j  j^epmob  'j  ]ni  ieji  jeiiem- 
neban  metray  ]nc^e. 


'  y\])  uiiliifce  -j  j'lcBttan  ]?e  op  majan  cymS  -j  be  liip 
mere  •  ]-ele  liini  neahtnelbijum  pepmob  oS5e  ]?]ieo- 
bpeab"  jeboii  on  pceajip  ptii  pele  neahrnepcijum  •  'j 
tepCeji  ]7on  pealre  mectaf  niib  ecebe  jel'pere  •  ^  ^ejienobne 
I'enep  -j  jisebic  jjicjen  "j  ealle  |)a  merral"  je  bjuncan 
]>a  ]7e  habban  hat;  ma^jen  -j  Iceapp  ]'ele  picjean  •  'j 
jebeoph  f  hie  unjemelrneppe  ne  J^popian  •  'j  job  ptn 
gehser  -j  hlutto^  Jncjen  on  neaht  nejTij  •  'j  neaht. 
neptije  lapien  on  hunij  •  "j  j-ecen  him  bjioc  on  onjiabe  • 
■J  on  p^ene  ob"6e  on  ])on  j^e  hie  a  ]:>]iopian  masjen. 
6pt;  pij?  mete)-  imlufue  •  jenim  luj^epne  cymen  op]7teiie 
mib  ecebe  abpij^e  'Sonne  •  -j  jejnib  on  mojitejie  •  'j 
pnolef  pfebep  •  -j  bilep  pjieo  cucleji  msel  jejnib  eall 
tojiebepe  jeece  pipojiej"  j^jieo  cucleji  m.'el  -j  jiuban 
leapa  .Vii.  cucleji  mrel  'j  ]>a?p  leleptan  hunije]-  afipenej- 
an  pimb  •  jetjiipuhi  eal  to^^tebejie  •  yce  J^onne  nub 
ecebe  I'pa  j^e  ])ince  ]>  hit  lie  on  J)a  onhcnejye  jepopht 
])e  lenop  biS  ;i;ecemp]iob  to  mpil'an  •  ^ebo  ]?onne  on 
;5laip  ptet  •  -j  j^oiine  mib  hlape  oSSe  mib  i'pa  hpilcum 
mete  fpa  ]m  pille  lapa  on  ^  nytta  je  );eah  ]m  inib 
cuclepe  ]>  lupe  ];8et  hylp];  •  jnj'e]-  |ni  nytta  je  on 
lupenne  •  je  on  iinbepne  •  nip  ]j  pi]?  ];am  nnlufte  anuni 
job  J;a?j-  inajan  •  ac  eallum  J?am  hchoman  p  beah. 

Pij?  metep  unlufce  bpeopje  bpopthm  on  psetjie  oy- 
J^aeube  •  jejnib  mib  ecebe  pele  bpmcan  piIS  plajtcan.     ])i]y 

'  iieahcejTisne,  MS.  lianus,  lib.  vii.,  cap.  7,  pp.  108,  10'.» 

>,,,/..  I'd.  l-^>48. 

-    Avopefitt.    In   tlic  iir:  t  .icntciic'c  ..  ,      .        ^  ..       ,  .  ,,  , 

"^  '  .>  bcabjicab  .  Tr^yrroAiy  is  one  of  the 

,  are  some  traces  ol'  Akxandcr  'I'ral-       in;jr<.vlic'nts  in  A.  I. 

LEECH    ]]OOK.  II.  ],S.J 

and  one  shall  exhort  him  aJ'ter  lii.s  iiij^-his  fast,  and   put-      I'.nok  II. 
voke  him   to    spew ;    and    in    the    morning    smear    him         ^''^'  ^'' 
with  oil  on    which   has  been    sodden    rue   and    worm- 
wood, and   let  him   diet   on    the  before  named   meats. 


Against  waiit  of  appetite  and  nausea  which  cometh 
from  tlie  maw,  and  from  the  mans  meat ;  give  him  after 
his  nights  fast  wormwood  or  beebread,  put  into  sharp 
wine  ;  give  it  him  at  night  fasting,  and  after  that  salt 
meats  with  sweetened  vinegar,  and  prepared  mustard, 
and  radish  to  eat,  and  make  him  eat  all  the  meats 
and  drinks  whicli  have  a  hot  and  sharp  quality;  and 
beware  that  "  they "  suffer  not  indigestion,  and  let 
them  take  at  night  fasting  good  wine  heated  and  clear  ; 
and  let  tliem  after  the  nights  fast  lap  up  honey  ;  and  let 
them  seek  for  themselves  fatigue  in  riding  on  horse- 
back, or  in  a  wain,  or  such  conveyance  as  they  may 
ever  endure.  Again,  for  want  of  appetite  for  meat; 
take  southern  or  Italian  cummin,  moisten  it  with 
vinegar,  then  dry  it  and  rub  it  to  pieces  in  a  mortar, 
and  of  fennel  seed,  and  of  dill,  three  spoon  measures, 
rub  all  together,  add  of  pepper  three  spoon  measures, 
and  of  leaves  of  rue  seven  spoon  measures,  and  of  the 
best  strained  honey  one  pint  ;  triturate  all  together ; 
eke  it  out  then  with  vinegar  as  may  seem  fit  to 
thee,  so  that  it  may  be  wrought  into  the  form  in 
which  mustard  is  tempered  for  tiavovuing ;  put  it  then 
into  a  glass  vessel,  and  then  with  bread  or  with  what- 
ever meat  thou  choose,  lap  it  up,  and  make  use  of  it ; 
even  though  thou  shouldst  sup  it  up  with  a  spoon,  tliat 
will  help.  This  use  thou  either  at  even  or  at  nine 
o'clock.  The  'remedy  is  not  good  for  want  of  appetite 
of  the  maw  only,  but  il    is  valid   for  all  the  body. 

For  want  of  appetite  for  meat ;  rub  up  Avith  vinegar 
pennyroyal  moistened  in  water,  give  it  to  be  drunk 
against  nausea.     For  wa.nt  of  a]i[>etite   a/rain  :   give    to 

186  LyECE   BOO. 

unlufre  ej-'t  mtntan  -j  pipojiej*  ni^an  cojui  jejniben  on 
pme  j'ele  bjimcan. 


'Arofict,  want       y\y    fceal    pi8    abeabobum  majan  •   jemm  himijej'  ^ 

fe?,s,'o^' A\^^'  ^ceb    tojsebepe  jemenjeb   "j    ^ebeatenne  pipoji  j-ele  on 

Trail,  lib.  vii.,  mopjenne    cuclep   pulne   nealitnej-tijum  nyctije  fceap- 

ihi^  15,  ed.     '  pepa  bpmcena  •  -j  metta*  -j  i.Q'z  baj^e  mib  fmope  jnibe  "j 

1548.  fmeppe.     Sele  hmi  eac  neahcnepcijum  })ip  •  jenim  eceb 

fol.  69  b.  j,ij,  jlgebenan  jemen^eb  hpsethpeja  -j  lanjep  pipopej-  .x. 

copn  o\\e  cpoppan   -j   fenep   menje    eall   to^sebepe  •    -j 

■4  t;pipoli5e  pele  nihtnefcijum  an  cucleji  msel  •   jepenc  Sn 

]?onne  hp?e]?pe  j?te  ealle  |'a  sep  jenemneban    Igeceboma]- 

■j  ]7a  86fCe]\  ppicenan  ne  fculon  on  ane  J'paje  to  lanje 

beon   CO    gebone   ac   fculon   psec   habban  berpeonum    "j 

jiefre  •  hpilum  cpejen  bajaf  hpilum  ]?py  •  -j   ]?onne  him 

mon  blob  Isete  on  ?ebpe  on  pam  bajum  ne  bo  bim  mon 

nanne  oj^epne  leecebom  Co  •    nym]?e  ymb  .v.  nihc  o]7]?e 

ma.      pi]?  popfojenum  majan  oJ^J^e  a]7unbenum  •  jenmi 

lipyj^epen   plsepc   jepoben    on    ecebe  -j  mib  ele  jepenob 

^  raib    pealce  •  "j   bile  •  -j  pop  J'lcje  ^  feopon  mliC  ];onne 

lihc  ^  J>one   jefpenceban  majan  •    bip  fynb  Caen  abea- 

bobep  majan  ^  be  \i-^  ne  jemylc  ^  •  ac   pe    jejjijeba 

meCe  bepeja];  ]>one  majan  "j  lie  ]jone  pammelcan  f>uph 

8a  pambe  uCpenC. 


Pi}?  j-ape  -j  unlufce    ]?8ep    majan   fe   \e   ne    mse^    ne 

mib    meCe    ne    mib    bpincan    beon    jelacnob    -j    biCepe 

hpgececunje  •    Ntm    cenCaujuan   ]>    ij-    pelceppe    fume  • 

fol.  70  a.  haCaS  hypbe  pypc  •  fume  eo]i8  jeallan  jesnib  an  punb 

LEECH    BOOK.  11.  I  S7 

drink  mint  unci  niue  corns  of  pepper  rubbed  tutudt  in      Jiook  li. 
wine.  ^^-  ^'• 


This  shall  apply  for  a  deadened  maw;^  take  some 
honey  and  vinegar  mingled  together,  and  pepper  beaten 
up,  give  in  the  morning  a  spoon  full  of  it  to  the  man 
after  his  nights  fast,  let  him  employ  sharp  drinks  and 
meats;  and  at  the  bath  let  him  rub  and  smear  him- 
self with  mustard.  Give  him  also,  after  his  nights  fast, 
this  :  take  vinegar  mingled  with  somewhat  of  gladden, 
and  of  long  pepper  ten  corns  or  clusters,  and  mustard  ; 
mingle  all  together,  and  triturate;  give  him  after  a 
nights  fasting,  one  spoon  measure.  Then  consider  thou, 
notwithstanding,  that  all  the  aforenamed  leechdoms  and 
the  after  written  ones,  shall  not  be  to  be  done  at  one 
too  long  season,  but  must  have  space  and  rest  between 
them,  whilom  two  days,  whilom  three ;  and  when  one 
lets  him  blood  on  a  vein,  on  those  days  let  none  other 
leechdom  be  done  to  him,  except  about  five  days  later 
or  more.  For  a  stomach  troubled  with  hicket  or  puffed 
up,  take  beeves  flesh  sodden  in  vinegar  and  with  oil, 
prepared  with  salt,  and  dill,  and  porrum,  let  the  sick 
diet  on  that  for  seven  days,  then  that  relieves  the 
labouring  maw.  These  are  tokens  of  a  deadened 
maw  ;  what  he  taketh,  that  melteth  or  digests  not, 
but  the  meat  swallowed  oppresseth  the  maw,  and  it 
sendeth  out  the  half  digested  food  through  the  wamb. 


For  soreness  and  loss  of  appetite  in  that  maw, 
which  may  not  be  cured  neither  with  meat  nor  with 
di'ink,  and  for  the  bittei'  breaking  or  retching ;  take 
centaury,^    that    is    fel    terrse,    some   call   it  herdsmans 

Now  called  a  torpid  liver.  |      -  Eri/thraa  cantaureum. 


L^CE    BOL'. 

•;]    jebo    j'tejion    luicej-    piecejiel'   .IIII.    boUan    ):ulle    yele 
htm  neaht  iiej^ci^uiu  hjimcau  ]>]\y  bajaf. 

Syt  jcmm  ]>a  jieabe  netlan  ujrepeajibe  litebbenbe 
j'teb  aj'peah  citene  'j  pyjitie  Co  liipanne.  6j:t:  jpenef 
mepcej**  jecpipiilabej"  ]"eap  "j  ai^jiunjenep  ]ele  bjimcan- 
•j  on  ]ja  ilcan  pijan  pele  liiiu  bpmcan  huiian  j-eap. 
BfC  pi(S  inajan  pajie  piiban  -j  nuncaii  •  bile  •  bpeojije 
bpolclan  •  ajpiinoniaii  lunie  liacaS  jajicbpe  •  -j  ceplari 
jecniia  ealle  on  pine  o]>]^e  on  ealaS  pele  a^lce  bteje  Co 


yi\y  Inpunbe  niajan  •  mm  gate  meoliic  ];onue  hio 
pupjjum  amolcen  fie  pele  bpincan  •  fume  peapme  eopo 
meoluc  bpmcati  pi|;  raajan  fape  •  fume  |;one  yelefcan 
ele  jei^ypmebne  •  fume  yip  j'a  jate  meoluu  menja'S  o|? 
f  hie  f])ipaS   p  hi   ^e  yj?  fpipan  majon. 


•  1^  pla^^ctjin  -j  ro  hroranne    majian  •    pjoteji  bepoben 
fin    pejnnobe  •   -j    on    bile    o]?    J^one    |7pibban    ba3l    pele  f 
fol.  70  h.  bjimcan  ■]>  pyjiin^  ^j  heajiba]?  jjone  majaii. 


■'- nphi  t/iTviv-         '  ])]j>  jijmnbeneppe  ^  ejiunje  majan  •  pinolep  pypttpu- 
LiirceTiv.    Alex.  ,•  ^  ^  i^    j-  k^  i 

Trail,  lib.  vii.    "^^'-^  '^   iiiejicel  op  jeot:   inib   lci]ie   pine  ealbe  'j    op   j'on 

cap.  10;  p.  112,  jele   bjiincan  nehrnejTijVim  .11.  bollan  pulle   lycle.     J7ib 

ed,  1548  ;  hut      ^-    c  ,         t  i  i 

the  remedies     pmbijjie    apunbeiicpj'c  niajaii  to  j'yjunanue  ]>oiie    ceal- 

differ.               ^.^1^  iiia^aii  •    puban  •  ^-j    bile  •  mmtan  •   -j  mepce  fynb- 

^         juje    j'ceapaf   jeieo'iS    on   ]>]iini  ceac*  jruilum    jni'tejief  •]> 

j)8e]i  ne  fie  butau  an  pul  fele  j^onne  jj  paateji    bjvincan. 

'  The  method  of  Alex.  Tral- 
jiiinus  i.s,  it  seeni.s,  kept  in  view; 
\]ep\  rSiv    5('  auarpov    if/O^ii'    vy<'piK~ 

TowTiiv,  lib.  vii.,  cap.  7  ;  p.  109,  ed. 
]  .'■)48. 
-  ceacuni  '' 

I.KKCH    I'.OOK.    U.  ISf) 

wort,  some  earth  gall,  ral>  small  a  poun<l  of  it.  .iiid  HiiokJi. 
apply  tliereto  four  bowls  full  of  liot  water;  give  it  to  *  ^"'' 
the  sick  to  drink  for  three  Jays  after  his  nights  fast- 
ing. Again,  take  the  npper  part  of  the  red  nettle, 
while  having  seed,  wash  it  clean,  and  work  it  up  to 
sup.  Again,  administer  to  drink  juice  of  green  marehe 
triturated  and  wrung  out,  and  in  the  same  wise,  give 
liim  to  drink  Juice  of  /to/vdiouud.  Again,  for  sore  of 
mav\^ ;  rue  and  mint,  dill,  dwarf  dwosle,  agrimony, 
some  call  it  garcliff,  and  cress,  pound  them  all  in  wine 
oi-  in  ale,  give  of  fhis  each  day  to  drink. 


For  an  inward  wound  of  the  maw ;  take  goats  milk 
just  when  it  is  milked,  administer  to  be  drunk.  Some 
drink  for  sore  of  maw  warm  ewe  milk,  some  the 
best  oil  warmed,  some  mingle  that  with  the  goats 
inilk  till  they  spew,  that  they  may  spew  the  more 


For  nausea  and  to  heat  the  maw  ;  water  sodden  on 
wormwood  and  on  dill,  down  to  the  third  part,  give 
the  man  that  to  drink  ;  it  wai'meth  and  hardeneth  the 


For  puffing  up  and  blowing  of  the  maw  ;  overpour 
roots  of  fennel  and  marehe  with  clear  old  wine,  and 
of  that  give  the  dck  to  drink  after  his  nights  fast  two 
little  bowls  full.  For  a  windy  ]iuffing  up  of  the  maw , 
to  warm  the  maw,  rue  and  dill,  mint  and  marehe ; 
seethe  bundles  of  them  separate  in  three  jugs  full  (S 
water,  and  continue  seething  so  tliat  there  be  only  one 
cup  ;  then  administer  the  M^atei-  to  be  drunk. 

100  LyECE    VA)(:. 


*  n/jos  t/uEToj/.  *  Vi-S  fpip];an  'j  piS  J?on  ]?e  htm  mete  unbep  ne  je- 
punije  •  jemm  finfullau  jejnib  on  fceapp  pm  pele 
bollan  pulne  to  jebjimcanne  septeji  sepen  jepeojice  • 
jeriim  pij>  ])oii  ilcan  pinolej-  peapep  tpejen  bselaf  liuni- 
jep  aenne  feo]?  o]?  ^  p  hsebbe  liunijef  J^iciieppe  pele 
|jonne  neaht  neptijum  cucleji  msel  pull  •  f  plsettan 
V  jeftnpeS  f  lunjenne  bet  ]>  lipjie  lirel^.  pi^  miclan 
fpipe]?an  *j  he  ne  mas^e  nanne  mete  jehabban  •  jentm 
fol.  71  a.  bilep    psebep    ane    yntj^an  •    pipojiep    peopeji  •    cymenep 

]?peo  jejnib  fpi]?e  fmale  •  bo  J'onne  on  peetep  j^e  paepe 
nnnte  on  jepoben  -j  fupe  seppla  o^^e  pmjeapbep  tpiju 
upepeapb  meppe  jip  pe  mon  ne  fie  on  peppe  yce  mib 
pme  *j  pele  bpmcan  ]?onne  ne  to  pefte  jan  pille  •  "j  le^ 
utan  on  ]?one  majan  jefobene  pubu  sepia  -j  hlapep 
cpuman  -j  fpilce  onlejena. 


"Pev/xuTta-iuik.  JJonne  pceal  ]7ip  yip    ]?8e]'   majan  fppmje    Sum  pype 

eyn  hatte  lenticulaf  ece  J>apa  hunb  teontij  hpeappa. 
6pt  pceappep  ecebep  jefupe  ]>peo  cuclep  mtel  ]?onne  he 
plapan  pille  on  sepen. 


yip  eallum  majan  untpumneppum  •  jentm  pmolej- 
pypttpuman  utepeapbpa  f  J'seji  msepj'oft  fie  abo  op 
]?am    pmole    fpa   micel    fpa   o]>ep    healp  punb  fie  •   jeot 

'  The  method  of  Alex.  Trallianus  i   naxov  dir^fiovvra  r)]v  Tpocpyju,  p.  1 12, 
is   still  preserved;    he  has  a  short  |    ed.  1548. 
chapter,   lib.  vii.  cap.  9,  Uf)hs  ari-   \       -  For  lege. 




For  spewing,  and  in  case  that  a  mans  meat  will 
not  keep  down ;  take  sinfulle,  rub  it  Jine  into  sharp 
wine,  give  the  man  a  bowl  full  to  drink  after  evening 
work.  Take,  for  tliat  ilk,  two  parts  of  juice  of  fennel, 
one  of  honey,  seethe  or  boil  dotvn  till  the  mixture 
have  the  thickness  of  honey,  then  give  after  a  nights 
fast  a  spoon  measure  fall ;  that  restraineth  nausea, 
that  bettereth  the  lungs,  that  healeth  the  liver.  For 
mickle  spewing,  and  in  case  a  man  may  keep  in  his 
stomach  no  meat;  take  one  ounce  of  seed  of  dill,  four  of 
pepper,  three  of  cummin,  rub  very  small;  then  put 
into  water  in  which  mint  has  been  sodden  and  sour 
apples,  or  the  tender  upper  part  of  the  twigs  of  a  vine ; 
if  the  man  be  not  in  a  fever,  eke  it  with  wine,  and 
give  it  him  to  drink  when  he  willeth  to  go  to  bed; 
and  lay  outside  on  the  maw  sodden  wood  apples 
{crabs),  and  crumbs  of  bread,  and  such  applications. 

Book  II. 
Ch.  xii. 


Besides,  this  shall  be  good  for  Hux  ^  of  the  maw  ; 
one  sort  of  peas  bight  lentils,  let  the  rnan  eat  of  them 
raw  one  hundred.  Again,  let  him  sip  three  spoon 
measures  of  sharp  vinegar,  when   he   willeth   to  sleej) 

at  evening. 


For  all  infirmities  of  the  maw  ;  take  of  the  out- 
ward parts  of  the  roots  of  fennel,  what  is  there  most 
tender,  remove  from  the  fennel  as  much  as  may  make 

*  For  this  translation  I  partly  rely 
on  the  guidance  of  Alexander 
Trallianus,  who  has  remedies  irphs 
ffrdfjiaxov  pevnari^dfj-ei/ov  ;  lib.  vii., 
cap.  8  ;  p.  1 1 1,  ed.  1548  ;  p.  337,  ed. 
1556.     Properly  pevfiarifffihs  is    of 

the  wamb,  or  venter,  not  of  the 
maw  ;  and  Aretajos  says  as  much, 
Chron.  lib.  ii.,  cap.  6.  But  other 
authors  have  the  same  expression 
as  Alex.  Trail  ;  for  instance  Cselius 
Aurelianus,  Chron.  lib.  iii.,  cap.  2. 

1  fi2  L.^DOE  p.or. 

l'.)niit     I'cehej-    on    \'\k\    o|>eji    lic^al}:  p'j-rt-p  fie  l:ot  |>oiine 
j'jU'O  nihc  fcanhan  fpa  serjrebejie  •    u^jiTeji  ]>on  opejifeo^ 
])a  pypttrjniman  hpref  hpeja  on  ];am  ecebe  'j  appm;i;   o): 
fol.  71  b.  ];am  ecebe  cleene  •    jebo    |>onne  on  f  eceh   Imnijep  mib 

j/j^  ecebe  •  jebo  j'onne  a] pan  jobne  bsel  Jjsep  on  ^re 
yncian  jepeje  Ocibe  ma  -j  o]:'ep  Ipilc  lipitep  cpeobopep 
•j  ameo)-  liatrce  fuj^ejine  J'ypt:  o]>ep  apajiu  bo  ]?a]ia  ]?ep 
;^emenje  li])te]7ejie  ealle  tojfebeju'  'j  ]>onne  pelle  him 
)>peo  cucleji  mrel.  bo  })ip  pi'6  ma^an  bjiyne  -j  ]>npfrt- 
placo  ]>fece]i  menT;e  pi'S  ]>one  ieleptan  ele  ]-ele  bjimcan 
]>  f-yjiS '   j^am  |>ujifcre. 


])i])    ])£CY    ma^an    Ipjunje    ]?onne    ]mph    mnS    bicepe 

« 'ohpeyuiu.      jjjifecS-'^  oj^j^e    bealce"  oSCe  him   on  ]>am    ma;^an    fujeS  • 

^enmi    pipopef   fpilce    an    myner    ^epeje  •    bilef   prebep 

'^^        fpilce  .HIT.    mynet  jepejen  •  o|?ep  fpilc  cymenef  jegnib 

eall  -j  pele  on  pme    cvicleji  msel    Jjonne    he    plapan   jan 

pille.      Sio  a]7enun5  p'sep  majan    'j    fio    ablapunje  hoeco 

cymeS  op   'pam  blacum  omvim  •   ae  3;enim  jjonne  fpjun- 

^  ;^eau-    jebo    on    pceajip    eceb    jepsete    fpiSe    leje    ojiep 

|;one   majan  ])onne    liic   fpilc  fie.     jSpteji  );on  jip  j^aE^p 

fu!.  75  a.  ne  pele  leje  oj^pa    oulejena    on    frpenjpan    -j    apeppau 

fpa  fpa  'iy  pap'^    6m    piS    hiinii;    jemengeb    'j    Von    ^ehc. 

fpa  Isecap  cunnon. 


])ip  i'mt  caen    ]Kcy   hatan    mai;aii    omilitan  nnjemer 
pffifchcan  •  -j  |>a^p  opepeealban  •    pa^p    liatan    mai;an   un- 

'  From  Kreopan. 

'^  Understand  as   fpouj;ean   from 

the  Hellenic.    Alex.  Trail.,  lib.  vii., 
cap.  8;  p.  110,  foot,  ed.  l.'i^e, 
'■'  Read  ap.     See  the  Glossary. 

'  Full  of  (pXcynovTi. 

-  The  diet  is  drawn  from  a  pas- 
sage thus  headed  ;  Qepaireia  rf/s  Sia 
6efijj.riy  acrOevo{ia7]s  Svydfxiws.  UiiSe- 
VOL.    IT. 

mec]  asiT,  uiij;emecj-ae)'chc  are  there- 
I'ort'  the  opposites  of  KadfKTiK6s  ; 
and  not  what  Somner  supposed. 

("h    xiv. 

i.EEr'if  nooK.  II.  198 

a  pound    and    a    half,    tlion    pour     on   of    vinegar     as      ftiJ*^*^..'^' 

mucli    as    be    a   sextarius   and   a   half,   then    let  these 

stand   thus  together  for  three  nights  ;   after  that  seethe 

the  roots    somewhat   in  the    vinegar,  and    wring  them 

clean    from    the    vinegar.     Then    put    into   the    vinegar 

some  honey  with  the  vinegar ;    then  put  a  good  deal 

of  aloes  therein,  so  much  as  may  weigh    an  ounce    or 

more,  and  as  much   more  of  mastic   and  of  ammi,  as 

a  foreign  wort  liight ;    or   asarabacca  ;   put    in    less   of 

them,  mingle,  however,  all  together,  and  then  give  him 

three  spoon  measures.     Do  this  against  burning  of  the 

maw  and  thirst ;  mingle  lukewarm  water  with  the  best 

oil,  give  to  drink,  that  checketh  the  thirst. 


For  irritation  of  the  maw  when  fJ/c  man  through  the 
mouth  has  l)itter  breaking  or  belching,  or  there  is  an 
ill  lymph  in  his  stomach  ;  take  of  pepper  as  much  as  one 
coin  may  weigh,  of  seed  of  dill  as  much  as  may  weigh 
four  coin,  as  much  besides  of  cummin,  rub  all  fine  and 
administer  in  wine  a  spoon  full  when  the  man  willeth 
to  go  to  sleep.  The  swelling  of  the  maw  and  the  heat 
of  the  puffing  up  cometli  from  the  black  flegms ;  but 
then  take  sponges,  put  them  into  sharp  vinegar,  wet 
it  thoroughly,  lay  it  over  the  maw,  when  it  is  such. 
After  that,  if  it  feel  not  this,  or  he  insensible  io  these 
remedies,  lay  on  some  other  applications,  stronger  and 
more  austere,  such  as  is  copperas  mingled  with  honey, 
and  the  like  of  that  as  leeches  know. 


XV  i. 

1.  These  are  tokens  of  the  hot  fiegmatic '  maw,  irre- 
tentive,^ and  of  the  overcold.     Of  the  hot  or  irretenti^■e 

194  LMCE  BOC. 

jemetpfBjfcan  tacn  finbon  ];onne  he  bi'b  raib  omum 
jefpenceb  |?am  men  bi6  {;upfc  jecenje  'j  neaponef  -j 
jefpojunja  -j  mobe)"  tpeonunj  "j  unlufc  "j  pliBttra  •  liim 
1]"  nyt'  f  he  hlap  jpicjen"  on  cealbum  psetjie  oS8e  on 
ecebe^  -j  fpiSe  pgefte  jej'oben  sejjia  o]7j7e  jebjisebbe  to 
unbejinef  -j  pyjica  •  ^j  lactucaf  f  ly  leahtjiic  "j  mealpan 
*j  hgenne  plsepc  nasp  fpipe  ^^ej'oben  •  -j  jofe  ]?a  ycmep- 
tan  hmo  •  -j  pixap  J^a  ];e  heapb  plsej'C  habban*^  *j 
1/  pme  pmclan  •  -j    ofcjian    -j    o}?pu    pjyena  cyn  -j  mylfce 

jieppla  'j  bse]?  op  fpetum  pejifcum  psecepum  fceal  beon 
jepoplit  hat  b99]7  him  ne  beah.  Taen^  |?sep  opejiceal- 
ban  majan  f  ]?a  men  ne  J^ypfc  ne  hi  fpol  jepela]?  on 
majan  -j  ne   bi]?   him    lenij    peapm   j^jiopunj    jetenje. 

fol.  72  b.  Ac  hy  jijmaS  metta  fpi]?op  j^onne  hit  jeTiclic  fie  -j  jip 

htm  opfconbej?  on  Innan  seniju  cealb  paste  )7onne 
fpipa'5  hie  f  hoph  -j  ]>a  mettap  jehabban  ne  majon 
pie  hie  jej^icjeaS  •  'j  septep  j^am  fpipaS^  pona  htm  to 
jipanne  bibba^  •  ]7a  men  }>u  j'cealc  fmeppan  mib  ]?y 
ele   ]?e    mon   pepmob    on    feo'Se  •  *j   J;a  j^iccan  jeupnen 

"rhpiga?  on  -j  ]?a  pliprnja-'^  psetan  on  J7am  majan  -j  ]?a  acoloban^ 

•j  f  opfcanbene  ]?icce  plipije  hoph  J;ii  j-cealt  mib  ];am 
seji  jenemneban  Isecebonmm  pyjiman  -j  J^ynnian.  Pypc 
liim  jjonne  pypfcb]ienc  op  pinolef  pypccpuman  pmbe  'j 
^  meppoft  pie  pte  j-ix  yntfan  ^epeje  -j  ecebep  anne  pep- 

tep  •  'j  alpan  jjjieo  yntfan  •  yeop  ]>onne  on  j^am  ecebe 
]7one  pmol  o]y  f  hit  fie  pel  ^epoben  appmj  |?onne  ]?a 
pypta  op  l^am  ecebe  jebo  ]7onne  to  J'am  ecebe  clfenej' 
huni^ef  punb  yeo])  ];»onne  setjsebepe  o])  f  hit  pie  fpa 
]?icce  fpa  hunij  fceab  jwnne  ];a  alpan  on  pel  jegnibene 

fol.  73  a.  "j  r^le  ]?peo   cucle]!  msel  mib  psetepe  p  beah  pi]?  heopt 

ece  "j  pi]?  pelle  psepce. 

'  Alexander  Trail.,  lib.  vii.,  cap.  5  ; 
p.  106,  ed.  1.548  ;cap.  .'3,  p.  .323,  ed. 

''  oarpaKoSepficcv,  ftheU finh . 

■'  From  Alexander  Trail.,  lib.  vii.. 

1556.  I  cap.  5;  p.  105,  ed.  1548  ;  p.  319,  ed. 

-  Head  J^icge.  i  1556,  for  a  few  lines  only. 

^  Gr.   fls  &KpaTov,  dipped  in  xvine  ''  T?ead  fpipban  ? 

unmixed  with  wafer,  (as  if  brandy).  ! 

LEECH    I'.OOK.    Tf,  1  9o 

maw  are  tokens,  when  it.  is  vexed  witli  inflammations,      i^ook  il. 

thirst   is    incident    to    the    man,    and    oppression,    and 

swoonings,  and  vacilkition  of  mind,  and  loss  of  ap})etite, 

and  nausea.     It  is  beneficial   for   liim   that   he  should 

eat  bread  in  cold  water  or  in  vinegar,  and   eggs  very 

hard  boiled  or  roasted,  (at  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,) 

and  worts,  and  lactucas,  that   is  lettuces,  and  mallow, 

and    hens    flesh    not    mnch    sodden,  and  the  extremest 

parts  of  the  limbs  of  goose,    that   is  giblets,  and   fishes 

which  have  hard  flesh,   and   periwinkles,    and   oysters, 

and  others ;  various  sorts  of  peas,  and  mild  apples,  and 

a  bath  of  sweet  fresh  waters  shall  be    wrought;  a  hot 

bath  will  not  suit  him.     Tokens  of  the  overcold  maw, 

that    the  men    feel  no  thirst  nor  burning  heat  in  the 

maw,  nor  is  there  any  warm   symptom  incident  upon 

them.     But  they   yearn  for  meats  more  strongly  than 

is  proper,  and   if  in   their   inwards   there   lodges   any 

cold  humour,  then  they  spew  up  the  filth  and  are  not 

able  to  retain  the  meats  which  they  swallow  ;  and  after 

the    spewing   soon   they  pray  that  someivhat  be  given 

tJiem  to  eat.     Those  men  thou  shalt  smear  with  the  oil 

on  which  wormwood  has  been  sodden.     And  the  thick 

coagulated  and  the  viscid   humours   in    the   maw,  and 

the  chilled  humours,  and   the   intractable  thick  viscid 

foulness,    thou    shalt    warm    and   thin   with    the   afore 

named    leechdoms.     Work    then  for   the   sick   man    a 

wort  drink  of  the  rind  of  the   root  of  fennel,  and  let 

it    be    very  tender,    and   such   that  it  may  weigh  six 

ounces,  and  one  sextarius  of  vinegar,  and  three  ounces 

of  aloes ;   then  seethe   the  fennel  in  the  vinegar  till  it 

be  well  sodden,  then  wring  the  worts  off"  the  vinegar, 

then  add  to  the  vinegar  a  pound  of  clean  honey,  tlien 

seethe  these  together,  till  it  be  as  thick  as  honey,  then 

shed  the  aloes  into  it,  well  rubbed  up,  and  give  three 

spoon  measures  with   water ;    that   is   good    for   heart 

ache  and  for  epilepsy. 

N  2 


I.^ECE   BOC. 

Alexander  \)e    ]>i&\\e    Ojjejimiclnii    yjuclo    |;oime    oy    ]>ve.]\e    jelj:an 

ibid^ '"""*'        cealbaii  able    \)iBy    mai;an    cymcS   '3  J"io  ojrejimiclo    y]\\c\o 

KvfuSiii  ot>ili'!.  *j  jijrejme)"  ajiifc  oy  j^nej-  hopej"  ptxDran  ]>e  o}:  ]>ani  ina;!;au 

aovKi/xos.  cymii  'j  hie    beo]>    Ipipenhe  ^    fj'a    ipa    Imnb    ejx    yona 

fecaS    ])a    mettaj-  •  ]ra,m  ]}n  j'cealt  jellan  cb\3iie  -j  lilur- 

co]i  pni'  'j  peab  IpiSe    jehsec  ne  fie  co  j'ceajip  •  ne    ye 

mece  ne  iie   co    j'ceajip    ne    to    puji    ]>e    ]m   Itini    j-elle  • 

itc   fnie]7e  "j  yest  •    jip  -  ojima^ce    liunjo-^    cymS    op    un- 

jemerlicpe    hsero  ]>ssy  majan  'j  tybbepneppe  -j?  hie  pyu 

]'ona  jefpojene  jip  hie  ];one  mete  nasbbeu.     yi])  ojimte- 

cum   hunjjie   ]?onne  jcealr  ]m  yona  \7sey  mannef  tihan 

bmb  hi]-  ytineptan  hmo   mib  bynbellum    teoh    him    pa 

loccal'   -j    ppinje    )'a    eajian    *j    ]'one    panjbeajib    tpiccije    -y 

jjoune    him  pel  ]*ie  pele    him    j'ona    hlap  on  pme  jebjio- 

cenne  iiep  he  oj^jie  mettap    l-icje  •    pele   him  ]pa  mertaj' 

]>-A  |?e  ne  fien  to    paSe    jemelte  •    late    my  It    hjiyj^epep 

fol.  73  b.  pkepc  TjEcen  •  'j  hiopora  •  buccena  tp  j'yppefc  -j  jiamma  • 

^  'j  peapjia    "j    }?a   ]>e    i'pibe    ealbe    heo'S    on    peo];o]ipotum 

nietenum  -j  pujlaj-  j^a  J^e  heapb  pla3]'C  habbacS  •  papa  •  v 
Ipan  •  teneb  j^am  (^e  cealbe  pambe  habba^  ]>i\  fcealu 
pellan  pel  melrenbe  mertaf  )X'ellihte  pifcaj-  •  "j  culppena 
bpibbaf-  hfenne  phfj'C  'j  jope  pij'jm  fpa  betejie  fpa 
piBtjian  fien  *j  peplcpan  pa  ytineptan  leomo  •  fpina 
\)eo'6  eaSmelte  -j  a^'OwS  ^^J'y^^P  'j  riccenii  •  -j  fpete 
pi"!!  )-el  mylr  jwinie  ]3  aj-jie. 


yi\)  ealliim  lipep  ablum  'j  jecynbnm  'j  pa^f-cmiim  'j  be 
]>am  pex  j^injnm  ])e  Sone  lipeji  pa?jic  pyjiceaci  'j  lacnunT; 
Vajia  ealjia  -j  fpeotol  tacn  je  be  micjean  je  be  unlufce 
;^e  hijia  hipe.     Sio  h\]>  on  J^a  fpij'jian  1'iban  aj^eneb  o]>  j^one 

'  Tip  ii.Kpa.rca  oivo)  ica).  ruT?  Anropo?s 
7U1V  i^iaj.iiruv.  Alex.  Trail.,  who 
goes  on  to  order  legs  of  pheasants, 
(iucriavi;'  (xiv  ruus  /rrjpoi's. 

-Alex.  Trail.,  lib.  vii,   cap.  6; 
p.  100.  u!t.  ed.  15tS  ;   p.   323,  ed. 

LEECH   1500K.    II.  197 

2.  Of  tlio  overinickk',  appetite,  when  from  the  same  Book  II. 
cold  disease  of  the  maw  it  cometh  that  the  overmickle  ^f'- ^^■'• 
appetite  and  greediness  ariseth  from  the  foul  hvimour, 
wliich  cometh  from  tlie  naaw,  and  the  sick  are  spewing, 
and,  as  it  Avere  a  hound,  again  soon  seek  the  meats: 
to  them  thou  shalt  give  clean  and  clear  wine,  and  red, 
much  heated ;  let  it  not  be  too  sharp ;  nor  let  the 
meat  be  too  sharp,  nor  too  sour,  Avhich  thou  ma-yst 
give  them,  but  smooth  and  fat.  If  extreme  hunger 
cometh  from  immoderate  heat  and  tenderness  of  the 
maw,  so  that  they  are  soon  in  a  swoon,  if  they 
have  not  the  meat  ;  then,  for  extreme  hunger '  thou 
shalt  soon  treat  the  man ;  bind  the  extremities  of  liis 
limbs  with  ligatures,  pull  his  locks  for  him,  and 
wring  his  ears,  and  twitch  his  whisker,  when  he  is 
better,  give  him  soon  some  bread  broken  in  Avine,  be- 
fore he  take  other  meats.  Give  him  the  meats  wliich 
are  not  too  soon  digested.  Beeves  flesh,  and  goats,  and 
harts  digests  late :  bucks  is  worst,  and  rams,  and  bulls, 
and  those  of  four  footed  neat  which  are  very  old,  and 
fowls  which  have  hard  flesh ;  peacock,  swan,  duck.  To 
those  that  have  a  cold  wamb  thou  shalt  give  well 
digesting  meats,  shell  fishes,  and  young  of  culvers,  hens 
flesh,  and  gooses  wings  ;  they  are  the  better  as  they 
are  fatter  and  fresher.  The  extremities  of  the  liriiljs 
of  swine  '^  are  easy  of  digestion,  and  young  beeves,  and  ^  I'igs  trotters, 
kids :  and  sweet  wine  digests  better  than  the  roucfh. 


For  all  liver  diseases,  and  of  its  nature,  and  incre- 
ment, and  of  the  six  things  which  work  the  liver  pain, 
and  curing  of  all  these,  and  plain  tokens,  either  by  the 
mie,  or  by  tlie  loss  of  appetite,  or  by  the  hue  of  the 

'    In    Tr;illianu:j  tliesc  appliauct'S  arc  uicaut  ior  the  fainting  just  nieu- 
tionod,  AcnroSi'.u'c, 

108  L^CE   BOC. 

V  nepefeo)?an  fio  htCfS  pp  lagppan  helc  ]?a  lenbenbjiajban  • 
lio  ij*  blobej'  cimbep  •  'j  Ijlobep  liuf  •  -j  f  ofcoji  •  ))onne 
])apa  metta  meltunj  bi]?  -j  ])yniief  ])a  becuma]?  on  ]>Sb 
hyeji  ]7omie  penba]?  liie  hiopa   hip    -j    cejijia^    on    blob  • 

fol.  74  a.  -j    J'a    unyefepnepya   ]>e  ]?£ep   beo]?   hio  apypp]?   ut   -j   ^ 

claene  blob  jefomnal?  "j  ]ni]ili  jreopeji  sebpa  fpiJ?ofc  6n- 
)-enc  CO  )?8epe  beoptan  -j  eac  jeonb  ealne  |7one  licho- 
man  o]?  ]7a  ytmej'tan  limo.  be  ]'ex  J^mjum  ]>e  ]?one 
lipejipsejic  pypcea5  sepefe  jefpel  f  ly  a]?unbeney  ]>se\ie 
hyejy}  0]>e]\  ly  ])iey  jefpeUef  cobepfeunj.  Jjpibbe  ly  punb 
]%epe  lifpe  •  peopj^e  ij*  pelmej*  hseto  mib  -^eyelneyye  -j  mib 
)-ape  jefpelle  •  yiyte  ly  aheapbiinj  ]><£y  majan  mib  jepel- 
neppe  -j  mib  pape.  Sexte  ly  heapbunj  ]78epe  lippe  bucan 
jep elnej'j-e  -j  butan  fajie.  hgepe  lippe  jefpel  oJ?]7e  apun- 
benej'pe  ]>\\  mealic  j)up  onjitan  •  on  ]?a  fjnSpan  healpe 
nnbep  ]mm  hnej-can^  pibbe  bip  gepefc  ye  fpile  on  psepe 
lippe  *j  5epel8  le  mon  sepefc  ])£e\\  hepijneppe  -j  pap  -j 
op  Jjsepe  fcope  opeji  ealle  ]7a  fiban  afcihS  o]>  f  ])iJ?oban 
•j  o]?  8one  fpippan  pculbop  f  faji  •  'j  hip  micjje  biS 
blobpeab  fpilce  hio  blobij  fie  •  bij?  htm  nnlufc  jetenje 
•j  liip  hip  blac  -j  he  bi]j  hpset  hpeja  hpipenbe  •  -j  fm- 
galne    cyle    ]?popa]7  *j   cpacap   fpa  mon  on  lenccen  able 

fol.  74  b.  ^ep  •  ne  maej  him  mete  unbep   jepunian  ]nnc  fio  hpep 

H  ne  msej  ]?am  pape  mib  hanba  onhpman  bi^  to  ]7on 
fcpanj  'j  nsey\>  nanne  j-lsep  ]?onne  hit  ftpanjoft  bi]?  • 
ponne  pe  fpile  tobypfc  ponne  bi8  feo  micje  Ij'^ppen 
fpilce  popmp  •  jip  he  utyjmS  ]?onne  bi]?  f  pap  Ifejpe. 

'  Read  liyjie,  |        "  Kead  ncxcan,  last? 

leech:  book.  ii.  199 

imtients.     The    liver   is   extended  ou  the  right  side  as      Book  II. 

far  as  the  pit  of  the  belly,  it  hath  five  lohes  or  lappets, 

it  has  a   hold   on   the    false   ribs,  it  is  the  material  of 

the  blood,  and  the  house  and  the   nourishment  of  the 

blood  ;  when  there  is  digestion  and  attenuation  of  the 

meats,  they  arrive  at  the  liver,   and  then  they  change 

their  hue,  and  turn  into  blood  ;  and  it  casteth  out  the 

uncleannesses   which   be   there,  and   collects    the   clean 

blood,  and  through  four  veins  principally  sendeth  it  to 

the  heart,  and   also   throughout  all  the  body  as  far  as 

the  extremities  of  the  limbs.     Of  the  six  things  which 

work  liver  pain :  first  swelling,   that   is,    puffing  up  of 

the  liver;  the  second  is  the  bursting  of  the  swelling  ;  the 

third  is  wound  of  the  liver ;  the  fourth  is  a  burning  heat 

with  sensitiveness  and  with  a  sore  swelling ;  the   fifth 

is  a  hardening  of  the  maw  with  sensitiveness  and  with 

soreness ;  the  sixth  is  a  hardening  oi"  the  liver  without 

sensitiveness  and  without  soreness.     Thou  mayest  thus 

understand  swelling  or  puffing  up  of  the  liver  ;  on  the 

right  side  is  under  the  nesh  ^  rib  first  the  swelling  of  the  "  Read  laM. 

liver  observed,  and  the  disordered  man  there  first  feeleth 

heaviness  and  sore,  and  from  that  place  the  sore  riseth 

over  all  the  side  as  far  as  the  collar  bone,  and  as  far  as 

the  right  shoulder,  and  the  mans  mie  is  bloodred  as  if 

it  were  bloody ;  loss  of  appetite  is  incident  unto  him, 

and  his  hue  is  pale,  and  he  is  somewhat  feverish,  and 

he  suffereth  remarkable  chill,  and  quaketh  as  a  man  doth 

in  lent  addle  or  typhus  fever ;  his  meat  will  not   keep 

down,  the  liver  enlarges,  and   he   may   not   touch   the 

sore  with   his   hand,    to   that   degree  is  it  strong,  and 

he  hath   no   sleep   when   it   is    strongest.      When   the 

swelling  bursteth  then  is  the  mie  purulent,  as  ratten ; 

if  it  runneth  ofi"  then  is  the  sore  less. 

200  L^CE    BOC. 

.  XVIII. 

\ip  ]>8d]ie  lifjic  Ipile  o5Se  ajjunbeiiejye  31]:  le  utjanj 
p.)]ifirce  htm  ly  on  jrjmman  Ijloh  ro  foplasceime  on 
tebjic  on  ]?a  pinel'rpan  healjre  pyjic  litni  j^onne  bejjinje 
))U)'  "j  yealjre  o]:  e]e  -j  ]iuban  •  -j  bile  -j  oj:  mepcej- 
febe  I'pa  micel  fpa  ]'e  J^mce  peoS  eall  mib  ]^y  ele  -j 
J5onne  mib  hiiepcjie  j?ulle  bepe  mib  ])y  pope  lanje  j^a 
Ipi'Sjian  fiban  -j  ];onne  opejileje  mib  pulle  "j  befpej^c 
pasfre  ymb  .111.  nihr  pyjic  litm  ept;  onlecjenbe  iealpe 
•j  bepen  jjiytce  jeonb  jocene  mib  pme  'j  ]7onne 
jepobene  -j  mib  ecebe  'j  raib  liunije  eall  ^ecjupulab 
■j  epc  jepoben  leje  on  ]?one  j^iccepcan  dab  oj^^e 
on  pel  IpiSe'  mib  Ipa  peajime  *j  on  p  ]'ap  bmb  'j 
lipilum  reoli  mib  jlsele  oj^J^e  mib  liojme.  jip  pe  ucjan;^ 
fol.  75  a.  pu-^pitte  mib  pyjitbpencum  ateoli   liiiie    ut.      Pyjic    op 

pejimobe  •  -j  op  Inpbe  pyjice  •  -j  op  puban  jtebe  •  bo 
aleoponej-  hunije]'  genoli  co  j-ele  neahtnej-'cijum  ciiclep 


Tacn  be  alpoilenpe  'j  jepunbabjxc  lippc  laacebomap 
pi|?  |7on  •  ^  be  |)8epe  lippe  aheapbunje.  Se  Jje  bi'S  je- 
punbob  ]7onne  on  |>a  lipjie  •  ^  jip  be  ne  bi]>  |K)n  pajjop 
jelacnob  |7onnc  becyraS  he  on  ]7a  able  \)e  mon  popmfe 
fpipe]?  •  j^ip  le  jefpollena  mon  on  ];iepe  lipjie  oSSc  pe 
a|Minbcna  ipa  al'pollen  jebit  o]?  |?one  pip  -j  cpentijejjan 
bx^  Ipa  ]e  Ipile  ne  bepfce];  |70nne  onjm'S  fio  lipeji 
heapbian  jip  hio  ^ebyjiiu  J>onne  bi8  }ja3p  pmb^  on 
]nepc  lipju'.     piepe  punbe    cacn    pmbon  ]?onnc    lio   pimb 

'  llather  (peiSc. 

-'  licad  ymnb,  because  hajjie  purine  follows. 

LEECH    BOOK.    11.  liOl 

xviii.  IU)ok  II. 

Ch.  xviii. 

For  swelliug  or  puffing  up  of  the  liver ;  if  the  out- 
going ^  lodge,  fltG  hian  must  first  be  let  blood  on  a 
vein,  on  tlie  left  side,  then  work  him  a  bathing  thus, 
and  a  salve  of  oil,  and  rue,  and  of  dill,  and  of  marcho 
seed,  as  much  as  may  seem  good  to  thee,  seethe  all 
with  the  oil,  and  then  bathe  with  nesli  wool  witli 
the  wash  for  a  long  time  the  right  side,  and  then 
(.)verlay  with  wool,  and  swathe  up  fast  for  about 
three  nights  ;  work  him  again  an  onlying  salve,  and 
lay  barley  groats  soused  with  wine,  and  then  sodden, 
and  tJtls  all  triturated  with  vinegar  and  with  hone^', 
and  sodden  again,  lay  on  the  thickest  cloth  or  on  a 
skin,  swathe  up  therewith  so  warm,  and  bind  upon 
the  sore,  and  at  whiles  draw  with  glass  oj-  horn,  as 
with  cuppliKj  glass.  If  tlie  secretion  lodge,  draw  it 
out  Avitli  wort  drinks  ;  work  sucli  of  wormwood  and 
of  herdwort,  and  of  seed  of  rue,  add  enough  of  strained 
honey  ;  give  the  riiayio  a  spoon  measure  after  his  nightly 


Tokens  of  a  swollen  and  wounded  liver  ;  leechdoms 
for  that ;  and  of  the  hardening  of  the  liver.  He  who 
is  wounded  in  the  liver,  if  he  be  not  sooner  cured,  then 
arriveth  at  the  disorder  in  which  a  man  speweth 
purulent  matter.  If  the  man  swollen  in  tlie  liver,  or 
the  Idoated  one,  abideth  so  swollen  until  the  five  and 
twentieth  day,  so  as  that  the  swelling  bursteth  not, 
then  beginneth  the  liver  to  harden ;  if  it  bursteth, 
then    is   there    a   wound    in    tlie   liver.     Tokens  of  the 

'  Se   ucgans  would  be  presumed       liainis,   -n-fihs  ifirppa^iv    ViTraTos,    the 

to  be  ffcce.s,  the  outgoing  of  the 
intc.'.lincs  ;  but,  since  this  chapter 
must  be  based  on  Alexander  Tinl- 

writer  ought  to  mean,  the  outgoing 
ol'  bile  from  the  liver. 

202  LMCE  hoc. 

jebopfren  bij?  ponne  fox's  ]7U]xh  ]?a  pambe  le  utjiyne 
I'pilee  blobij  pceteji  -j  bi]?  hip  neb  peab  'j  afpollen  •  *j 
J)onne  |?ii  bim  pme  lianb  petefc  on  J>a  lippe  J^onne  ^epelj) 
he  fpi]>e  micel '  fap  "j  hip  fe  man  fpiSe  meajvo  •  *j  op 
]78ejie  able  cym6  pul  opt:  psetep  bolla.  pi]?  jefpolleniim 
fol.  75  b.  I'ajie.       On    pjiuinan    mib    onlejenum    -j    j^ealpmn    fceal 

mon  lacnian  •  fio  j-ceal  beon  op  bejienum  ;5pyttum 
on  leaje  jefobenum  -j  op  culppena  j'ceapne  jepophr  mib 
hunije  'j  Jjonne  alecje  mon  j^a  fealpe  on  hatne  cla^ 
oppe  pel  o]>]>e  cajican  befpe]?e  mib  |?onne  hnepcaS  j^e 
fpile  Ibna  -j  jebepfce]?  mnan.  bjnnce  mulfa  f  ip  je- 
inilfcebe  bpincan  iielce  baaje  •  *j  jate  meoluc  jefobene 
•-j  psetep  on  |7am  lien  jefobene  jobe  pypta. 


Lsecebomap  pi]?  J^sepe   lipjie   punbe  J>onne  fe  fpile  je- 

j'ypfmeb  tobypfc  •    Nim  jate  meoluc  fpa  peapme  nipan 

amolcene    pele    bjimcan.       bo    eac    to    bpence    nsebpan 

jepofihce  fpa  Isecap  cunnon  *j  J?onne  hie  selcpa  bpincan 

pillen  bpincan  hie  nemne  psetrep  •    ?ep   jefoben  op  pyp- 

tum  •  on  pejimobe  "j  on  o]?]iiim    fpeleum    -j    fpilca  onle- 

gena  fpa  pe  seji  pjiicon.      Ac  mon   j-ceal  8ep  mib  peap- 

V  mum  fppinjum  --j  hate  psetpe  be|>ian  -j  J?pean  J^a  fcope 

"j  on  })am  ])8etpe  fien  jepobene  laupef  cpoppan  "j  hipbe- 

fol.  76  a.  yj]^^   '^   ^f    eopSjealla   "j    pepmob    mib  ]?y  ]ni  J;a  fajian 

ftopa  lanje  sepeft  hepe  'j    Iset    jieocan    on  •    jip   })onne 

pio  punb  fpiSe  potije  j^sepe   lippe  o]?  p  he  f  pupfm  op 

muSe  hpsece  •    jepypce  him  ^emilfcabe    bpincan  •    f   ip 

y  micel  bsel  bepyllebef  psetepef  on  Imnije]-  gobum  baele  • 

'  Mice,  MS. 

LEECH  BOOK.  II.  203 

wound  are  these  ;  when  the  wound  is  bursten  out  then      Rook  ii. 
the  outrunning  throvigh  the  wamb  is  as  it  were  bloody  ^^^- 

water,  and  tlte  mans  face  is  red  and  swollen ;  and 
when  thou  settest  thine  hand  upon  the  liver  then  the 
man  feeleth  very  much  soreness,  and  the  man  is  very 
tender,  and  from  this  disorder  there  cometh  full  oft  a 
dropsy.  For  a  swollen  sore :  at  starting  one  shall  cure 
with  onlayings,  that  is,  external  applications,  and 
salves ;  the  salve  shall  be  of  barley  gToats  sodden  in 
ley,  and  of  culvers  sharn  wrought  with  honey,  and 
then  let  one  lay  the  salve  on  a  hot  cloth,  or  on  a 
skin,  or  on  paper,  beswathe  with  that,  the  swelling 
soon  becometh  nesh  and  bursteth  within.  Let  the  onan 
drink  "  mulsum,"  that  is,  dulcet  drinks,  every  day,  and 
goats  milk  sodden,  and  water  on  which  good  worts 
have  been  sodden. 


Leechdoms  for  the  abscess  ot  the  liver,  when  the 
purulent  swelling  bursteth ;  take  goats  milk  so  warm, 
newly  milked,  give  the  WjOjU  that  to  drink.  Form  also 
into  a  potion  an  adder,  wrought  so  as  leeches  ken  how 
to  work  it,  and  when  the  sick  will  to  drink  anytliing, 
let  them  drink  nothing  but  water  previously  sodden 
with  worts,  on  wormwood  and  on  other  such,  and 
such  onlayings  as  we  before  wrote  of  But  one  shall 
previously  batlie  and  wash  the  places  with  warm 
squirtings  and  with  hot  water,  and  on  the  water  let 
there  be  sodden  bunches  of  laurel  berries  or  floivers, 
and  herdwort,  that  is,  earth  gall,  and  wormwood ;  with 
these  do  thou  long  previously  foment  the  sore  places, 
and  make  the  reek  smoke  them.  If  further  the  wound 
of  the  liver  be  very  ratteny,  so  much  as  that  the  man 
hreaketh  the  ratten  from  his  mouth,  let  him  work 
himself  a  mulled  drink,  that  is,  a  mickle  deal  of  boiled 
water  in  a  good  deal  of  honey  ;  from  it  shall  the  scum 

204  L^CE   BOC. 

o]:  \rdin  jceal  beon  ]>  jiot  gelome  aboii  |7enbeii  hit  mon 
pels  o]>  ^  f  ]>x]\  nan  ne  fie  •  liet  ]?onne  colian  -j  fele 
jwnne  bjnncau." 


^Kippaiais.  JDeli  fine  tacn  abeajibobjie  lifjie  je  on  pani  lasppum 

■j  liealoeuin  -j  jnlmenum.  Sto  aheajibunj  'iy  on  tpa 
pifan  jepab.  Oj^eji  bij?  on  ppuman  sep  l?on  );o  lenij 
o)?e]i  eappe]?e  on  lifjie  became  •  o]?ejiu  seprcji  o]?]ium  eap- 
}:e]mm  jysepe  lippe  cymS  •  fio  bi]?  buran  fape  •  ^j  j^onne 
fe  man  mere  j)!^^  |;onne  apyjipS  he  epc  -j  onpenbej? 
hif  hip  -j  hsejrS  unjepealbene  panibe  "j  ]>a  micjean  •  *j 
|?onne  J^n  Sine  hanba  ferfc  upan  on  ])a  hppe  jjonne 
beoS  fpa  hepii^e  fpa  fran  -j  ne  bi])  j-ap  •  jip  ]>  lan-^e 
i'pa  bi]7  ]7onne  [^ehtep]^    hir  on  unej^elicne^    pjBtepbollan, 

fol.  76  b.  6alle*   ]?a   blapunje  -j    ])a  pehuaf   ]?a   ]?e    Leo]?   ^ehp^ep 

;5eonb  ]>one  hchoman  •  J  a  enma'cj  op  hacnm  blobe  -j 
peallenbum  •  fpa  bi'cS  eac  fpilce  on  Sfepe  hppe  ro  onji- 
ranne  hpiie]?e]i  fio  hteco  'j  flo  ablapuuj  fie  on  ]?a3pe 
bpjie  pelpjie  on  ]>am  pihnenum  •  'j  on  ]'am  ])m5um  ]7e 
ymburan  j^a  hppe  beo]'  •  '^j  lip?B])ep  hio  fie  on  Sam 
hpepbyluni  'j  hieppum  l^e  on  ];am  hpejilioliim  -j  heal- 
cuni  ])c  on  j;ain  btielum  ba3in.  bonne  pe  Isece  ]?  onjit 
I'unno  iniQ-^  he  j^one  Igecebom  J7e  jiaSoji  pmban  •  ^ip 
iynb  j'a  racn  •  jtp  fio  ablapim^T;  i'lo  hate  b]]>  on 
)iiej\e  !ip]ic  oppum  oSSe  bylliin  }'onne  bi])  ]nep  micel 
ajmnbene]'  "j  jrepeji  mib  fpeopunja''  omena  -j  fcin- 
l^enbe  faji  o}>  ]?a,  pij^oban  oS  Sa  eaxle  -j  h]7ofca  -j 
neaponep    bpeofra  •   "j    majie    hepijnep    ponne     j'ap  •    *-j 

'  MS.  has  oil.  ;        '  Tiiesc  words  are  found  in  Alex- 

■-'  This  passage  may  he  from  Plii-  j  ander   Trallianus,    vii.  19  ;  p.  126, 

lagrios  on  the  preparation  of  aTTiiyueA.!,  ed.  1.548. 

as    preserved   in  Xikolaos  Jlyreph-  .        '  Jiead  rj'eohinj^a,  from  tlic  words 

ios,  V.  3.  I  Kal  TTvpcTov  tTTifpfixi  h-avcruOr]. 

^  For  iiuc)>eit'acne.  i 

LEECH    V.nOK.    H.  2():> 

be  frequeatly  removed,  while  it  is  a  boiling,  till  that  H.tok  ll. 
there  be  none  there;  then  let  it  cool,  :ui(l  then  give  it  ^-h- xx. 
to  be  drunk. 

Here  are  tokens  of  ;i  hardened  liver,  wliether  on  the 
lobes  or  the  hulks,  that  is,  ike  hollows  of  if,  or  the 
films  and  menihranes.  The  hardening  occurs  in  two 
ways;  the  one  is  in  the  outset  before  any  other  mis- 
chief Cometh  upon  the  liver ;  the  second  cometh  after 
other  mischiefs  of  the  liver  ;  it  is  without  sore,  and 
Avhen  the  man  taketh  meat,  then  he  casteth  if  up 
again,  and  changeth  his  luie,  and  hath  not  under  con- 
trol his  Avamb  and  his  mie ;  and  wlien  thou  settest 
thine  hand  from  above  upon  the  liver,  then  it  is  as 
heavy  as  a  stone  and  is  not  sore :  if  that  continues 
long  so,  then  it  involves  a  not  easily  cured  <lrops}-. 
All  the  U]jh\o\YmgH  and  the  burnings  which  \)g  any- 
where throughout  the  body,  come  of  hot  and  boiling- 
blood.  So  also  in  like  manner  it  is  to  be  understood 
of  the  liver,  whether  the  heat  and  the  upblowing  be 
on  the  liver  itself,  on  the  films,  that  if^,  nimnhranes,^ 
and  on  the  things '  which  be  about  the  liver  ;  and 
whether  they  be  on  the  liver  ])rominences  and  lobes, 
or  in  the  liver  holes  and  hulks,'''  or  in  both  those 
parts.  When  the  leech  understandeth  that,  then  he 
may  the  more  easily  find  the  leechdom.  These  are  the 
tokens ;  if  the  hot  upblowing  is  on  the  margins  or 
jirominences  of  the  liver,  then  is  there  much  distention 
and  fever  with  burning  heats  and  a  piercing  soreness 
as  far  as  the  collar  bones,  and  as  far  as  the  slioulder,  and 
tliere  is  host,  or  cough,  and  oppression    of  the  breast. 

'  x''''wo'ii',    tunics,    coats,      Alex.  J  fj.uWou,  ■!)  ra  <jif.iA  v)  koI  -rh  avva^tpo- 

Trall.  1  Tepov  ;  the  cnnve.ulies  or  cmircivitics, 

■  fiuai,  viuschs,  id.  I  or  both  at  once  . 

*  Z-!]T e^yapd  ye  ra  Kvpra  ireTT^i'dao'i  [ 


•20G  LMCE   BOG. 

{?onnp  fio  ablapunj  brS  on  pam  pilmenum  *j  on  ]?am 
?ebjium  ]?e  on  -j  yinb  ]?a  lippe  beo5  ponne  bij>  ]5  j-ap 
fceajippe  jjonne  ]??ey  pehnej-  yaji  j)e  on  |?8epe  lifpe 
]'elj:jie  beoS  •  -j  ]?u  meaht  be  J>on  onjitan  f  fio  abl 
bi]?  Jjsepe  hpjie  Ijepj^um  -j  ofjium.  jtp  ponne  fio  lipjie 
aheajibunj  "j  j'lo  abl  *j  j-io  ablapnnj  hip  on  ])se]\e  hpjie 
healcum  -j  holocum  jecenneb  |7onne  Jiinc]?  him  fona  on 
pjiuman  ]3  fio  psete  fpi]?op  ni]ro]i  jepite  ];onne  hio 
upfrije  •  -j  fe  mon  jefpojunja  ]?jiopaS  -j  mobef  jefpte- 
j^punja  •  ne  msej  him  fe  hchoma  batian  ac  he  bi5 
blac  -j  ]?ynne  -^  acolob  *j  ]:op]?on  £etpil5  htm  paeteji- 


l^ip   )?8epe    jepelan  heapbnejje    Jjsepe  hppe  "Sonne   ij- 

fto  to  beSianne    mib    hatan   psetpe   on   J?am  fien  3;efo- 

bene  pypta..     pepmob  •   -j  pilbpe    majl^an  pyjittjiuman  • 

penojpecum    hatte    pypt  •    'j    eop^    jealla  •     J^onne    p>a 

j-ien  ealle  jefobene  be]?e  ]7onne  inib  miclum  fppynjum  pa, 

papan  fcope  lanje  •  poplret  fpa  .ill.  bajaf     Pypc  ]?onne 

j-ealpe    op  hpsecenum  jpyttum    ^epophc    oS^e   op  bpipe 

V         op    pepmobe  •  "j    op  pme  •  'j   op  appotanean  'j  cymene  •  • 

'j  op   laupep   cpoppan   bo    hunijef  to  f  pu   J'yppe    pele 

liim   f   ]?py    bajaf  •    o]?pe  ]7jiie  pece  him  hojm  on  oj^J^e 

jloep    teoh    ut.      Sel  ]nT  lacnafc  jip   ]m    feo|?eft;   puban 

on  ele  "j    jpenne    pepmob    oS8e    bpijne  •  -j   hpit    cpubu 

fol.  77  b.  Pj  ealle  bej'e  leje  on  upan  •  Iset  beon  ealne  bsej  -j  eac 

pela  baja  pay  pm^   fmfc  to  bonne  -j  ])am  monnum  fynb 

/  to  pellanne   mijole    bpmcan  •    pa    pypt  peteppihan  •    "j 

LEEnn  BOOTC.  u.  207 

and  more  heaviness  than  sore.  And  when  the  upblow-  Book  II. 
ing  is  on  the  fihns,  and  on  the  veins  which  be  in  and  ^  '  ^^^ 
about  the  liver,  then  is  the  sore  sharper  than  the  sore 
of  the  inflammation  which  is  on  the  liver  itself,  and 
thou  mayest  by  that  understand  that  the  disorder  is 
on  the  lobes  and  margins  of  the  liver.  If  moreover 
the  liver  hardening,  and  the  disease,  and  the  upblow- 
ing  is  kindled  on  the  hulks  and  hollows  of  the  liver, 
then  it  soon  seems  to  the  doctor  that  the  humour 
descends  downwards  rather  than  ascends ;  and  the  man 
suffers  swoonings  and  failings  of  the  mind ; '  his  body 
cannot  amend,  but  it  is  pale,  and  thin,  and  chilled,  and 
hence  there  falleth  upon  him  dropsy. 


For  the  sensitive  hardness  of  the  liver ;  it  is  to  be 
bathed  with  hot  water,  on  which  worts  have  been 
sodden,  wormwood  and  roots  of  wild  maythe,  a  wort 
that  hight  fenugreek,  and  earth  gall ;  when  they  are 
all  sodden,  then  bathe  the  sore  places  for  a  long  time 
with  copious  water  fomentations  ;  -  leave  it  so  for  three 
days  ;  then  work  a  salve  wrought  of  wheaten  groats 
or  of  a  brewit  of  wormwood,  and  of  wine,  and  of 
abrotanum,  and  of  cummin,  and  of  bunches  of  laurel 
berries ;  add  thereto  as  much  honey  as  thou  needest ; 
give  the  niutn  that  for  three  days;  on  other  three  set 
on  him  a  cupping  horn  or  glass,  draw  out  hy  that, 
ivhat  comes  out.  Thou  shalt  treat  the  sick  better  if 
thou  settest  rue  in  oil,  and  green  or  dry  wormwood, 
and  gum  mastic,  witli  all  that  bathe  him,  also  lay 
it  upon  him,;  let  it  be  for  a  whole  day,  and  also  for 
many  days  these  things  are  to  be  done,  and  to  the 
men   must   be    given    dim^etic  drinks ;  give    thou    him 

'  Xeiirodvfjdas  for  the  two. 
-  Medicated  baths  were  well  known,  as  to  Oribasios. 

'20H  L.-ECE   ROC. 

hile  .  "j  niejicej'  j-a^b  oS'Se  py)itt)uiman  mib  hunije  yele 
|>u  Iniu  relce  ba^je  bjiincan  •  "i;!}:  hmi  >t'}:eji  ue  fie  yc 
•j)  inib  pme  tejrceji  pon  o]?pe  pyjitbpenca]'  yculon  ]-i]j];an 
j>  jefpel  bi)?  jehpeleb  -j  cobyplb  -j  pyjvS  unfajipe  -j 
ni|'e]i  jepir  ]?u]ili  Sa  pambe  'j  fe  man  raih"5  po]iinfe  • 
trala])  p  he  ]?onne  hal  fie  •  ])oiiiie  beo]^  litm  Co  j'ellanne 

Aretaeos,  fpijjofr  ])a  mijolaii   bjimcan   f'ze   eall   ]5   ypel    ])uph   Sa 

pambe  'j  Jjujili  ya,  micjean  peopSen^  ^V^J,  f^<5on  •  ]>y  Inep 
fe  men  peop]?e  ])upli  j)one  mu]>  jwpmf  fpipenbe  -j  Imie 
liujiu  pi])  bseS  healbe  -j  pij^  jpene  fepla  pj:  ]?onne  pe 
fpile  "j  p  popmf  upfcib'b  to  )>on  f  ])e  ]nnce  ]3  hit  moii 
fmjjan  raa^je  'j  tit  po-^lsecan  •  pypc  him  ];omie  pealpe 
repefc  op  culpjian  fceapue  -j  op  |?am  jehca  •  -j  <e.]\  mib 
fppynjum  be]?e  ];a  frope  mib  |?y  pa^rjie  "j  pyjicum  }>e 
pe    88p   ppicon   |jomie  ])u   onjite  ■])  ■]>  7;efpel    hnej'cije  'j 

fol.  78  a.  ^P^Ppi^S^  *  I'onne  hpm  Su  him  mib  ])y  fnib  ij-ene  "j  fniti 

Celsus,  iv.  8.  lye  hpon  'j  hftum  ]>  f  blob  m^eje  tic  puji]?um  ]?ylaej' 
]?ibep  in  ypel  poliha  jefije  •    Ne   poplpec  ]ni  ]7?ep  blobep 

Avi-t.  Aciit,  vl.  Co  f ela  on  !?enne  fi])  •  J'ylep  ]'e  feoca  man  ro  pepij 
peopSe  o^Se  fpylce  •  ac  |)onne  )ju  hic  Cofcinje  o]>)>e 
fnij^e  ponne  hapa  j^e  linenne  pseclan  jeapone  ■]>  ];ii  •]> 
bolh  pona  mib  poppjiibe  •  -j  j^onne  ]m  hic  epc  ma 
Isecan  pille  reoh  j?one  paeclan  op  Iter  lychim  fpa  o])|J 
liic  abpujie  •  'j  J;onne  fio  punb  fie  clasne  •  ^epyme 
];onne  f  ]5  ]>y]iel  co  neajio  ne  fie  •  ac  j^ii  liie  relce 
baeje  mib  pipau  jeonb  fpsec  •  *j    a|?peah   mib   pam  pin- 

'  Read  peoji^V. 

'  The  words  are  not  from  Tral- 
lianus,  but  he  speaks  in  the  same 
order  of  apxo/ie'cTjs  irimaOui  r^y 
(pKfjIxovTi^  Kol  yap  St'  ovpcov  viroKAfn- 
TETai  Kol  (TfxiKpvveraL  6  o^/coj. 

VOL.  II.  O 

-  TU  T/jS  Tre'vf/eoiy  arijj.e1a  a<r(pa.- 
KicTipa.  Trallianus,  p.  li-'S,  <'J. 

■'  Cf.  Aretxos  ;  chrou.  I.  xiii. 


LEECH   BOOK.    TI.  209 

every  day  to  drinlc  tlie  wort  parsley,  and  dill,  and  seed  n.ioi;  ii 
of  raarche  or  its  roots  with  lioney  :  if  he  hath  no  fever  *  '' 
eke  that  with  wine.  After  that  other  wort  drinks 
are  proper,  when  the  swelling  is  become  an  abscess  and 
bursteth/  and  is  becoming  more  free  from  soreness,  and 
is  passing  off  downwards  through  the  wamb,  and  the 
man  pisseth  ratten,  reckoneth  that  he  then  nia}^  be 
hole  ;  -  then  must  be  given  him  principally  the  diure- 
tic drinks,  in  order  that  all  the  mischief  through  the 
wamb  and  through  the  mie  may  be  done  away,  lest 
the  man  shouki  take  to  spewing  ratten  through  the 
mouth ;  and  let  him  withhokl  himself  somewhat  from 
the  bath  and  from  green  apples.  If  however  the 
swelling  and  the  ratten  mounteth  up  to  that  degree 
that  it  seem  to  thee  that  a  man  may  cut  into  it  and 
let  it  out,  then  work  him  a  salve  first  of  culvers  sharn 
and  the  like  of  that,  and  previously  bathe  th(;  places 
with  sousings,  with  the  water,  and  with  the  worts 
which  are  wrote  of  before.  Wlien  thou  understandeth 
that  the  swelling  is  growing  nesh  and  mild,  then  touch 
thou  it  with  the  cutting  iron,^  and  cut  in  a  little, 
and  cleverly,  even  that  the  blood  may  come  out,  lest 
an  evil  sinus  or  pouch  descend  in  thither.  Do  not 
let  too  much  blood  at  one  time,  lest  the  sick  man  be- 
come too  languid  or  die;  but  when  thou  dost  prick  or 
cut  it,  then  have  for  thyself  a  linen  cloth  ready  that 
therewith  thou  mayst  soon  bind  up  the  cut ;  and 
when  thou  wilt  again  let  more  hlood  draw  the  cloth 
off,  let  it  run  by  a  little  at  a  time  till  it  gets  dry  ; 
and  when  the  wound  is  clean,  then  enlarge  it  that  the 
thirl  or  aperture  may  not  be  too  narrow  ;  Init  do 
thou   every  day  syringe  through   it  with   a  tube,  and 



fol.  781), 

5um  ]i];]>aii  oj^lej^e  )?e  J>a  jmnbe  clsenjneu  •'  pj:  Ino 
ipij?0]i  miiyfpe  peojipe  ckenj'a"  mib  liunije  -j  jelsec  ejic 
■cojsebejie.  Gyz  ]?onne  feo  iinjefelbe  aheapbunj  J>8e]\e 
lij-'pe  to  lanjlum  pyjvb  .  Jjonne  pypc]?  hio  pteceji  boUan 
])one  ])e  mon  jelacman  iie  111835.  -^^  ^^^^^  pceal  j'ona 
on  ppiiman  ]>&  teji  jenemnebau  bej^un^a  •  ne  bjnnce  lie 
nipej-  nabc  •  -j  jip  j-e  bpepfioca  mon  blobep  to  fela 
lifiebbe  ]?onne  j'ceal  htm  mon  reji  eaUum  o])pum  Isece- 
bomum  blob  Irecau  op  j^am  fpiSpan  eajime  on  ]?se]ie 
nj|?eppan  asbpe  •  jip  Ja  mon  ue  mgeje  pajie  jejiebian 
j^onne  j-ceal  mon  on  [aepe  mibbel  sebjie  blob  l^etan  • 
})a  |)e  f  ne  bo])  on  micel  eappe]?um  becumaS. 


IDpfTt  him  iie  to  pojijanne  on  lipeji  able  hj'set  him 
lie  to  healbanne  je  on  IjECebomum  je   on  mete  •    po]i- 

\/  ]>on  ip  ]^ea]ip  micel  ^  mon  nau]?eji  ne  pealpa  ne  baj?u  • 

ne  onle-^ena  ?e]i  to  nybe  •  asji  him  mon  blob  Isete  j^am 

V  J'e   pel  a  blobej^p   hsep  -^  septeyi    ]?on    ]7e    pe    lichoma   lie 

J>ujih  ]>ii  bloblsepe  jeclsenpab  -^  );pef  mannep  bileopa*^ 
if  CO  bej'ceapianne  •  sepefc  him  jp  to  j-ellanne  f 
];one  mnoS  fcille  -j  fme]7e  •  ne  fie  pceajip  ne  to  apop  • 
ne  plitenbe  •  ne  fpijene  •  relc  b]\o]>  ip  to  popjanne 
poji  ];on  ])e  hit  bij)  jnnbenbe  "j  ypele  paetan  ]'ypie];  • 
jejjui  fiiit  to  popjanne  pop]7on])e  hipa  p?ete  biS  pset  -j 
mapan  hiBto  pyjicS  •  hlapej-  cjiuman  jip  hie  beoj^  op- 
|>a?nbe  oj^j^e  jepobene  fint  to  Jncjanne  ac  na  to  fpiSe  • 
oj)jie  j'tetan'  mete  jeajipa  -j  cocnunja  ealle  fmt  to 
}:o]ibeobanne  •  'j  eal  ];'a  ppetan  ]nn^  -^  ]>{i  fraepepijan  *j 
ofcephlapaf ^  'j  eall  f])ete  jnnj  ]»e  pypcaS  ajjunbeneppe  • 
je  j^a  pceappan  a]-pan  j^m^  fmt  to  pleonne*  po]i]>on  ]je 

'  clseymeu,  MS. 

'-'  claej-na,  MS. 

■'Alexander  Trallianns,  p.  127, 
line  9,  ed.  1548,  by  the  general 

•■  Et  aT/xa  TrAeovafei. 

•'■  t;ecl8efnab,  MS. 
"  Alex,  ut  supra,  line  17. 
"  ReadhpaDtene  ;  ra  Si  aWa.  iravra 

^  The   Saxon    leech    skips    four 
i  lines  of  Alexandres  of  Tralles. 

LEECH  BOOK.    II.  211 

wash  it  out  by  those  lueaus  ;  after  that,  hiy  thereon  liook  ii. 
what  may  cleanse  the  wound.  If  it  turn  oft'  very  im-  *"''•  ^^" 
pure,  cleanse  it  with  honey  and  draw  it  again  come 
together.  Again,  when  the  insensible  hardening  of  the 
liver  is  of  too  long  duration,  then  it  forms  a  dropsy 
which  cannot  be  cured.  But  one  must  soon  at  the 
outset  emplo}^  the  before  named  fomentations ;  let  him 
drink  nothing  new,  and  if  the  liversick  man  have  too 
much  blood,  then  one  must,  before  all  other  leechdoms, 
let  him  blood  from  the  right  arm  on  the  nether  vein. 
If  that  may  not  easily  be  got  at,  then  shall  n  man 
let  blood  upon  the  middle  vein;  they  who  do  it  not, 
come  into  mickle  difficulties. 


Herp  we  treat  of  what  a  onan  must  forego  in  Vwi-v 
disease,  what  he  must  hold  by,  whether  in  leechdoms 
or  in  diet.  For  as  much  as  there  is  much  need  that  for 
a  man  who  has  much  blood  one  should  employ  neithei- 
salves,  nor  baths,  nor  external  applications,  ere  he  be 
let  blood  ;  after  the  body  is  cleansed  through  the  blood- 
letting, the  mans  diet  is  to  be  examined  :  first  must 
be  given  him  what  may  still  and  soothe  the  inwards, 
what  is  neither  sharp  nor  too  austere,  nor  rending,  nor 
caustic  ;  all  broth  '  must  be  foregone  because  it  is  in- 
flating and  worketh  evil  humours  ;  eggs  must  be  fore- 
gone because  their  liquor  is  fat  and  worketh  more 
heat;  crumbs  of  bread,  if  they  be  moistened  or  sodden, 
may  l)e  eaten,  but  not  in  excess ;  other  wet  [Avheaten  j 
meat-preparations,  and  cookings  up  must  be  forbid- 
den, and  all  the  moist  things  and  greasy,  and 
oyster  patties,^  and  all  sweet  things  which  work  in- 
flation.     Yea     the    sharp    austere     things'^    must    be 

'■  Zs'juo.  I       '  Tix    TTV(povTa;    but    just   above 

-'  boTTpaKiZtptia,  shell  fish.  |  afO)»  translated  Spiixv, 

o  2 

212  LMCE  BOC. 

]?a  finic  jroptynenbe  j^a  mnoj^aj'  •  "j  i^efamnaS  ];one  fpile 
\/  "j  uny];ielice  inelcalS  •  ]:o]i  eionne  seppla  •'  ne  pm  nij'  co 
j'ellanne  •  yo]\  Son  ])e  hie  liabLacS  harne.  h\\?e]>  •  ]?am  i)" 
ro  jncjanue  linj-ceajip  pin  •  eac  pceal  mon  oxuinellif  * 
j-ellan  p  biS  oj:  ecebe  -j  op  hunije  jepojiliC  bpenc 
fu]?e]\ne  •  'j  ];onne  onjin^  ];a3]ie  liseto  pelm  panian 
fpijjofc  jmjili  i!)a  micjean  •  "j  him  i]-  co  pellanne  lac- 
tucaf*"''  'j  fu}?epne  popij"*  mnepeapb.  Tacn'^  ]3  fe  Ipile 
];'pman  ne  nia^j  •  ne  utrypnan  on  prppe  lippe  •  p  fe 
mon  h?epS  liepij  yaji  on  ni]>epea]ib]ie  lippe  barium  • 
emne  fpa  he  pie  mib  hpilepe  hpeja  byp]>enne  jehepejob 
on  ]?aepe  fpi]7pan  healpe  •  'j  ntepS  he  pepjiep  hseco  on 
l^am  bsehim  •  ]?am  men  fmt:  to  j-ellanne  ]?a  bpmcan  -j 
yn  Ifecebomaf  j^a  6e  pe  Isepbon  f  mon  bybe  to  ]?a^]ie 
fol.  79  i>.  nnjepelan    heapbneppe   onjunnenpe  on  }?8epe  hppe  jeli- 

nej'cije    mib  ])y  f  pojifetene    ypel  •    ^ip  hpa  ]?one  la^ce- 
bom  bej>  CO  j^e  ]?a  popfetcan  j^mj   ontyne  *j    ucceo   a^^ji 
}»on  Se  he  ]?one  pojiheajiboban  fpile  jehnepce  •    pene]>  f 
\/  he  hic  bete  •  jip  ]?pep  aht  bi'S  laspeb  ]7a3]'  heapban  •    ne 

])et  lie  hit  ac  ]>ypc  •  -j  ^'^pi^sj'  ^^^^  \Y  l^cebome  ];a 
]ia^'Can  -j  pip^  ]'«  ipilt^  fpa  heapb  fpa  ftan  •  *j  ne  ma^j 
lime  mon  jemelcan  ne  jehnepcian.^ 


Pyjitbjiencaj-  pit)  eallum  hpeji  ablum  •  pypce  mon 
CO  bjiencum  hpeji  feocum  mannum  •  iiiepcef "  pi^eb  • 
bilep  .  pepmobep  •  ]?y  jemece  ];»e  la?caf  cunnon  jnib  on 
ppecep  pele  bjiincan.  6pt^  cofcep  'j  pipojiej-  bufc  -j 
o}>pa  pyjica  ]7ifnm  jelica  bjimce  .ill.  bajap  •  *j  hcje  on 

'  For  potai,  ■pomegranates. 

-  As  before,  foot  of  page  ;  miss- 
ing four  lines. 

'  For  TO  acrap,  asaiiim  Europaum, 
and  maum,  meum. 

make  a  new  chapter  here,  p.  127, 
line  6,  ed.  1548.  The  Saxon  ver- 
sion is  free. 

''■  This    passage    ends    at    Alex. 
Trail.,  p.  127,  line  16,  ed.  1548, 

'  For  nardus  keltica.   Valeriatia  c.  ,       "  From  Alex.  Trallianiis,  p.  129, 

The  Saxon  perhaps  moans  G/oj/c/m/h  ,  line  24,  ed  1548,  with  omission  of 
luleum.     Cf.  Dioskorid.  I.  vii.  asarabucca  and  almonds. 

^The   editions    of  Alex.   Trail.  «  Alex.  Trail.,  p.  129,  Ime  32. 

LEECH   BOOK.    11.  21." 

avoided,  inasmuch  as  they  have  a  bad  etfect  in  clo.sini;  Book  il. 
the  inwards,  and  they  collect  the  swelling,  and  it  doth  ^'''•-■^^'•' 
not  easily  disperse,^  hence  neither  apples  nor  wine 
must  be  given,  since  they  have  a  hot  breath  or  (ironia. 
The  man  must  take  a  not  sharp  wine ;  one  must  also 
give  him  some  oxymel,  which  is  a  southern  or  Italkni 
drink,  wrought  of  vinegar  and  of  honey  :  and  when 
the  burning  of  the  heat  bcginneth  to  wane  away, 
chiefly  through  the  mie,  he  must  have  lettuces  and 
the  inward  part  of  southern  poppy.  Tokens  that  the 
swelling  in  the  liver  may  not  abate,  nor  run  off;  that 
that  man  hath  a  heavy  sore  in  the  parts  of  the  nether 
liver,  even  as  if  he  were  weighted  with  something  of 
a  burden  in  the  right  side,  and  he  hath  not  a  heat  of 
fever  in  these  parts.  To  such  a  man  must  be  given 
the  drinks  and  the  leechdoms,  which  we  taught  one 
should  use  for  the  insensible  hardness  begun  in  the 
liver  ;  with  them  let  him  make  the  obstructive  mischief 
nesh.  If  any  one  applietli  the  leechdom  Avhich  unlocketh 
and  draweth  out  the  obstinately  lodged  matters,  before 
he  hath  made  nesh  the  badly  hardened  swelling,  he 
weeneth  that  he  is  amending  it ;  hut  if  there  be  aught 
left  of  the  hard  inatter,  he  amendeth  it  not,  but 
harmethj  and  with  the  leechdom  he  drietli  the  hu- 
mours, and  the  swelling  becometh  as  hard  as  a  stone, 
and  it  cannot  be   dissipated  nor  be  made   nesh. 


Wort  drinks  for  all  liver  diseases :  let  one  work  for 
drinks  for  a  liversick  man,  seed  of  marche,  of  dill, 
of  wormwood,  rub  these  fine  into  water  in  the  manner 
in  which  leeches  ken  hovj,  ami  give  to  drink.  Again, 
let  the  patient  drink  for  three  days  dust  of  costmary, 
and  of  pepper,  and  of  other  worts  like  these,  and  let 
him  lie  on  the  right  side  for  half  an  hour,  and  drink 

'  Tovs  uyKova   dva(popi}TOvs  ijiyaC^rm. 

fol.  80  a. 

214  L^CE   EOC. 

]>a  ipibpan  I'lban  liealfe  tib  -j  bjunce  ej:t  on  cejiemic  • 
Iiealbc  hme  ];onne  yi])  eceb.  pi)?  bae]?'  ]n]>  pifaii  -j 
beana  •  -j  iiiepai"  •  -j  pij>  ])a  Jiinj  ]>e  pmbijne  rej^m'ou  men 
I'yjiceii.  6ft;  ^  cofc  •  j:enum  jpecum  j)ipo]i  liapan  cyjiblu 
calpa  emfela  •  jebeaC  o]?]>e  jejnib  -j  apipte  •  jebo  cucleji 
pulne  "pssy  on  pin  pele  bpmcan  Jnxm  ]?e  bucan  pepjie 
I'le  •  Jmem  Se  pepep  liaabbe  ]3  "ip  micel  lireco  -j  hjiuS''' 
]'ele  J?am  on  peapmum  paecejie  •  jelicje  ]wnne  on  ]>a 
fpi|?paii  fiban  'j  alecje  Lip  lpi]?]mii  hanb  Imn  unbeji 
beapob  ajieabte  heaipe  tib.'*  Gy-c  j'yptbpencaf  yi])  lipeji 
able  •  claeppan  peapep  .ii.  lytle  bollan  pulle  mib  lytle 
hunije  5emen-i;be  •  bo  peaji  pulne  jebieccep  pmel"  ro 
]ele  bjimcan  J'jiy  bajaf  jip  bpitt;  yplej-  on  |7£epe'^  bib 
ie  bpenc  lacnaS.      6pr  pilbjie  mealpan  feapep  ]?py  lyfcle 

•^  Koad  yiiWv.  bollan  pullaii  ^  jenienjbe  pij?  fpilc  cu  pietejief  pele  bjiin- 
can  .nil.  bajaf  •  *j  ^ip  htm  hpib  abl  ^eten^e  bib  |;a 
robpi):|>  pe  pyjit:  bpenc.  Gpt  ptn  cymen  -j  buni;^ 
T;e;5nib  toSorane  pele  bjimcan.  Gpr  ipij  cjioppena  on 
j'am  monSe  jejabejiob  J7e  pe  hataS  lanuajimp  on  Iteben  • 
•j  on  enjlifc  pe  a^ptepjia  jeola  •  ptp  *j  xx.  ^  pipojiep  eac 
Ipa  •  jejnib  J;onne  mib  J^y  felefcan  pme  •  *j  jehtete  pele 
|7am  feocan  men  neahtnefcijnin  bjiincaii.  Liiecebom  pi6 
lipeji  able  epc  caulep  tpiju  o]?])e  i'celan  mib  ]>am  cjiop- 
pum  abpije  cbenbce  bsepne  to  abfan  jehealb  J^a  alipan" 
'j  I'onne    ]?ea]ip   fie    jebo  ];fe]ie  abfan  cucleji  pnlne  mib 

fol.  80  b.  .  XL  jejnibenjui  pipoji  copna  on  (!alb  fpipc  liluttoji    .    . 

.  ."  jeba;':;  jjonne  pele  bpmcan  o|7pe  ]-i];e  nijon  copn  • 
ppibban  frSe  feopon.  Lascebom  pj]>  lippe  able  ept  laupe)' 
cpoppan  -j  pipopep  copna  .xx.  jejmb  fmale  •  jebo  on 
bollan    pulne    ealbep    pmep  •    -j    jemenj    "cojsebepe    mib 

'  The  text  of  AleX.  Tra,   1528,  j       *  This  last  clause,  not  in  the  text 

htiH  $a\dvoiy,  but  Albanus  Torinus  of  Alex.   Tr.,  is  in   the   Latin  of 

"  balneum."'  Albanus  Torinu.s. 

-■  Alex.  Trail.,  p.  l-'iO,  line  •'),  cd,  '  Add  li)pe,  omitted  in  MS. 

1548.  ''  Some    word,    perhaps    y\n,     is 

^  Otherwise  found  hpuN.  lure  omitted  by  ^IS. 


LEECH   BOOK.    I  [.  215 

again  in   the  evening.     Let   him  withhold  himself  also      K«>ok.ii 
from    vinegar,   from   the   bath,    from  peas,    and    beans, 
and  navews,  and  from  the  things  which  work  in  a  man 
a    windy    vapour.      Again,    beat   or   rub   up   and   sift 
eostmary,  fenugreek,  pepper,  hares  treadles,  equal  quan- 
tities   of  all ;  put  a  spoon  full  of   this  into  wine,  and 
give  it   to   him   who   is   without   fever,  to  drink.     To 
him  who  hath  fever,  that  is  mickle  heat  and  fire,'  give 
it  in  warm  water ;  then  let  him  lie  on  the  rio-ht  side 
and  lay  his  right  hand  stretched  out  under  his  head,  f(jr 
half  an  hour.     Again,   wortdrinks  for  liver  disease  :  to 
two  little  bowls  full  of  juice  of  clover  mingled  with  a 
little  honey,  add  a  bowl  full  of  heated  wine ;  give  this 
to  be  drunk  for  three  days,  if  anything  of  evil  be  on 
the  liver,  the  drink  will  cure  it.     Again,  give  to  drink 
for  four    days,    three   little   bowls   full  of  the  juice  of 
wild  mallow,  mingled  with  two  such  of  water .  and  if 
fever   disease   be   on  him,    the  wort    drink    drivetli  it 
away.     Again,  rub  together  wine,  cummin,  and  honey, 
give  him  this  to  drink.     Again,  five  and  twenty  bunches 
of  ivy  berries,  gathered  in  the  month  which  we  hight 
in  Latin  Januarius,  and   in    English    the  second  Yule, 
and   of  pepper   as   much,    rub    the-'<e  up  with  the  best 
wine,    and    heat    it ;    give  it    to   the    sick    man,    aftei- 
his    nights   fasting,  to    drink.     A    leechdom    again    foi- 
liver   disease :  dry  clean  some  twigs   or  stalks  of  cole- 
wort  with  the  flower  heads,  burn  them  to  ashes,  store 
the  ashes,  and    when    occasion    is,  put  a  spoon  full  of 
the    ashes    with    eleven   ground   pepper  corns  into  old 
very  clear  vjine,    then   heat   it,    give  to  be  drunk  the 
next  time  nine  corns,  the  third  time  seven.     A  leech- 
dom again  for  liver  disease :  rub  small  a  bunch  of  bay 
berries  and  twenty  pepper  corns,  put  them  into  a  bowl 
full  of  old  wine,  and  mingle  them  together  with  a  glowing 

'  Properly     fever;     the    8axoii    seems   to    interpret    Fever,   as 
Latinisni,  by  pure  English  words. 



jlopenbe  ij-ene  yele  bjuncan  *j  ^elicje  fnille.  ]}i\>  lijijie 
abluni  jmban  j'ceapij-  ]j]iy  jebo  on  pme  cjTOCcan  -j  ]>)iy 
Ducle  l)o]lan  pulle  ])fecepel"  opeppylle  o]>  |?ODe  jjpibban 
bsel  'j  Ipere  fpiSe  mib  Imnije  -j  ]7omie  ept  opeppylle 
n/  j'ele  bjiincan".  Gpt  pmcjieopep  ]7a  jjienan  tpijii  upe- 
]>eajib  ^ejmb  on  j5  pelefce  pm  pele  bpnican.  6pc  heo- 
jiotep  lungena  mib  ]?iejie  )>]iotan  afppmblab  -j  aj^eneb  *j 
abjujeb  on  jiece  •  -j  |?onne  hie  pul  pel  abpujobe  lynb 
jebpyte  "j  jepiib  -j  |>onne  jepomna  mib  Imnije  pele 
CO  etanne  lipep  j-eocum  men  f  ly  lialpenbe  laeceboiu. 
jtp  lipep  peaxe  bpince  fe  man  fpipolne  bpeuc.  bpmce 
■^9  epc  pucan  asptep  ])on  beon  bjioS  "j  msenije  o]?pe  psetan  • 

(»]']ie    jnican    bpince   pepmob  on  maxpypte    apyllebe  •  *j 
fol.  81  a.  nane  oj^jie  j^ascan  -j  ealipep  hacte  pyjit  aj^ylle  ]>a  eac  on 

maxpyjite  bjiince  ]7pibban  pucan  -j  nanne  o]?ejine^  pa3'can. 
(Djiuice  teptep^  Ipeopolne  bjienc  ane  pi|?e. 


JJBli  line  tacn  Ipeotol  be  pambc  copum  -j  ablum  ^ 
liu  mon  ]7a  ypelan  pa;taii  J^pepe  pambe  lacnian  i'cyle  • 
I'onnc  pamb  abl  topeajib  lie  }?onne  beo]?  ]>a  tacn. 
]?eiit  -  liie  fio  painb  -j  lipy^  "j  jepelS  jaji  ])oniie 
fe  mon  mete  j^ijeS  -j  punjetunja  "j  unliilb  metep. 
Ciieop  liatiaS^  lenbenu  liepejiaS  -j  tojette]^  betpeox 
rculbjuiin  -j  eall  liclioma  luicce  m?elum  hepejaS  'j  latia^ 
|7a  pet  •  -j  ]7a  lipan  papa  lenbena  pajuaS  •  ponne  mon 
pap  tacn  onjite  •  ]wnne  ip  fe  tepefta  Itecebom  bte^- 
pseften  f  mon  inib  ]iy  pa  pambe  clrenj-ije^  f  hio  py  ]?e 

'  Tlic  cliango  of  gender  is  accord- 
ing to  the  MS. 

-  Diokles  apud  I'auUuiu  jiEginc- 

tarn  :   col.  376,  B.  in  Mediciu  Artis 
Priiicipcs,  for  five  lines  only. 

^  Gravaiitur,  Lat.,  healcia'5  'i 

'  clajj-nige,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  217 

iron,  y-ive  to  the  ■j'^cttient  to  dv'mk,  and  let  liiiii  lie  slill.  Book  11, 
For  liver  diseases  ;  put  three  bundles  of  rue  into  wiuc 
in  a  crock,  and  three  niickle  bowls  full  of  water,  lioil 
them  down  to  the  third  part,  and  sweeten  them  tho- 
rouglily  with  honey,  and  then  again  boil  off;  give  tkis 
to  be  drunk.  Again,  rub  into  the  best  wine  the  upper 
part  of  the  green  twigs  of  a  pine  tree  ;  administer  this. 
Again,  a  harts  lungs  Avith  the  throat  ripped  up,  and 
s))read  out,  and  dried  in  the  reek;  and  when  they  are 
full  well  dried,  break  them  and  rub  them  isDiall  and 
then  collect  them  with  honey;  give  tlds  to  the  liver- 
sick  man  to  eat ;  it  is  a  healing  leechdom.  If  tlie 
liver  wax  large,  let  the  man  drink  an  emetic  drink. 
Again,  for  a  week  after  that  let  him  drink  bean  broth 
and  no  other  liquid,  next  week  let  him  drink  worm- 
wood boiled  in  mashwort,  and  no  other  liquid,  and 
there  is  a  wort  called  ealiver,^  boil  that  also  in  masli- 
wort,  let  him  drink  that  for  the  third  week  and  no 
other  liquid.  Let  him  drink  after  that  an  emetic  drink 
for  one  turn. 


Here  are  plain  tokens  of  disorders  and  sicknesses  of 
tjje  wamb,  and  how  a  man  shall  cure  the  evil  humour;^ 
of  the  wamb.  When  wamb  disease  is  present  then  the 
tokens  are  ;  the  wamb  turneth  itself,  and  is  fevered, 
and  feeleth  sore  when  the  man  eateth  meat,  and  prick- 
ings, and  loss  of  appetite  for  meat.  The  knees  are 
slow,  the  loins  are  heavy,  and  there  are  spasms  be- 
tween the  shoulders,  and  all  the  body  by  piece  meal' 
is  heavy,  and  the  feet  are  tardy,  smd  the  muscles  of  the 
loins  are  sore ;  when  a  man  observes  these  tokens,  then 
the  first  leechdom  is  a  days  fasting,  that  with  that  he 
may  cleanse  the  wamb,  that  it  may  be  the  lighter.    Well, 

'  Jack  in  the  heclye ;    Eri/simum   I       -  citia  occasionem,''    the  modern 
alliaria.  I  translation  of  the  imprinted  Greek. 

218  LMCE  BOC. 

leohtjie  j-ie  •  jt]:  fio  abl  fie  ]?onne  ^it  peaxeubc  yxkc 
.11.  bajaj'  cojaibejie  jtp  liim  msejen  jelsefce  •  jip  he  ]? 
lie  maeje  yelle  hiiii  mon  leolitej'  lipsec  hpeja  to  ]nc- 
l^aniie  fpa  fBjpu  beoS  -j  Son'  jeltc.  Sume  to  )7a3pe 
parabe  clajnpunja-  feopaS  iietelan  on  psetpe  "j  on 
pine  •    "j    on    ele  •    fume     psepe    peaban    netlan    tpiju 

fol.  'SI  1).  :i;]iene  •    fume   beran   o]?]>e    boccan'^  on    jefpettiini    pme 

feo|?aS  'j  pella^  to  jjicjenne  •  "j  jip  fio  abl  majie  pypS 
•j  fe  peoca  man  ]5  mjipjen  hrepS  ])onne  feo];an  Iiie  him 
frjienjpan  pyjita  'j  bo\>  hpaet  hpeja  pipeji  to  ;  Sceapijc 
inon  jeojme  hpilc  pe  utjanj  fie  ]>e  micel  ]>e  lytel  }>e  Jjseji 
nan  ne  fie  •  leopnije  be  ]7on  pe  lasce  liu  him  jnnce 
];piet  mon  bon  j-cule  •  jip  ]>  fie  omihte  pa>te  mnan 
uubupnenu  tyhte  hie  mon  ut  niib  hj>um  mettum  fiii- 
cenbum  -j  ne  Iset  mne  jefittan  on  ])am  hchoman  'j 
])y]iS  jejabejiobu  omi^;  paete  on  psejie  panibe  0(55e 
(»n  ]?am  fmfel|7eapme  •  -j  nsepS  j^onne  iitjanj  fio  fcojj 
ac  bib  apyjibeb  fio  fcop  -j  ]*e  maja  onpent  -j  tobpocen 
■j  f  heapob  ajiputen  *j  j-aji  •  "j  ];a  Inno})ap  ablapene  "j 
liace  pep] lap  •  "j  micel  jmpfc  -j  eallep  hchoman  abhi 
))eo]iJ?a8  apeahte.  Sceal  mon  laenian  fpilce  able  jip  he 
pf'pep  naip5  •  raib  cu  meolcum  o'SSe  jate  fpa  nije  mol- 
cenc  bpmoe.  6ac  hylpS  jip  mon  mib  ea  fcanum  on- 
biepnebum  •    o]>]ye  mib  hatene  ifene    ])a  meoliic   jepypb 

fol.  82  a.  .-j  j-el|?  bpincan  •  -j  ^ip  ]>  bi];  jeonj  man  -j  ]ni  tib  hsepb 

•j  mihce  Iniii  mon  pceal  op  eapme  blob  fpij^e  hetan 
■j  ynib  .III.  niht  bpnce  ept  pa  meoluc. 

'  ^011,  MS.  1       •■'  I'aul,  ^Egin,,  as  before. 

-  cl8e|-nun5a,  MS.  | 

LEECH   BOOK.    11.  219 

if  the  disease  be  still  on  the  increase,  let  Jam  last  for      ^^''^  ^^■ 

two  days  together,  if  his    strength  will  endure  it  ;    ii" 

lie  be  not  able    to  do    that,    let   him   have   somewhat 

light  to  eat,  as  eggs   be  and  the  like  of  them.     Some, 

for  the  cleansing  of  the  wamb,  seethe  nettle  in  water, 

and  in  wine,  and  in  oil,  some  seethe  in  sweetened  wine 

twigs  of  red  nettle  green,  some  beet  or  dock,  and  give 

this  to  be  taken;  and  if  the  disease  groweth  stronger, 

and  the  sick  man  hath  the  strength  for  it,  then  they 

seethe  stronger  worts  and  add  some  little  pejjper.     Let 

it  be  earnestly  observed   what   the   outgang,   or  /cecal 

discharge,  is,  whether  mickle,  or  little,  or  whether  there 

be  none ;  let  the  leech    learn  by  that  how  it  seems  to 

liim  a,  man  shonld  act.     If  there   be  an  inflammatory 

flagrant    humour  within,    let   it   be  got  out  by  gentle 

aperient    diet,    and    let    it    not    lodge   within    in    the 

l)ody,  for  then  there  will  be  gathered  an  inflammatory 

humour  in  the  wamb,  or  in  the  small  guts,    and  then 

the  place  has  no  passage  out,  but  the  spot  is  corrupted, 

and  the  maw  is  disturbed  and  upbroken,  and  the  head 

is  vexed  and  sore,    and  the  inwards  upblown ;  and  hot 

fevers,  and  mickle  thirst,  and  diseases  of  all  the  body 

become  awakened.     Such  a  disease  must  be  treated,  if 

the  iKttient  have  no  fever,  with  cows  milk,  or  let  him 

drink  goats  milk  newly  milked.     Also   it   helpeth  if  a 

mail  with  water  stones'  put  in  the  fire,  or  with  heated 

iron,  turneth  the  milk   and  so  giveth  it  to  be  dnmk ; 

and  if  it  be  a  young  man  and  he  hatli  a  suitable  time 

for   it   and   strength    to  hear  it,  he  must  be  fi-eely  let 

blood   from   the   arm,   and  let  him  drink  the  milk  for 

about  three  days. 

'  Unclci'Htaud  such  stones  as  ■\vould  bear  to  be  heated  and  phiugcd  ill 


L^CE   BOC. 



Be  pauilje  colaim  -j  51]:  liio  iiiiiaii  puiib  bij?  liu 
]?  mou  onjitaii  iiiseje  *j  Telacniau  •  rejieli;  jiy  liijie 
brS  611  mnan  punb  ];onne  bi]?  j^sep  yaji  -j  beotunja  -j 
j;el'ceo]i]:  •  "j  ]7onne  hie  mece  j'lcjeaS  -j  bjiinca^  ]7onne 
plata'S  hie  -j  biS  hiopa  muS  jiul  -j  hju'cSia^  -j  liipa 
iicjanj  blobij  -j  f-cincS  y]-"ele  •  bam  mannum  ]-ceal  man 
jellan  sejjia  co  jmpanne  •  bejien  bjieab  clasne  nipe 
butejian  -j  nij'e  bejien  mela  o^Se  jpytca  tojaebpe 
3;ebpipeb  Ipa  cocaf  cuniion  •  ]"elle  mon  neahtneytijum, 
Gft  pylena  j'eaj^  -j  pe;5b]ui;baii  meiije  inoii  piS  apeopeii 
hunij  pelle  neahtneptijum.  6ac  pi}?  ]wn  bo  man  jobc 
jealpa^  onlejena  utaii  to  J7a  pe  p  yjzel  lir  reou  eaS- 
mylce  meucaf  'j  fciji  fin  -j  l"me]?e. 


be  pambe  ini]-Senhc]ic  jecyiibo  oc^be  jjaejie  luijbyjibo 
hii  ]y  mou  mseje  onjican.  bonne-  hio  biS  hatpe 
T;ebypbo  'j  jecynbo  •  J>oniie  msej  hipe  j'ona  lytel  bjimca 

fol.  S2b.  helpan*  ^tp  he  majia  bi]?  ye  bjnnca  Ibna  bi]>  peo  paml? 

^  ^ehepejob  -j  cloccec  fpa  fpa  hiC  on  cylle^  plecjece -j  je- 

pihb  bpuim  mettum  jonne  fio  pgere  pamb  ne  ];popaS  )-eo 
]'iipi'~  -j  lio  fpiSe  pajtrjie  jecynbo  bij?  ne  j^jioj'a'S  leo  ]>ii]ifi::  ne 
hepijneppe  metta  •  -j  jepihS  psetum  meccuin.  be  hatpe 
jccynbo  pambe-  Sio  pamb  feo  ]ye  biS  hatjie  jecynbo 
i"io  melt  mete  pel  lpi]?oit  ]?a  ]?e  heajibe  beocS  -j  linea'S 
my  Ice  "j  jepih^  peapmum  mettum  "j  bpmcum  •  -j  ne 
bi]?  hipe  jel'ceSeb  ppam  cealbum  mettum  nub  ^eniete 
jej^ijbum.  Seo  J^e  biS  j^a^cepijpe  5ec3aibo  lio  hpepS 
jobe  jipncjye  metep  •  hio  luepS  jobe  meltuuje  fpij^olt 
on  jjam  mettum  ]'e  uneaSe  raelte  beoS  •  jepihS  cealbum 

'  Ivcad  j-ealja  ~i  ? 

-  Twelve  lines  found  in  Aetius 
Tetrabibl.  I.  Seom.  iv.  capp.  Ixxii., 
Ixxiii.,  Ixxiv., consecutively;  also  in 
Taulus  of  iEgina,  lib.  I.  cap.  Ixiv. 

^  By  the  printed  books  ]  ylle 
would  Hceni  to  be  the  true  reading. 
"  Fluctuationes  habeaut,  si  id  quod 
"  redundat,  innatet." 

LEECH   BOOK.    TI.  221 


Of  sickness  of  tho  wanib,  unci  if  it  be  wounded 
within,  how  a  man  may  understand  that  and  cure  it. 
First  if  there  be  a  wound  upon  it  within,  then  is  tliere 
sore,  and  grumblings,  and  irritation  ;  and  when  tliey 
take  meat  and  drink,  then  they  liave  nausea,  and  tlioir 
mouth  is  foul,  and  they  are  fevered,  and  their  discharge 
is  bloody  and  stinketh  foully :  to  those  men  shall  be 
given  eggs  to  sup  up,  barley  bread,  clean  new  butter, 
and  new  barley  meal  or  groats  made  into  a  brewit 
together,  as  cooks  ken  to  do  ;  let  it  be  administered  to 
them  after  their  nights  fast.  Again,  let  one  mingle 
juice  of  peas  and  waybroad  Avith  strained  honey,  and 
give  it  after  the  nights  fast.  Again  for  that,  let  one 
apply  good  salves,  and  external  applications,  such  as 
may  draw  out  that  evil,  also  easily  digested  meats,  and 
sheer  and  smooth   wine. 


Of  the  various  nature  of  the  wamb  or  of  its  caprice, 
how  a  man  may  rmderstand  that.  When  it  is  of  a 
liot  temper  and  nature,  then  a  little  drink  may  soon 
help  it.  If  the  drink  be  more  powerful  soon  tlie  wamb 
is  oppressed  and  palpitates,  as  if  in  cold  it  were 
])eating,  and  it  rejoiceth  in  dry  meats.  When  the 
wamb  is  moist  it  doth  not  suffer  thirst,  and  it  is  of  a 
very  moist  nature  ;  it  doth  not  suffer  thirst  nor  heavi- 
ness from  meats,  and  it  rejoiceth  in  moist  meats.  Of 
the  hot  natnre  of  the  wamb.  The  wamb,  that  namely 
which  is  of  a  hot  nature,  digests  meats  well,  especially 
those  which  be  hard  and  of  difficult  digestion,  and 
rejoices  in  warm  meats  and  drinks,  and  it  is  not  harmed 
by  cold  meats,  taken  with  moderation.  That  whicli 
is  of  a  w\atery  nature  hath  a  good  appetite  for  meat ; 
it  hath  not  a  good  digestion,  chiefly  of  the  meats 
which  be  of  difficult  digestion,  it  rejoices  in  cold  meats. 

Book  ir. 

Oil.  xxvi. 


LMCE  P.or 

U.  83  n. 

fol.  83  1) 


meccum.  be  cealbpe  ^j  ]>gQZ]\e  jecynbo  ])ambe.  Sio 
panib  l"io  (5e  biS  cealbjie  oS8e  ptetjie  jecynbo  oSSe 
mi]-by]ibo  •  htm  cymS  bjifejenep  ahl  -j  unjepitpsej-cney 
him  bi5  •  '-J  ponne  fio  }:o]ib]ui;i;abe  ;5ecynho  on  ]mm 
i'mum  -j  on  ]?am  banura  h\]>  •  f  ]ni  j-yn  pojijjyjijiobe 
))onne  ne  mi©^  raon  ]?a  jelacnian  •  pp  hio  )>onne  bi]> 
mnoji  on  |?am  ptepcehrnm  fropum  mib  lynbjiijum 
I'rojHim  -j  precinjnm  -j  met'cum  f  mon  maij  jelacnian 
j'cnben  op  ])iP]\e  hpjie  fio  blobpceapuni;  jeonb  jet  ealne 
jjone  hchoman.  Selefc  Icxcebom  ip  to  fpilcum  Jnnpim 
■]>  raon  jelome  nyttije  picep^  -j  ]>a  pambe  mib  ]'y 
jeplea  ]'onne  hio  jepyjimebu  lie  -j  ba]/u  op  jien  pretepe 
•j  nije  molcen  meoluc  nub  hunije  jefmejwb  him  beah  • 
bajnje  hme  jelome  on  bseje  -j  hpilum  mib  ele  fmipe.' 
IDim  hylp^  eac  f  him  pet  cilb '  aetplape  •  ^  ]>  lie  •]> 
;^ebo  neah  hip  pambe  i'lmle  •  him  hylpS  eac  open  baceii 
hhap^  "j  pcellehre  pipcaf  on  ))ole  -^  -j  J)one  mete  ])e  pel 
mylcan  pille.  be  hatjie^  *j  bjiijpe  pambe  jtp  j-io  ])amb 
abhj  brS  hat  hptet  hpeja  •  eac  J^sepe  bpijnepj-e  •  ]>onne 
ne  j'ceal  he  hunijep  onbitan  ac  ealb  ]nn  j'losce  mettaf  • 
jip  pio  yple  paste  to  micel  fie  •  J>onne  bnjon  him 
cealb  ]?a3tep  'j  pceappe  mettaf  butan  hastu  •  hpilnm 
beo]?  J>a  peetan  on  ])ie\\e  pambe  pilmenum  •  ];onne 
]'ceal  mon  ])  piplice  lecean  -j  pseplice  clsenpian-  mib 
alpan  •  'j  mib  fpelciim  lityjmenbum  bpencum  ateon  ur 
ja  hophehtan  j^tetan.  jjpiene  mib  \)y  sejieft  -j  );onne 
pyjice  leohte  fpipole  bpencap  op  ]i£ebice  Ipa  ]3  la?eap 
cunnon.  be  hgemebjnnjum^  eallum  J>ypjium  lichomum 
hsemebjnnj  ne  bujon  ac  fpi];oft  ])yppum  -j  cealbum  • 
ne  bepe|>  hit  liatum  'j  jjsetum  j'yppefc  liiS  ]?am  ceal- 
ban  hatan*  Ipijjoit  pam  Se  hopnable  habba'5.  Spelcum 
maniuim  beah  \>  liie  htm  T;efpinc  anjefecen  'j  hie  pelpe 

'  Oribasius  Synops.,  lib.  V.  liii. ; 

also  Paulus  ^gineta,  lib.  I.  Ixxii, 
■-'  daepian,  MH. 
'■'  Five   or     six     lineR    found    in 

Paulus  JEgineta,  lib.  I.  cap.  Ixxi.  in 
Med.  Art.  Priuc. 

*  Read  psetan  from  the  original. 


LEECH   BOOK.    TT.  223 

Of   tlie    cold    and    inoist    natnred     \vainl>.     Tho  avjuuIi       I'-coK  II. 

wliich  is  of  a  cold  or  inoist  iiatnie  or  caprice;  on  ilic 

man  cometli  disease  of  tlio  ]»raiu  and  loss  of  his  senses; 

and  when  the    desiccated    nature    is    upon   the  sinews 

and    on    the    l)ones,    so    that    they  are  dried  up,  then 

they  cannot  be  cured.     Then  if  this  dryne^ss  be  more 

within  on  the  fleshy  parts,  one  may  cure  that  witli  change 

of  residence,  and  wettings,  and  meats,  as  long  as  from 

the  liver  the  blood    gushes    through    the   whole    body. 

The    l)est    leechdoni    for   such   tilings   is,    that   a    man 

should    frequently    make   use    of   pitch,  and  strike  the 

wamb    with  it,  when  it  is  warmed ;  and  baths  of  rain 

water,  and  newly  milked  milk,  softened  with  honey,  is 

good  for  tlie  patient.     Let  him  bathe  himself  frequently 

in  the  day,  and  at  whiles   smear  himself  with  oil.     It 

is  also  helpful  to  him  that  a  fat  child  should  sleep  by 

him,  and  that  he  should  put  it  always  near  his  wamb. 

Oven  baked  bread   also   helpeth   him,    and  sliell  fishes 

in  liquor,  and  (let  him  eat)  the  meat  which  will  readily 

digest.     Of  the    hot    and    dry  wamb,    if   the   diseased 

wamb    be    somewhat   hot,    besides,    for    the    dryness  ; 

then  shall  the  ixdicnt  not  taste  of  honey,  but  old  wine 

and    lukewarm    meats.      If    the    evil    humour    be    too 

mickle,  then  are  good  for   liim    cold  water,  and  sharp 

meats  without  lieat.     At   whiles   the    humours    be    on 

the  membranes  of  the  wamb ;  then  shall  a  man  wisely 

seek   into   that,   and   warily   cleanse   them   with   aloes, 

and   draw  out  the   turbid  humours   with  such  purging 

drinks :    first    clear   the   vjamh   Avith    them,   and    then 

work    light    emetic    drinks   of  radish,  as    leeches   ken 

how    to    do    it.     Of    venery:   to  all  dry  constitutions 

venery  is  not  beneficial  ;    but    most    to    dry  and  cold 

ones ;   it  harmeth  not  hot  and  wet  ones ;   it    is    worst 

for     the     cold     moist    ones     and    them    which    have 

disorder   of    the   gastric  juices.     To  sucli  men  it  is  of 

benefit   that   they  should   seek    to  themselves  exercise, 

and  should  dose   themselves,    without    bath,    and    with 


224  L^CE  BOC. 

bjiencen'  Imtan  baSe  -j  mib  fmi]iene)')'um  liie  fmejipan. 
be  cealbpe  jecynbo  pambe.  Se  ];e  cealbjie  jecynbo  fie 
iiyctije  fe  jemetliee)'  ypelep  fpilce  pe  ];e  bjiijpe  oSSe 
pfetpe  fie,  Se  ]>e  liattpe  fie  fio  7;e5ab]ia];  oman  •  ba 
moil  pceal  jip  hie  ni];e]i  beo'S  Jnijih  ]ni  ])ambe  ncj'ih- 
ran  niih  pyptbpence  tic  abon  •  jtp  Ine  tipfcij^en  |>n]ih 
fpijijaii  ]'ceal  mon  ape^  abon. 



-J  pi];  pon^  pe  mannep  ]3  uYeppe  hpip  fie  jepylleb  mib 

ypelpe  ptecan  liojihelitpe  p  ]?am  manniim  jelimpS  ])e  on 
fol.  S4  n.  miclum  ^ebpmce  pel  pebenbe  mettaf  jncjeaS  oj'jye  fpipa'S 

•j  fpijnift:  {leprep  mete  "j  him  bi5  plsetta  jetenje  • 
beoS  jeonb  b]a]>ene  -j  bi6  fio  pamb  aj^eneb  -j  hjia^cra'S 
Telome.  Sam  monnnm  pceal  ^  pellan  oxumelle  mib 
jipebice  p  ip  fuj^epne  Irecebom-  "j  ];onne  fpipaS  hie  pona 
J^one  Jnccan  hoph  -j  him  bij)  pel.  Geyf]\c'^  ])e  Ireeebom 
|)up  op  ecebe  -j  op  hunije  •  jentm  ]3  j-elefre  hnnij  bo 
opep  heopS  apeo];  ]>  peax  'j  p  lipot  op  •  ^ebo  Sonne  Co 
];am  hunije  empela  ecebef  |?a3p  ne  fie  fpi]>e  apoji  ne  fpiSe 
fpete  menj  to  jsebepe  'j  bo  to  pype  on  cpoccan  opeji 
pylle  on  i^obum  jlebum  clfenuiii  -j  cpicum  o]>  ]5  hic  fie 
jemenjeb  j)  hit  fie  an  "j  haebbe  hunijep  Jjicneppe  'j  ne 
fie  on  bepjnej-j'e  to  fpeotol  ]?aep  ecebep  appe  pceappnep  • 
jip  fio  pamb  111]?  pmbe]-  pull  ])onne  cym^  \>  op  plaepe 
pretan  •  fi'o  cealbe  p.ete  pyjicj?  j-apan.  ])i]>  ])on.  j-ceal  mon 
feo];an  cymen  on  ele  •  -j  mepcej-  yveh  •  -j  mojian  fseb  • 
'j  bilep  •  jip  pe  cyle  fie  mapa  bo  ];onne  puban  -j  laupej- 
blebe  •  'j  pmolep  j'seb  jepoben  on  ele  •  jip  ]?onne  jit 
y  fio  abl  ejle  jebjnnje  nine    j^uph   piipan  o^be  hojm   fj'a 

'  "  Victus  attenuans,"  Lat.  ver-  ;  '  Oribasius  Med.  Coll.,  lib.  V.,  cap. 
sion  of  P.  YEgin.  xxiv.  ;  torn,  i.,  p.  395,  ed.  Darem- 

■-■  Niuc    lines   found     in    Paiilus  {   berg.        Also    Galenos,    vol.    VI. 

.^vgiueta,  lib.  I.  cap.  xli.  |   p.  271,  ed.  Klihn. 

■  Kead  rceal  mon. 

LEECH    ]]O0K.    1[.  22.') 

smearings  smear  themselves.  Of  tlic  cold  nature  of  tlio  Book  ir. 
wamb  ;  he  who  is  of  a  cold  mxture  should  avail  him-  ^''-  ^^'^"• 
self  of  moderate  discipline,  as  he  who  is  of  a  dry  or 
moist  nature.  He  who  is  of  a  hot  nature,  with  hini 
the  luamh  gathereth  inflammatory  humours  ;  these,  if 
they  be  low  down,  one  must  get  rid  of  by  wort  drinks, 
through  purging  of  the  wamb  ;  if  they  mount  up  higli 
one  must  get  rid  of  them  by  vomitings. 


In  case  that  the  upper  part  of  the  bell}'  is 
filled  with  evil  sordid  humour,  a  thing  which  hap- 
peneth  to  the  men  who  in  much  continued  drinking 
take  nutritious  meats,  or  who  spew,  and  chiefly  after 
meat,  and  who  are  subject  to  nausea,  they  are  all 
over  blown  as  tvith  wind,  and  the  wamb  is  extended 
and  they  frequently  have  breakings.  To  these  men 
one  must  give  oxymel  with  radish ;  that  is  a  southern 
leechdom  :  and  then  they  soon  spew  up  the  thick  cor- 
ruption, and  it  is  well  with  them.  Work  up  the  leech- 
dom thus,  from  vinegar  and  from  honey ;  take  the 
best  honey,  put  it  over  the  hearth,  seethe  away  the 
wax  and  the  scum,  then  add  to  the  honey  as  much 
vinegar,  so  as  that  it  may  not  be  very  austere  nor 
very  sweet ;  mingle  together,  and  set  by  the  fire  in  a 
crock,  boil  upon  good  gledes,  clean  and  lively,  till  Lhe 
TTiixture  be  mingled,  so  that  it  may  be  one,  and  have 
the  thickness  of  honey,  and  on  tasting  it  the  austere 
sharpness  of  the  vinegar  may  not  be  too  evident.  If 
the  wamb  is  full  of  wind,  that  cometh  from  luke- 
warm humour ;  the  cold  humour  worketh  sores.  For 
that  shall  one  seethe  cummin  in  ale,  and  seed  of 
march,  and  seed  of  more  o?'  carot,  and  of  dill.  If 
the  chill  be  greater,  then  add  rue,  and  leaf  of  laurel, 
and  seed  of  fennel  sodden  in  oil.  Then  if  the  disease 
still  annoy,  introduce  this  through  a  pipe  or  a  horn,  as 
VOL.  IL  P 



Isecaj'  cunnan  J;onne    be]>  f   f   j-aji   apej.     jip  j^omie  jit 
fol.  84  b.  fio   abl  ejle   bo   fpacl  co  *j  jelaupebne   ele  f  ly  laupe]' 

feap  oBSe  blofcman  jemenjeb  -j  eac  o)?}vu  Jniij  51)1 
j^eapf  fie  fece  mon. 


PiJ?  ]70n  J)e  men  mete  untela  melee  -j  jecippe  on 
ypele  pseran  -j  feittan  •  Jjam  monnum  beah  f  hie  fpipen  • 
jip  lum  CO  unea]7e  ne  fie  •  jejpemme  mib  pyptbpence 
>p  he  fpipe  •  f  he  mib  jefpette  pine  jepyjice  jip  ]?8ep 
opejijjeapp  fie  seji  mere  f  he  fpipan  mseje  •  pleo  ]>a, 
V  meccaf  ]?a  j^e   hmi   bylfca  -j   popb^jmunja  'j   fciem  on 

Innan  pypcen  -j  to  hjisebhce  melcan  •  j^icjen  ]>&  Se  50b 
peap  pypcen  -j  pambe  hnepcen.  JDpikim  him  beah  f 
him  mon  pelle  leohte  pyptbpencap  fpilce  fpa  biS  pel 
^eteab  alpe.  Seo  psefce  pypc]?  -^ly  hie  mon  ne  bej>  apej 
uneaj^lacna  abla  f  ip  por  p?epc  •  h|j  psepc  •  lenben 
p^pc  "j  Oft  fcpanj  pepep  becymS  on  J>a  men  ]?e  }>a 
able  habbaS. 


Qip  ^  ]>u.  piUe  ]3  ];in  pamb  pie  fimle  jefunb  ]?onne 
pcealc  u  liipe  |;ap  tiluin  jip  ]m  pilt  •  jepceapa  ?elce 
bseje  f  ]7in  uc^onj  -j  micje  fie  jefunbhc  septep  pihte  • 
jtp  fio  micje  fie  lytelu  feo8  mepce  -j  pmul  pypc  50b 
bpoS  •  oSSe  peap  ^  -j  oJ?pa  fpeta  pypta  •  ^ip  j-e  utjan;^  fie 
Iseppa^  mm  Sa  pypt  ])e  hatte  on  fujjepne  tepebmtma  fpa 
micel  fpa  ele  bepje  •  pele  Jjonne  to  pefte  jan  piUe.  baf 
pypta  fmbon  eac  betfce  to  pon  -j  eaS  bejeatpa  •  bete  •  -j 

'  The  substance  is  found  in  Pau- 
lus  Mg.,  I.  xliii. 

-  j'eap  :  the  name  of  some  Avort  is 
omitted  in  MS. ;  or  strike  out  'j. 

'  Four  lines  occur  in  Paulus  of 
^gina,  hb.  I.,  cap.  xliii. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  227 

leeches    ken    to    do    it;    then   it  removes  the  sore.     If      r-.okir. 
however  the  disease  still  vex,  add  spittle  and  laurelled       ''  '^'^^"'" 
oil,  that  is  to  say,  juice  or  blossoms  of  laurel  mingled 
with  oil,   and    if  need    be,   let   also    other   things    be 
sougfht  out. 


In  case  a  "mans"  meat  doth  not  well  digest,  and 
turneth  to  evil  humour  and  to  excrement,  it  is  good 
for  those  "  men "  tliat  "  they "  should  spew,  if  it  be 
not  too  uneasy  to  "him,"  irritate  him  to  spew  by  a 
wort  driniv.  If  there  be  extreme  need  that  he  may 
be  able  to  spew  before  meat,  let  him  manage  that 
with  sweetened  wine.  Let  him  flee  the  meats  which 
work  him  mucus,  and  burnings,  and  heat  in  his  inside, 
and  which  too  readily  digest :  let  him  take  those 
which  work  a  good  juice,  and  make  the  wamb  nesh. 
At  whiles  it  is  good  for  him  that  one  should  give 
him  light  wort  drinks,  such  as  are  aloes  Avell  pre- 
pared. The  humour,  if  one  doth  not  get  rid  of  it, 
worketh  not  easily  cured  diseases,  that  is  to  say,  foot 
pain,  joint  pain,  loins  pain ;  and  often  a  strong  fever 
Cometh  on  the  men  who  have  that  disease. 


If  thou  wish  that  thy  wamb  be  always  sound,  then 
shalt  thou  thus  treat  it,  if  thou  wilt.  Look  to  it  every 
day  that  thy  fsecal  discharge,  and  thy  mie,  be  of  sound 
aspect  as  right  is.  If  the  mie  be  little,  seethe  marche 
and  fennel,  work  a  good  broth,  or  seethe  juice  of 
.  .  .  and  of  other  sweet  worts.  If  the  fsecal  discharge 
be  too  little,  take  the  wort  which  in  southern  lands 
hight  turpentine  tree,  as  much  of  it  as  the  size  of 
an  olive ;  give  it  the  sick  when  he  will  go  to  bed. 
These   worts   are    also    very  good   for  that,  and  more 

p  2 

22S  L/ECE   BOC. 

niealpe  •  "j  bpajyica  "j  ]nfum  jelica  jej'ohene  {isti;?Dbj\c 
mib  jeonje  fpmef  plsej^ce  •  J^icje  ']3  bpocS  •  "j  eac  beali^ 
netle  jefoben  on  pa^tjie  •  *j  jepelo  to  ]:'iC5anne  •  *j  eac 
ellenef  leap  *j  ^  bpoS  on  Jja  ilcan  pifan.  Sunie  alpan 
leap  pellaS  Jjonne  raon  pile  j'lapan  jan  •  fpelc  fpa  biS 
];]ieo  beana"  jelce  bseje  ro  popfpeljanne  -j  })ifuni  jelice 
bjiencaf  ^  fpiSjian  ^ip  J^eajip  fie  j-ynbon  to  pellanne  • 
fpiSoft  on  popepeajibne  lencten  seji  J)on  fio  ypele  psete  fe 
J?e  on  pmtjia  jeSomnab  biS  liie  tojeote  jeonb  ojjejia 
lima.     COonije^    men    ]>se]-    ne    jymbon    ne    ne   jymaS 

fol.  85  b.  ];onne  becymS  op  J^am  yplum   psetum  •    oSSe  fio  healp- 

beabe  abl  o]?]7e  pylle  paspc  oSSe  fio  hpice  piepJ?o  ];e 
mon  on  fu|?epne  leppa  liset  o];Se  tetjia  o]jj7e  heapob 
lipiep^o  •  o]>]>e  Oman.  Fop])on  pceal  mon  feji  clcenpian*  ]?a 
yplan  psetan  apej  sep  ]?on  ]7a  ypelan  cuman  *j  jepeaxen 
on  pmtpa  •  -j  Jja  limo  jeonb  yjmen.  ])!]>  j'ambe  co]:»e 
V  -j  fajie  •  Imfpebep  jei^niben  oS8e  jebeaten  bolla  pull  • 
*j  II.  pceajipep  ecebep  opeppylle  setjsebepe  j-ele  bjuncan 
nealitneptijum  ]?am  feocan  men.  Gpt  leje  bpeopje 
bpoftlan  jecopene  on  ];one  napolan  fona  jeftille]? ;  6pt 
bilep  fsebej-  lytelne^  S^jnib  on  pseceji  j-ele  bjimcan. 
])i]>  pambe  coSe  'j  pi]?  mnepojian  fape.  bonne  pop 
miclum  cele  pamb  fie  unjepealben  •  bo  Sa  Jnnj  co  ])e  j^e 
be  upan  j'jiiton.  Tip  ])pep  ]?onne  fie  ]??ep  hjupep  penbnnj 
oS(Se  jepceopp  •  jentm  J^jieo  cpoppan  laupef  bleba  jejiiib 
y  'j  cymenep  •  -j  petejipilian  jynbpije  cuclepap  puUe  •  -j 
M  pipopep  .XX.  copna  •    jejnib    eall   cojsebepe  "j   j^pie  pil- 

fol.  8G  n.  menna   on   bpibba   pambum    abpije  •  a?ptep  Son  jentm 

])8ete]i  ^ejnib  bile  on  •  -j  ];ap  J^mj  jehaBte  pele  bjnn- 
can  •  o|?  ^  p  j'ap  jefcilleb  fie.  ])i]>  ]?on  ilcan  jentm 
..y  lilap  jefeo'b  on  jate  meolce  poppije  on  fuf'epne.^ 

'  Four  more  lines  found  in  P. 
vEg.  The  Latin  version,  the  origi- 
nal being  unpublished,  has  merni- 
rialis  for  nettle. 

-  The  Latin  gives,  «/wa-  as  bi</  as  I       •"'  Kead  on  fiil'ejme  hjienc 
three  vetches.  I 

^  Paulus  iEgineta,  lib.  I.  cap.  c, 
cites  Diokles  to  similar  purport. 
■'  clsej-nian,  MS. 
•'•  Head  lyrelne  bx\. 

LEECH   UOOK.    II.  229 

easily  procured,  beet,  and  mallow,  and  brassica  or  cab-  l^ook  ir. 
h'Jbge,  and  the  like  to  these,  sodden  together  with  young  »-'^^- 
flesh  of  swine  ;  let  the,  man  swallow  the  broth  :  and 
also  nettle  sodden  in  water  and  salted  is  good  to 
swallow  ;  and  also  leaves  of  elder  and  the  broth  in 
the  same  wise.  Some  give  leaves  of  aloe,  when  a  man 
willeth  to  go  to  sleep,  as  much  as  three  beans,  every 
day  to  be  swallowed  ;  and  drinks  like  these,  and  more 
powerful  ones,  if  need  be,  are  to  be  administered ; 
especially  in  early  spring,  before  the  evil  humour, 
which  is  collected  in  winter,  spread  itself  through  the 
other  limbs.  Many  men  have  not  attended  to  this,  no, 
nor  do  yet ;  then  there  cometh  of  the  evil  humours,  either 
hemiplegia,  or  epilepsy,  or  tlie  Avhite  roughness,  which 
in  the  south  bight  lejDrosy,  or  tetter,  or  headroughness, 
or  erysipelas.  Hence  one  nuist  cleanse  away  the  evil 
humours  before  the  mischiefs  come  and  wax  in  the 
winter,  and  run  through  the  limbs.  For  wamb  sick- 
ness and  sore ;  a  bowl  full  of  linseed,  rubbed  or  beaten, 
and  two  bowls  of  sharp  vinegar ;  boil  together,  give 
to  the  sick  man  to  drink  after  his  nights  fast. 
Again,  lay  chewed  pennyroyal  on  the  navel,  soon  the 
pain  will  be  still.  Again,  rub  a  small  (juantity  of  the 
seed  of  dill  into  water,  give  it  to  be  drunk.  For 
wamb  sickness  and  sore  of  the  bowels ;  when  from 
much  cold  the  wamb  is  not  under  control,  do  to  it 
the  things  which  we  wrote  above ;  then  if  there  be  a 
subversion  or  irritation  of  the  stomach,  take  three 
bunches  of  laurel  flowers,  and  separate  spoons  full  of 
cummin  and  of  parsley  seed  (?),  and  twenty  pepper- 
corns, rUb  all  together,  and  dry  three  membranes  which 
are  in  the  wambs  of  young  birds  ;  after  that  take  water, 
rub  dill  into  it,  and  heat  these  things ;  give  the  man 
this  to  drink  till  the  sore  is  stilled.  For  the  same, 
take  bread  and  seethe  it  in  goats  milk,  sop  it  in  a 
southern  drink,  such  as  Jtydroinel,  'p'^rhaps,  or  uxijmcl. 

230  LMCE  BOC. 

Pij?  pambe  coj'e  leo^  puban  on  ele  -j  J^icje  on  ele. 
6ft;  pilbe  culppe  on  ecebe  -j  on  psetpe  jefoben  yele  to 
Jjicjenne.  pi^  pambe  co6e  epc  laupef  leap  ceope  *j  f 
leap  fpelje  -j  |>a  leap  lecje  on  liif  napolan,  Sfx:  heo- 
potep  meajih  jemylt;  pele  on  harum  psetjie  bjimcan. 
To  pambe  jemetlicunje  •  jemm  becan  abelp  "j  ahjiipe 
ne  ]?peali  ]?u  liie  ac  fpa  lanje  feoS  on  cetele  -j  pylle 
o]?  f  liio  fie  eal  topoben  -j  J^icje  ^  jeupnen  •  bo  ];onne 
lytel  pealtep  to  "j  hunijep  •  V.  cucleji  msel  •  elej'  cucleji 
msel  pele  bollan  pulne.  Gpt  heapbehtep  pojipiep  jepo- 
benep^  j-ynbpi^ne  pele  jjicjean.  6pc  ]?8epe  peaban  net- 
Ian  fseb  on  hlap  pele  J^icjean.  6pt  bypiijbepjena  feap 
pelle  bpmcan.  6pt  plum  bleba  eCe  neahtnefcij.  6pt 
elnep  pmbe  jebeacene  fte  penmjje  peje  on  cealbep 
psetpep  bollan  pullum  pele  bpmcan. 

^.  XXXI. 

fol.  86  b.  Be   pambe    copum  -j  tacnum    on  poppe  *j    on    fmasl 

]?eapmum.  Sum  cyn  biS  eac  |?sepe  ilcan  able  on  Jjsepe 
pambe  •  -j  on  J>am  poppe  -j  fmsel  ]?eapmnm  ]?e  J>ip  biS 
to  tacne  •  f  hie  ]?popiaS  ojimsetne  ]?upfc  •  -j  metep  un- 
luft  -j  opt  uc  ypna5  jemenjbe  ufcjanje  hpilum  heapb  • 
lipilum  hpit  •  hpilum  opt  on  bseje  litjaS  -j  ]>onne  lyt- 
lum  •  hpilum  jene  •  -j  J^onne  micel  •  hpilum  hie^  pel 
jelyfc  utjanjan  •  -j  him  ];a  bypj^enne  ppam  apeoppan  • 
•j  jeopne  tilian  ac  ne  majon  nabbaS  f  nifejen  J7?epe 
meltunje  -j  bpopete'S  blob  •  fpa  pon  jelicoft  |)e  tobjio- 
cen  p8et.     be  hiopa  liipe  -j  |?am  napolan  •  -j  J^am  pseje- 

'  Jjicge,  that  is  jncce.  i      •'  Plainly  a  chapter   nepl   KcohiKrjs 

"  Add  cjioppan  or  the  like.  oiaBicr^as. 

'  Kead  hme. 

LEECH   BOOK.   II.  231 

2.  For  wamb  sickness  seethe  rue  in  oil,  and  let  ilw.  ^]^^  ^^■ 
fiicJc  swallow  it  in  oil.  Again,  give  him  to  eat  a  wild 
pigeon  sodden  in  vinegar  and  in  water.  For  wanib 
sickness,  again,  lot  him  chow  leaves  of  laurel,  and 
swallow  the  juice,  and  let  him  lay  the  leaves  on  his 
navel.  Again,  give  melted  harts  marrow  in  hot  watei- 
to  drink.  For  moderating''^  the  action  of  the  wamb  ;"  Note,  p.  165. 
take  beet,  delve  it  up  and  shake  the  mould  off,  do 
not  wash  it,  but  seethe  and  boil  it  in  a  kettle  so  long, 
that  it  be  all  sodden  to  pieces,  and  run  thick,  then 
add  a  little  salt,  and  of  honey  five  spoon  measm-es,  of 
oil  one  spoon  measure,  give  the  man  a  bowl  full. 
Again,  give  to  the  sick  to  eat,  separate,  the  to})  of  a 
sodden  leek,  having  a  head  to  it.  Again,  give  him  to 
eat  some  seed  of  the  red  nettle  on  bread.  Again, 
give  him  to  drink  juice  of  mulberries.  Again,  lot  him 
cat  after  his  nights  fasting  plum  fruits.  Again,  give 
him  to  drink  elder  rind  beaten,  as  much  as  may  weigh 
a  penny,  in  a  bowl  full  of  cold  water. 


Of  wamb  sicknesses,  and  of  tokens  in  the  colon  and 
in  the  small  guts.  There  is  a  kind  of  that  ilk  disease 
in  the  wamb,  and  in  the  colon,  and  small  guts,  of  which 
this  will  be  for  a  token  ;  that  the  sick  suffer  immoderate 
thirst  and  loss  of  appetite  for  meat,  and  often  they 
have  a  flux  with  a  mingled  fsecal  discharge,  at  whiles 
hard,  at  whiles  white,  at  whiles  they  discharge  often 
in  the  day  and  then  little  at  a  time,  at  whiles  once 
and  then  much  ;  at  whiles  a  desire  is  upon  them  to 
p-o  to  stool  and  to  cast  the  burthen  from  them,  and 
gladly  would  they  attend  to  it,  but  they  are  not  able,^ 
they  have  not  the  power  of  digestion,  and  they  di'op 
blood,  very  much  like  a  broken  vessel.     Of  their  hue,  or 

'  Tenesmus. 

232  LyECE   BOC. 

jieofan  •  "j  bagcj^eapme  -j  nepefeoj^an  •  -j  milre  ^  fcajie  • 
beoS  seblsece  -j  eal  fe  lichoma  al'cimob  •  'j  ypel  fcenc 
nah  hi]-  j^eljrey  jepealb  "j  bij?  f  yaji  on  Sa  fpiSjian 
fiban  •  healpe  -  on  p'a  pcape  •  -j  |)a  pambe  fpi]?e  jeneap- 
pob  •  -j  eyt  ppam  ]?am  napolan  o]?  ]?one  milce  •  -j  on  }ja 
pmefcpan  jisejepeofan  'j  jecymS  set:  J^am  bfBCJ^eapme  •j 
iec  ])am  nepefeoJ>an-  "j  ]?a  lenbenu  beo6  mib  micle  j-ajie 
fol.  87  a.  bejypbebu.  penaS  impipe  Isecap  j3  ^  fie  lenben  abl 
o5^e  miltre  psepc  •  ac  Int;  ne  biS  fpa  •  lenben  feoce 
men  inija'S  blobe  -j  fanbe  Jjonne  J^am  J^e  milre  psepc 
biS  •  ]?nibe]?  Imn  fe  milr  "j  bi})  aheajibob  on  ];am  pine- 
Itpan  bsele  ]?aepe  fiban.  ba  pambfeocan  men  ]>popiaS 
on  pam  bsecj^eajime  -j  on  Jjam  nij^eppan  hpipe  "j  lofaS 
him  fona  fio  fcepn  -j  cele  ]?p.opaS  -j  plasp  o])t05en  -j 
imho  -j  tihS  mnan  ]?one  pop  'j  on  ]3  fmeel  ]?eapme. 


piyye  able  ppuman  mon  msej  ypelice  jelacnian*  on 
j?a  ilcan  pipan  ]?e  ]?a  utypnenban  -j  septep  uneS  •  jip 
liio  biS  unpiflice  to  lanje  poplreten.  On  ppuman  mon 
Iceal  bsej  oS8e  .II.  tojciebepe  jepsej'can  "j  bep>an  j^a 
bpeofc  mib  pine  •  *j  mib  ele  *j  pypcean  onlejena  op 
jiofan  'j  bepenum  melpe  pi^  pm  jemenjeb  "j  on  hunije 
jefoben  'j  mib  ele  on  moptejie  jefamnob  leje  opep  ]7a 
fcape  op  ];one  napolan  *j  opep  ]^a  lenbeno  op  ]?one  bcec- 
j^eapm  -j  J^pep  hit  pap  lie  •  Iset  him  blob  pvLy  -j  ^  pete 
jhep  on  oSSe  hopn  *j  teo  p  blob  nt  -j  fmepe  mib  ele 
fol.  87  b.  "j  beppeoh  hme  peapme  pop  ]?on  ];e  cile  bi]?  pve]\e  able 

'  Add  -J. 

-  The  foniicr  of  Ihcsc  synonyms  should  be  erased. 

■'  Omit  -J. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  233 

complexion,  and  of  the  navel,  and  of  tlio  dorsal  muscles,       ''"'"'^  'f- 

and  of  the  back  gut  or  rectum,  and  of  the  lower  belly, 

and  the  milt,  and  the  share  ;   they  are   horribly  pale, 

and  all  the  body  is   glazed,    and   an   evil  stench  hath 

not  control   over    itself,^'-  and  the  sore  is  on   the    right » Eutcuii.sni. 

side  on  the  share,  and  on   the  wamb,  much  troubled' 

bij  it,    and   again  from   the   navel    to   the  spleen,   and 

on  the  left  dorsal  muscle,  and  it  reacheth  to  the  anus, 

and  to  the  lower  belly,    and    the    loins  are  girt  about 

with  much  soreness.     Unwise  leeches   ween,  that  it  is 

loin  disease,  or  milt  wark :    but  it  is  not  so  ;    loinsick 

men  mie  blood  and    sand ;    on    the    other   hand  those, 

who    have    milt    wark,    the   milt   distendeth    in   them, 

and   is  hardened  on   the    left   part    of  the    side.     The 

wambsick    men   suffer   in   the   back   gut,    and   in    the 

lower   belly,    and    their   voice    soon   is   lost,    and  they 

suffer  chill,  and  sleep  is  taken  from  them,  and  strength, 

and  it  draweth  the  colon  from    within    and    upon    the 

small  cut. 


One  may  easily  cure  the  first  stage  of  this  disease  in 
the  same  wise  as  the  outrunning  disease,  or  relaxatioo 
of  the  bowels,  and  afterwards  less  easily,  if  unwisely 
it  be  too  long  neglected.  In  the  first  instance  a  man 
must  fast  for  a  day  or  two,  and  foment  the  breast  with 
wine,  and  with  oil,  and  work  poultices  of  roses  and 
barley  meal,  mingled  with  wine,  and  sodden  in  honey, 
and  gathered  up  with  oil  in  a  mortar,  lay  these  over 
the  share,  as  far  as  the  navel,  and  over  the  loins  as 
far  as  the  back  gut,  and  Avhere  it  is  sore.  Let  him 
blood  thus  ;  set  on  him  a  cupping  glass  or  horn,  and 
draw  the  blood  out,  and  smear  with  oil,  and  wrap 
him  up  warm,  in  as  much  as  cold  is  an  enemy  in  the 

'  It  Roems  best  to  consider  seneajij'oh  as  for  geneajij'obe,  with  termina- 
tion dropped. 

284  LJfiCE   BOC. 

peonb.  Pypc  liim  j'ealpe  }»ul'  pij?  pambe  cojjum  op  cpicura 
fpeple  -j  op  blacum  pipope  •  "j  op  ele  jnibe  mon  fmsele 
-j  men^e  tro^sebepe  -j  peax  ealpa  empela.  peaxep  ];eali 
Ifisfr  •  jip  fio  abl  fie  to  ]?on  fcpanj  ^  pap  l?ecebomaf  ne 
onnime  jip  fe  mon  fie  jeonj  'j  fcpanj  Iset;  htm  blob  op 
mnan  eapme  op  ]?8epe  miclan  asbpe  Jjsepe  mibbel  sebpe. 
+  This  seems   <^  Pjpc  ]?up  pealpe  'j  fmi]ie  j?a  fapan  fcopa,  feo]?  puban 

a  mark  of  dis-  t       c  ;_         i  _  i        i      1,1,  /• 

content  with  ^11  ele  bo  petepj-iliaii  to  jip  pu  li?ebbe  -j  picia  pypt- 
the  text:  pro-  tpuman  •  'j  popij  fi];]jan  eal  jepobeii  fie  bo  ]?onne  ]7eax 
miclan  scbjie  on  p  ele  -^  pte  'f  eall  peop'Se  to  hnepcum  peaxhlape  f 
erased.  hit   fie    hp0e]>pe  fpi}>ufc   jej^uht  pealp  fmipe  ]7a  ftopa  f 

hit  fie  paji  mib  Jjy  •  fpi]7oft  ]7one  bsecj^eapm  bapo  pij? 
pambe  coj^um  •  him  op  pealtum  psetpmn  fmt  to  pyjic-~ 
anne  •  jip  he  J^a  nsebbe  pelte  mon  hiopa  mettaf.  ]h]) 
pambe  cojjum  ept  fpmef  clape  jebsepnbe  -j  to  bufte 
^ejnibene  bo  on  fceapp  pm  pele  bpmcan.  Pi5  pambe 
co]7e  gate  lipep  jebsepnebu  -j  hpset  hpeja  jejniben  "j 
fol.  oS  a.  on  ];a  pambe  aleb  him  bi]?  ]pe  bet.      ^ip  pambe  co]7um 

ept  laenunj  on  f  hpip  to  Senbanne  •  jentm  japleacep 
]7peo  heapbu  *j  ^pene  puban  tpa  hanb  pulle  •  -j  elep 
.1111.  punb  o'S'Se  fpa  ]>e  J^mce  •  ^ebeat  f  leac  'j  ]:'a 
puban  je^mb  tojgebepe  appmj  o^^e  apeoh  •  bo  to  J?am 
ele  clsenpe  butepan  punb  hlutpef  picej-  piptan  iiealpe 
yntfan  •  -j  clsenep  peaxeS  .111.  yntfan  jemenje  eal  to- 
jfebjie  bo  on  jlsep  p?et  •  clsenpa  ^  ]?onne  sepeft  j^a  pambe 
mib  bpencef  anpealbbpe  onjeotunje  •  jip  f  j-ap  |7onne 
mape  fie  bo  mapan  ele  to  •  jemenj  ])onne  ]?a  j^mj  ];e 
ic  sep  nembe  jeplece  bo  on.  pay  l^^^S  majon  je  pi]? 
lenben  ece  •  }?onne  mon  ponbe  mihS  je  piS  poppej-  je 
pi6  pambe  -j  fmsel   j^eapmef  ablum  "j  ut   pajjtce  je  pi]?  . 

'  ele  is  usually  masculine.  i       -  clsej-na,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    H.  235 

disease.  Work  him  a  salve  thus,  against  wamb  dis- 
orders ;  from  live  brimstone,  and  from  black  pepper, 
and  from  oil ;  let  them  be  rubbed  small  and  mingled 
together ;  and  wax  also;  of  all  equal  quantities,  of 
wax  however  least.  If  the  disease  be  to  that  decree 
strong  that  it  will  not  accept  these  leechdoms,  if  the 
man  be  young  and  strong,  let  him  blood  from  the 
inner  arm,  from  (the  mickle  vein  of)  the  middle  vein. 
Work  a  salve  thus,  and  smear  the  sore  places ;  seethe 
rue  in  oil,  add  parsley,  if  thou  have  it,  and  roots  of 
rushes,  and  poppy  ;  after  all  is  sodden,  then  add  wax 
to  the  oil,  in  order  that  the  whole  may  become  a 
nesh  waxen  cake,^^  that  it  may  be  however  a  highly  a  ^  ccrote. 
approved  salve ;  smear  the  places,  so  that  soreness 
may  come  with  it,  especially  the  fundament.  Baths 
for  warnb  disorders  ;  they  must  be  wrought  for  them 
of  salt  waters ;  if  none  can  be  had,  let  their  {the  sick 
mens)  meats  be  salted.  For  wamb  disorders  again ; 
put  into  sharp  wine  a  swines  claw  burnt  and  rubbed 
to  dust ;  give  the  raan  this  to  drink.  For  wamb  dis- 
order ;  a  goats  liver  burnt,  and  rubbed  somewhat  small, 
and  laid  on  the  wamb,  it  will  be  the  better  for  him. 
For  wamb  disorders  again;  to  send  medicine  into  the 
belly  :  take  three  heads  of  garlic,  and  green  rue,  two 
handfuls  of  it,  and  four  pints  of  oil,  or  as  much  as 
seemeth  good  to  thee ;  beat  the  leek  and  the  rue,  rub 
together,  wring  out  or  strain,  add  to  the  oil  a  pound 
of  clean  butter,  and  four  ounces  and  a  half  of  clear 
pitch,  i^erha'ps  naphtha,  and  three  ounces  of  clean  wax ; 
mingle  all  together,  put  into  a  glass  vessel,  then  first 
cleanse  the  wamb  with  the  simple  onpouring  of  a  drink : 
then  if  the  sore  be  greater,  add  more  oil,  then  mingle 
the  things  which  I  before  named;  apply  lukewarm. 
These  things  are  valid  either  against  loin  ache,  when 
a  man  pisseth  sand,  or  for  diseases  and  pain  of  the 
lono-  p-ut,  or  of  the  wamb,  or  of  the  small  gut,  and 
for  dysentery,  or  for  diseases  of  the  maw,  and  gripings, 

23G  L.'ECE   BOC. 

niajan  ablura  "j  clajmnja  •  -j  pi])  pipa  rebjiiim  gecyn- 
bum.  Sum  co]m  ip  ])iG]ie  pambe  f  ]jone  feocan  moniian 
lyfceS  utjanjey  'j  ne  majj  J^onne  he  ure  beryneb 
bi5.  pi|?  ];oii  j'ceal  mon  nsebpan  aefmoju  feo];an  on 
cle  •  oSSe  on  burepan  •  o])]ye  on  pine  on  tmum^  piete 
•j  fmijie  pa  pambe  mib  )?y  •  jtp  fe  utjanj  fie  pmbij  -j 
fol.  88  b.  P^'^P'S  •  "j   t)lobi5  bejn^e  mon  jwne  bEec]>eapm  on  jon;^- 

Irole  mib  penujpeco  'j  niepfc  mealpe  •  fume  mib  pice  -j 
fmicaS  -j  beJnaS.  Surae  op  pijenum  melpe  pypceaS 
bjiipaf  -j  cocnunja  inib  pealre.  Sume  bpeopje  bpofclan 
jeceopaS  "j  lecjeaS  on  J>one  napolan. 


Be*  ]>a3jie  ppecnan  co]?e  J^e  fe  mon  hip  utjanj  jnijih 
'cone  mu5  him  pjiam  j'eoppe  pceal  afpipan.  ]de  j'ceal 
opt:  bealceutan  -j  eal  fe  hchoma  fcmcS  pule  pelle  hmi 
mon  bile  jefobenne  on  ele  o8Se  on  psetpe  to  bpmcanne 
*j  hatne  hlap  bo  on  ];oue  bpmcan.  bippe  able  eac  pi}»- 
fcanbe]?  tofnibenjie  hpeajjemufe  blob  ^efmiten  on  ])a)p 
feocan  mannef  pambe.  pi5  InnocS  punbum  *j  pi]7  fmail 
];eapina  fape  •  on  jobne  ele  jefpetne  bo  ];one  fu]>epnan 
y  pepmob  f  ip  ])pucene  •   'j    oj^epne    pepmob  *j    feo]?  jncje 

ji  f]'a  htm  e]  oft:  fie.      Gpt:  pi]?  inno]>  punbum  heopotep 
meajih    jemylt:    on    harum    pjetpe   j'ele    bpmcan.       ]h^ 
tobpocenum    Inno]7um  'j  fapum  pilbjie  mmran  bpel   je- 
fol.  89  a.  el?enfa  pel  fpa  micel  fpa  mon  mse^e  mib  ]?jiTm  pmjjiuin 

7;eniman  bo  pmolej-  psebep  zo  "j  mepcej-  cucleji  msel  • 
bo  eall  t:o5a3bepe  jejnib  fmsele  •  jebo  J?onne  on  p?e]' 
pelej'Can  piiiep  .nil.  bollan  pulle  •  htece  ])onne  o]?  j?  Int: 
fie  fpa  hat  fpa  ];in  pmjeji  popbepan  mseje  pele  ]7onne 
bpmcan-  bo  fpa  ]?py  bajap.  pi]>  tobpocenum  Inno- 
Sum-  cellenbpef  pgsb  pel  jejniben  -j  lytel  pealtep  ^ebo 
on  fceapp  pm  •  ^ebo  on  -j  jej^ypme  mib  hate  jlopenbe 
ipene  pele  bjimcan.     pi]?  poptojeneppe  mnan  -  heojiotep 

'  Ivcad  tinenum. 

-  Five  lines  fouud  iu  Uribasius  Synops,  lib.  ix.,  cap.  xvi,  in  M.A.P. 

LEECH    BOOK.    TI.  2o7 

and  for  tenderness  of  the  naturalia  of  women.     There       r.ook  ir. 
is  a  disorder  of  the  wamb,  such  that  a  desire  cometh      ^''-  ^^^"• 
upon  the  sick  man  for  discharging  his  bowels,  and  he 
is  not  able,  when  he    is    shut  into  the  outhouse.     For  r,,,  • 
that,  one  must  seethe  in  oil,  or  in  butter,  or  in  wine,  tion  is  found 
the    slough    of   a   snake  in    a   tin  vessel,  and  let  him  !"_|.  ^^'^^  "■'^' 
smear  the  wamb  with  that.     If  the  discharge  be  windy, 
and  watery,  and  bloody,  let  one  foment  the  back  gut 
on  the  gang  stool,  with  fenugreek  and  marsh  mallow: 
some  smoke  and  foment  with  pitch  :  some  work  1)rewits 
from    rye  meal,    and   cookings   with   salt  :    some   chew 
pennyroyal  and  lay  it  on  the  navel. 


Of  the  dangerous  disorder,  in  which  a  man,  they 
say,  unnaturally  speweth  his  fseces  through  the  mouth. 
He,  they  say,  oft  belcheth,  and  all  the  body  stinketh 
foully:  let  dill  sodden  in  oil  or  in  water  be  given  him 
to  drink,  and  put  a  hot  loaf  of  bread  into  the  drink. 
The  blood  of  a  reremouse  or  hat  cut  up,  smudged  on 
the  sick  mans  wamb,  also  withstandeth  this  disease. 
For  bowel  wounds  and  sore  of  small  guts  ;  into  good  oil 
sweetened,  put  the  southern  wormwood,  that  is,  abro- 
tanum,  and  other  wormwood,  and  seethe  it ;  let  the 
man  take  that  as  he  most  easily  may.  Again,  for  in- 
wards wounds ;  melt  harts  marrow  in  hot  water,  give 
it  to  be  drunk.  For  broken  and  sore  inwards  ;  cleanse 
part  of  wild  mint  well,  as  much  as  a  man  may  take 
up  with  three  fingers,  add  a  spoon  measure  of  the 
seed  of  fennel,  and  of  marchc,  put  all  together,  rub 
small,  then  add  four  bowls  full  of  the  best  wine,  then 
heat  it  so  hot,  as  thy  finger  may  bear,  then  give  it  liim 
to  drink;  do  so  for  three  days.  For  broken  inwards; 
put  into  sharp  wine,  seed  of  coriander  well  rubbed, 
and  a  little  salt;  put  these  in,  and  warm  with  an  iron 
glowing   hot,  give   it   the,   man  to  drink.     For  inward 

238  L^CE   EOC. 

liopn  jebsejineb  to  alifan  jejmben  on  mojitepe  •  -j 
Jjonne  aj-ipt  -j  mib  hunije  jepealcen  to  fnsebum  )-ele 
neahtnej'Cijum  to  jjicjanne.  6pt  mm  j)a  betan  ]>e 
jehpsep  peaxa'S  jepeoS  on  psetpep  jobum  bsele  •  j-ele 
l^onne  bpmcan  •  .11.  jobe  bollan  pulle  fcilbe  hme  pijj 
cyle.  be  latpe  meltunje  innan  •  mm  jeappan  bpmce 
on  ecebe  ^  beah  eac  piS  eallmn  blsebpan  abliim.  be 
latpe  meltunje  Innan  puban  psebep  .villi,  cypnelu  ire- 
ful. 89  h.  jnibene  .  ill.  bollan  pulle  jebo  ]?a  on  ecebef  peptep 
pulne  opeppylle  pele  ]7onne  bpmcan  on  fume  pape  nijon 
bajon.  be  latpe  meltunje  mm  ]?8epe  peaban  netlan 
fpa  micel  fpa  mib  tpam  lianbum  mseje  bepon  •  feo]?e 
on  pejxep  pullum  pjetpep  bpmc  neaht  neptij.  Rseb 
bi^  jip  he  nim8  mealpan  mib  hipe  ci}?um  leo]?e  on 
psetepe  fele  bpmcan.  ba  ])e  pippa  Iseceboma  ne  pma'S 
on  ]nppe  able  })onne  becymti  htm  on  psetep  boUa  •  lipep 
p^pc  "j  miltep  pap  o]7]?e  jefpel  micjean  pojihsep bmp  • 
pambe  ablapunj  lenben  psejic  on  j^eejie  blgebpan  ftanaj' 
peaxa'S  'j  Sonb. 


Be  )78ep  monnep  mihtum  pceal  mon  ]?a  Isecebomaf 
pellan  ]?e  J?onne  "S^yo-^e  fynb  heapbe  -j  heoptan  pambe 
•j  blsebpan  -j  hu  jeapep  hit  fie  •  fe  |je  ne  bepceapa'S 
J>ip  pe  him  fcej^e^  fpi]?op  }>onne  he  hme  bete.  Se  pceal 
nyttian  jepopobep  elej'  ecebef  'j  pmep  *j  mmtan  leap 
jejniben  on  hunij  -j  pa  unfme|?an  tunjan  mib  J^y 
jniban  -j  fmipepan  :• 

fol.  90  a.  pi]?  latpe  meltunje.     Olipatpum  hatte  pypt  feo  beah 

to  bpmcanne.  6pt  pyl  on  psetpe  lilian  jjypctpuman 
]-ele  to  bpmcanne.  Tip  pamb  po-^peaxe  on  men  •  pmol  • 
coft  •  elehtpe  •  attopla]?e  •    ceplicep    pieb  •    j'ypm    melo 

In  the  margin  are  cyphers. 

LEECH   BOOK.    H.  239 

gripings ;   harts   liora   burned   to  ashes,    rubbed  small      p«ok  ir. 

in  a  mortar,  and  then  sifted,  and  rolled  up  with  honey 

into  morsels,  give  to  the  sich   after   his  nights  fast  to 

eat.     Again,  take   the   beet   which   groweth  anywhere, 

seethe  it  in  a  good  deal  of  water,  then  give  of  this  to 

the  sick  two  good  bowls  full  to  drink ;  let  him  sliield 

himself  against  cold.     Of   late    digestion ;    let    a   man 

drink  in  vinegar  yarrow  ;   that   medicine   is  also  good 

for  all  diseases  of  the  bladder.     Of  late  digestion ;  nine 

little   grains   of  the   seed   of  rue   rubbed   small,   with 

three  bowls  full  of  water  (?),  add   these   to  a  cup  full 

of  vinegar,  boil  them,  then  administer  to  be  drunk  for 

nine  days,   in  succession.     Of   late    digestion ;   take  of 

the    red    nettle,    so    much    as    with    two    liands    thou 

mayest   grasp,    seethe   in   a   cup    full   of  water,    drink 

after   a    nights    fasting.     It   is   advisable  if  he  taketh 

mallow  with  its  sprouts  ;  let  him.  seethe  them  in  water, 

give  this  to   be   drunk.     They  who  care  not  for  these 

leechdoms  in  this  disease,  on  them  then  eometli  dropsy, 

liver  pain,  and  sore  or  swelling  of  spleen,  retention  of 

urine,  inflation  of  the  wamb,  loin  pain,  stones  wax  in 

the  bladder,  and  sand. 


According  to  the  mans  powers  one  shall  administer 
the  leechdoms  which  are  suitable  for  the  head  and 
heart,  for  the  wamb  and  bladder,  and  according  to 
the  time  of  the  year;  he  who  observeth  not  this, 
doth  him  more  scathe  than  boot.  He  shall  employ 
rose  oil,  vinegar,  and  wine,  and  mint  leaves  rubbed 
into  honey,  and  with  that  shall  rub  and  smear  the 
unsmooth  tongue. 

For  late  digestion;  a  wort  liight  olusatrum,  which 
is  good  to  drink.  Again,  boil  in  water  roots  of  lilies, 
give  that  to  be  drunk.  If  the  wamb  wax  too  great 
on  a  man ;    fennel,   costmary,    lupin,    attorlothe,    char- 



on  ealaS  ]'ele  bjinican.  Tif  mon  }:ojipuubob  fie  •  "j  piS 
bjieofc  psepce  •  cupmealle  'j  bile  pyl  on  ealo"S.  Gpc 
jpeiie  puban  lytlum  oSSe  on  liunije  Jjije.  jlTp  mon 
fie  pojiblapen  j'Pe  pmepmclan '  jebaepnbe  "j  jejnibene 
jemenj  pi]?  sejep  ]3  hpite  fmipe  mib.  pi]?  pambe  51c- 
]>an  •  bpeopje  bpofclan  peojip  on  peallenbe  pseteji  Icec 
pocian  on  lanje  o]?  p  mon  mteje  bpincan  p  pseteji. 
]?\])  pambe  pypmum  '^  mm  ]?a  miclan  fmpullan  ppmj 
•))  peap  op  peopeji  lytrle  bollan  puUe  on  pmej-  anum 
l)ollan  pulliim  fpa  miclum  pele  bjimcan  ■]>  beab  pi  J) 
pambe  pyjimum.- 


Be   cilba    pambum  -j  opeppylle  *j  jip  him  mete  tela 
ne  mylte  •  *j  jip  him  fpac   opja   -j    fcmce   pule  •  ]?onne 
mon  f  onjite    ]?onne    ne    feeal   him    mon    anne    mete 
foi.  90 1).  jebeoban  •    ac   mij'Senlice   f   peo   niopnep   j^ajia   metta 

mseje  htm  jobe  beon  •  jip  hpa  opeji  jemet  Jnj}?  mete 
]>iep  mon  tilaS  ]?e  eaSelicoji  ]ye  mon  jia]?0'^  3^*^o  p  he 
fpipe  •  -j  jelfeji  fie.  jip  hip  mon  jetilaS  let  }?83pe 
ypelan  pajtan  him  becumaS  on  mipSenlica  abla  •  bjieofr 
pro]ic  •  fpeopco]?u  cealp  ^  abl  •  heapbej-  h]iip]?o  •  healfjunb  • 
cypnelu  linea^lacnu  "j  pam  jelic  •  jip  hi  pop  ];ifum  ne 
mjBjen  plapan  Sonne  j'ceal  him  mon  pellan  hat  pfetep 
bjimcan  ]?onne  ftilS  f  jepceopp  mnan  "j  clsenpaS*  pa 
]?ambe  •  Nyfcijen  ba]?ep  mebmiclum  •  -j  mete  ]fiG^eii  -j 
mib  pffitpe  jemenjebne  bjimcan  picjen. 

'  jnnepinclan.  Somner,  Gl.,  p. 
GO  a,  line  32,  also  prints  ]iine ;  the 
Junian  transcript  of  the  lost  MS. 
(Jun.  71,  in  the  Bodleian)  has  jiine. 
The  reprinter  of  the  glossary  [  A.lJ. 
1857]  altered  to  pine,  erroneously, 
and  silently.  In  the  Colloquium 
jMonasticon,  the  MS.  has  innejunc- 
lan,  torniculi,    where    the   printed 

text  [A.D.  184G,  p.  24]  gives  pine- 
j'lnclan,  torniculos  :  the  edition  of 
18.'57,  pinejimclan,  torniculi  [p.  fi]. 
Lye  is  quite  correct.  The  present 
MS.  has  always  m-. 

-  jiiununi  in  the  contents. 

^  Head  ceajl. 

■'  clsepia'S,  MS. 

LEECH  BOOK.   II.  241 

lock  seed  ;  worm  meal  in  ale ;  give  him  thai  to  drink.  Rook  ir. 
If  a  man  be  badly  wounded,  and  for  pain  in  the  breast;  ^''-  ^^'''^' 
boil  in  ale,  cliurmel  and  dill,  Again,  take  green  rue,  a 
little  at  a  time,  or  in  honey.  If  a  man  be  over  much 
blown  out,  mingle  with  the  white  of  an  egg  sea 
periwinkles,  burnt  and  rubbed  up,  smear  therewith. 
For  hicket  or  hiccup  of  the  wamb :  throw  dwarf 
dwostle  into  boiling  water,  let  it  soak  therein  long, 
till  a  man  may  drink  the  water.  For  worms  of  the 
wamb  ;  take  the  mickle  sinful  or  sedum,  wring  out 
the  juice,  four  little  bowls  full,  in  one  bowl  full  of 
wine,  as  mickle  as  the  others ;  that  is  good  for  worms 
of   wamb. 


Of  the  wambs  of  children,  and  of  overfilling,  and  if 
their  meat  do  not  well  digest,  and  if  sweat  come  from 
them,  and  stink  foully.  When  a  man  understandoth 
that,  then  shall  not  a  single  meat  be  offered  them,  but 
various  ones,  that  the  newness  or  novelty  of  the  meats 
may  be  good  for  them.  If  one  eateth  meat  over 
measure,  this  case  one  tendeth  the  more  easily,  as  one 
the  sooner  bringeth  about  that  lie  spew,  and  be  eUipty; 
if  one  tendeth  him  when  troubled  with  the  evil 
humour  arising  from  overeating,  then  come  on  him 
various  diseases,  breast  pain,  neck  disease,  disease  in 
the  jowl,  scurf  of  the  head,  purulence  in  the  neck, 
churnels  not  easy  to  cure,  and  the  like  of  those.  If 
for  these  they  may  not  sleep,  then  shall  one  give  them 
hot  water  to  drink,  it  will  still  the -scour  within,  and 
will  cleanse  the  wamb.  Let  them  employ  the  bath 
moderately,  and  take  meat  and  take  drink  mingled 
with  water. 

VOL.  XL  Q 




Be  milce  psejice  -j  ]5  he  bi^S  on  ]?8epe  pmefcpan 
fiban  'j  tacn  'psejve  able  hu  hipleafe  lue  beoS  'j  bolh 
V^  unea'Slacno  •  ]?a  men  beoS  msejpe  -j  unjiote  •  blace  on 

onfyne  J>eali  ]?e  hie  seji  jrgetce  psepon  •  -j  beo^  hibeji- 
peapbe  •  -j  pamb  tinjepealben  "j  uny]7e  mieje  bij>  hal  • 
ac  hio  bi]?  fpeajitpe  -j  jpenpe  •  "j  blacpe  ]?onne  hijie 
fol.  91  a,  jiiht   fie  "j  pnseptia^  fpij>e  bee]?  pojito^ene  •    pp  'fio  abl 

bij>  Co  lanjSum  •  becyme]?  ]>onne  on  pseCep  bollan  ne 
msej  hme  mon  ]?onne  jelacnian  'cunje  tinjepealben  -j 
unfmej^e  -j  J»a  bolh  beo]?  unea^lacnu  J?a  ]>e  on  liehoman 
beo^  -j  hie  beo'S  on  J'a  pmfrjian  fiban  mib  ece  jefpen- 
cebe  'j  on  Sone  li8  J^sepa  eaxla  be'opeox  jefculbpum  bij? 
micel   ece  "j    on    ])am    jehpeoppe    J^ajia    bana    on    |7am 

V  fpeojian  habbaS  eac  lijiehte  pet  cneop  trpucia'S.     K>u  pe 

v  ittilce   bi'S    emlanj    -j    jgebejicenje    ]78ejie    pambe    hsepS 

J?yn2ie  pilmene  fio  hsDp^  paette  -j  ]?icce  sebjia  •  'j  pio 
pilmen  bi]?  J»eccenbe  "j  ppeonbe  J^a  pambe  'j  J^a  mno- 
papan  ^  -j  J>a  pyjim^  •  -j  tj-  aj)eneb  on  ]?one  pmefcjian 
nepefeo]?an  -j  ip  mib  fmehtrum  limum  jehaepb  •  -j  ip  on 
o^pe   healpe   bpab    jehjimeS   j^sepie    fiban  •    on    o^pe  'iy 

I/-  Sam   mnoSe    jecanj.      be  hleahtpe  ]>e  op  milce    cym'5 

fume  fecja])  f  fe  milce  Sam  fintim  j^eopije  -j  ^te  pe 
milce    on   fumum   bselum    |?am    monnum  abeabije  o]?j7e 

fol.  91  b.  op  fie*  -j  f  hi  pojij^on  hlyhhan  msejen.     SoJ^lice.  on  j^a 

ilcan  pifan  ]?e  ojjep  limo  J^jiopia^  untpumneppa  pe  milce 
]?popa^  on  ]?a  ilcan  pifan.  Op  cele^  unjemeclicum  op 
hseco  -j  op  bpijneppe  op  micelpe  ypelpe  pseCan  pojij^on 
pixj>  pe  milce  opep  jefceap  -j  pona^  -j  heajiba^  -j  fpiJ>ofc  op 
cele  -j  op  unjemeclicjie  psecan  •  j^onne  cumaS  J?a  opcofc 

'  This  chapter,  and  many  more  that 
follow,  seem  to  be  from  Philagrios, 
as  preserved  in  Trallianus.  But  such 
symptoms  as  "tongue uncontrolled," 
and  "  muscular  feet,"  are  not  to 
be  found  in  the  Greek,  as  printed. 

-  The  letter  or  letters  between 
mn  and  yajian  have  been  cut  oflf 
from  the  margin  of  the  MS. 

^  The  words  of  Philagrios,  in 
Alex.  Trail.,  book  viii.,  chap.  x. 

LEECH  BOOK.  II.  243 


Of  milt  wark,  or  acute  pahi  in  the  spleen,  and 
that  the  milt  is  on  the  left  side,  and  tokens  of  the 
disease,  how  colourless  the  patients  are,  and  there  are. 
wounds  not  easy  of  cure.  The  men  are  meagi-e  and 
uncomfortable,  pale  of  aspect,  though  ere  this  they 
were  fat,  and  still  are  constitutionally  disposed  that 
way ;  and  the  wamb  is  not  under  control,  and  scarcely 
can  it  he  that  the  mie  is  healthy,  but  rather  it  will 
be  swartish  and  greenish,  and  blacker  than  its  right  is 
to  be,  and  the  breathing  is  very  hard  drawn.  If  the 
disease  is  too  longsome,  then  it  turneth  to  dropsy,  one 
may  not  then  cure  it;  the  tongue  is  uncontrolled  and 
unsmooth,  and  the  wounds  which  are  upon  the  body 
are  not  easy  of  cure,  and  they  are  on  the  left  side 
afflicted  with  ache,  and  in  the  joining  of  the  shoulders, 
betwixt  the  shoulder  blades,  there  is  mickle  ache,  and 
in  the  turning  about  of  the  bones  of  the  neck ;  they 
have  also  brawny  feet,  their  knees  fail  them.  We 
tell  how  the  milt  is  alongside  and  adjacent  to  the 
wamb,  it  hath  a  thin  film,  which  hath  fat  and  thick 
veins,  and  the  film  covereth  and  embraceth  the  wamb 
and  the  inwards,  and  warmeth  them ;  and  it  is  ex- 
tended on  the  left  part  of  the  lower  abdomen,  and  it 
is  held  by  sinewy  attachments,  and  it  is  in  the  one 
quarter  broad  ;  it  toucheth  the  side,  on  the  other  it 
is  in  contact  with  the  viscera.  Of  the  laughter  which 
cometh  from  the  spleen.  Some  say  that  the  milt  is  the 
servant  of  the  sinews,  and  that  the  milt  in  some  parts 
is  dead  in  men,  or  is  wholly  absent,  and  that  for  this 
reason  they  are  able  to  laugh.  In  fact,  in  the  same 
wise  that  other  limbs  suffer  inconveniences,  the  milt 
in  the  same  wise  sufiers.  We  treat  also  of  immoderate 
cold,  of  heat,  of  dryness,  of  mickle  evil  wet,  since  the 
milt  waxeth  unnaturally,  and  diminishes,  and  harden- 
eth,  and  mostly  of  cold  and   immoderate  wet ;  further, 

Q  2 

Book  ir. 
Ch.  xxxvi. 

244  LiECE   EOC. 

Of  mettum  -j  oy.  cealbum  bjiincan  I'pa  fpa  yinbon  cealbe 
ofcjian  -j  jEpla  -j  mij-Senlice  pyjita  fpij^ofu  on  fumepa 
J70mie  |?a  mon  jJijS.  bse]?  him  ejle^  fpi^ofc  seftep 
mete  -j  haemeb  ]>m-^  on  ojrejipyllo.  Sio  unjemetlice 
h?eto  ])33y  milcej'  cymrS  op  pepepablum  -j  op  pepepef ' 
fpoUe  -j  on  ylbo  ^  pop  blobe  •  biS  apeneb  pe  milce  -j 
ajpunben  mib  jefpelle  -j  eae  hat  lypt  -j  Ipolja  bpm^ao 
able  on  ^am  milte  •  |;onne  pe  mon  pyp'S  to  fpi]?e  yoy- 
hsec.  Spa  biS  eac  on  pmtjia  pop  cyle  -j  pop  ]>si]\a 
pebpa  ^  mipfenhcnej-pe  f  fe  milte  pypS  jelepeb.  jS 
majon  pife  men  onjitan  hpanan  pio  abl  cume  be  mif- 
fol.  02  a.  jepibepum  -j  op  metta  *j  op  bpmcena  j^ijmje  -j  ]?upli 
|>a]'  l^m^  ]>n,  ypelan  psetan  -j  pmbijo  pmj  beo]?  acenneb 
on  ];am  milte  -j  abla  peaxa]?  :• 

.  XXXVII.'^ 

JJv  mon  pcyle  jjone  monnan  iiinan  'j  ucan  lacnian 
mib  hatum  "j  cealbum  mnan  inib  lactucan  •  -j  clatan  • 
■j  cucupbitan  bpmce  on  pme  •  bajnje  hiiie  on  fj^etum 
psetpe.  Utan  he  ip  to  lacnianne  mib  jepofobe  ele  -j 
to  fmippanne  •  -j  onle^ena  jepophte  op  pme  -j  pmbep- 
jum  -j  opt  op  butpan  •  "j  op  nipum  peaxe  -j  op  ypopo  • 
•j  op  ele  onlejen  jepopht ;  OOenj  pi]>  jope  fmepu  o8(5e 
fpmep  jiyple  "j  pi's  pecelj*  •  "j  mmtan  •  -j  )7onne^  he  hme 
baj'ije  fmipe  mib  ele  menj  pi's  cpoh.  COettaf  him  beo5 
nytte  })a  pe  50b  blob  pypceaS  fpa  fpa  fmt  peilpixap 
pimhte  -j  ham^  pilba  hsenna  -j   ealle   pa   pujelaf  pe    on 

'  The  Saxon  has  misread  his  text.   I        '  ^f>»>  J^IS- 

-  ])ebna.,  MS.,  with  full  stop. 
^  The   words   of    Philagrios,   as 

Insert  -j. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  245 

these  most  often  come  of  meats   and    of   cold    drinks,      Uook  ir. 
such  as  are  cold  oysters,  and  apples,  and  various  worts,  xxxvi. 

chiefly  in  summer,  when  one  partaketh  of  such.  Bath- 
ing is  harmful  to  them  who  are  splenitic,  chiefly  after 
meat,  and  copulation  following  on  surfeit.  The  un- 
measured heat  of  the  milt  cometh  from  fevers  and 
from  the  swealing  or  burning  of  fever,  and  in  old  age 
from  corruption  of  the  blood.  The  milt  is  extended 
and  distended  with  swelling,  and  also  hot  air  and  hot 
weather  bring  disease  upon  the  milt ;  when  the  man 
becometh  too  much  heated.  So  it  is  also  in  winter, 
for  the  cold  aud  for  the  variableness  of  the  Aveather, 
that  the  milt  becometh  corrupted.  We  next  treat  that 
wise  men  may  understand  whence  the  disease  cometh 
by  bad  weather,  and  from  partaking  of  unholesome 
meats  and  drinks,  and  through  these  things  the  evil 
humours  and  windy  things  are  produced  in  the  milt, 
and  diseases  wax  titer ein. 


We  noio  explain  how  one  must  apply  leechdoms  to 
the  man,  within  and  without,  with  hot  and  cold  treat- 
ments; within,  with  lettuce,  and  clote,  and  gourd;  let 
him  drink  them  in  wine  ;  let  him  also  bathe  himself 
in  sweet  water.  Without,  he  is  to  be  leeched  and 
smeared  with  oil  of  roses,  and  with  onlayings  or 
pioultices  onade  of  wine  and  grapes,  and  often  must 
an  onlay  be  wrought  of  butter,  and  of  new  wax, 
and  of  hyssop,  and  of  oil ;  mingle  with  goose  grease  or 
lard  of  swine,  and  with  frankincense,  and  mint;  and 
when  he  bathes  let  him  smear  himself  with  oil ;  mingle 
it  with  saffron.  Meats  which  work  out  good  blood  are 
beneficial  for  him  ;  such  as  are  shell  fishes,^  and  those 
that  have  fins,^  and  domestic  and  wild  hens,^  and  all 

'  Not  iu  the  Greek.  [      -  Wild  hens  arc  pheasants. 



bunum  libbaS  •  -j  pipionef  f  beoS  culfjiena  bjubbaf  'j 
healfealb  fpm«  -j  jate  plsej'c -j  pyfena  j^eap  inib  hunije* 
hpset  hpeja  jepipepob  •  -j  eal  Sap  pjBtan  j^mj  bpeof- 
tum  -j  mnopum  ne  bujon  ne  f  ptn  ip  to  j^icjenne  fte 
hsetej?  -j  psete]?  J>one  Inno}?. 

fol,  92  b. 

.  XXXVIII  / 

]Du  man  j'ceal  |7a  paetan  "j  ]?a  ponpceaptan  utan  lac- 
man  mib  appum  pealfum.  Pic  -j  blutop  eceb  -j  jepo- 
fobne  ele  menj  tofomne  leje  utan  on.  pi]?  J^am  psetan 
yf le  ]?8ep  miltej-  •  mm  pynbpij  pealt  o'S^e  pi"S  peaxhlap 
fealpe  jemenj  •  -j  jepepmeb  'j  on  blsebpan  jebon  ■^ 
lacnaS  ]?one  milte.  Gfx:  mm  j-ealt  -j  peax  -j  eceb  menj 
tojsebpe  ^  beah  •  Nim  ept  jripleapan  ^  pypttpuman  •  *j 
bpije  pejbpseban  ^  jebsepneb  fealt  ealpa  emjzela  pefe 
mib  ecebe  "j  jefomna  bo  bpije  pic  to  •  'j  peax  •  -j  ele 
menj  eal  tojsebepe  bo  on  •  Ne  biS  f  an  f  f  ^pi^e  J^a 
psetan  ac  |?a  aheapboban  fpilaf  j^a  Se  cumaS  op  J^iccum 
p?etum  jiipejpum  bet  -j  JjpsenS.  pi]?  plipejpvim  paetum 
}}8ep  miltep  •  Nim  acoppenep  pealtep  ^  f  pgetep  ])e  ]>&i\i 
op  jse]?  menj  piS  pa,  sep  jemen^neban*  ]'^^Z- 


yilj)  pmbijpe  a]?unbene]-pe  ]?{ep  miltef  pop  aeppla  •  -j 
Imuta  -j  pyfena  sete  •  pop  -j  fmo3lj7eapme  •  pambe  -j 
innepopan  •  'j  majan  ]?a  jeonb  blapa'S.  pij)  ]7on  beah 
pipop   -j    cymen  •  -j    hunij  •  -j    fealt   menje    tojaebepe. 

'  Philagrios,  as  before. 

-  Abridged  from  Philagrios  ap. 
Alexandr.  Trallian.,  p.  477,  ed. 

^  This  is  perhaps  aXtri  Koi  a(ppos 
a\6s,  as  above. 

'  Read  senemneban. 

'^  An  adaptation  from  Philagrios 
in  Tralliamis,  lib.  viii.,  cap.  II,  p. 
479,  ed.  Basil. 

LEECH  BOOK.   II.  247 

the  fowls  which  live  on   downs,  and   pigeons,  that  is.      Book  Tl. 
the  young  chicks  of  culvers,  and  half  grown  swine  and         -"^xxvh. 
goats  flesh,  and  juice  of  peas   with   honey,    somewhat 
peppered :    and   all   moist   things  are  not   beneficial  to 
the    breast   and   the   inwards,   nor  is  such  wine  to  be 
taken  as  heateth   and   moisteneth  the  inwards. 


Here  lue  explain,  how  one  must  treat  the  humours 
and  the  meagreness,  on  the  outside,  with  sharp  salves. 
Mingle  together  pitch,  and  clear  vinegar,  and  oil  of 
roses ;  lay  on  tlie  outside.  For  the  evil  humours  of 
the  milt;  take  salt  separately,  or  mingle  it  with  a 
wax  cake  salve,  or  cerote,  warmed  and  put  upon  some 
bladder ;  that  liealeth  the  milt.  Again,  take  salt,  and 
wax,  and  vinegar,  mingle  together,  that  is  of  benefit. 
Again,  take  a  cinqfoil  root,  and  dry  waybroad,  and 
burnt  salt,  of  all  equal  quantities ;  soak  them  in  vinegar, 
and  collect  them ;  add  dry  pitch,  and  wax,  and  oil ; 
mingle  all  together  and  apply.  Not  merely  doth 
that  remedy  dry  the  humours,  but  it  bettereth  and 
softeneth  the  hardened  swellings,^  which  come  of 
thick  slimy  wets  or  crass  viscid  humours.  For  viscid 
humours  of  the  mUt,  take  the  water  of  carved  salt,  or 
rock  salt,  that  namely  which  passeth  from  it,  mingle 
with  the  things  before  named. 


For  a  windy  distention  of  the  milt  from  eating  of 
apples,  and  of  nuts,  and  of  peas;  they  produce  infla- 
tion thi'ough  the  long  gut,  and  small  guts,  the  warab, 
and  the  inwards,  and  the  maw;  for  that  is  useful 
pepper   and   cummin   and   salt,    mingle  them  together. 

•  Scirrhous. 

248  L^CE   BOC. 

Pi]7    fo^oj^an  *j  j^eaban  ^  -j  jeohfan  ]?e  of  milre    cym5  • 

jiWre   harce   fuj?epne    pypt;   fio  13'  50b  on  lilape  t;o  ]7ic- 

^  jenne  "j  mepce)-   fseb   -j   cellenhjian  .~  *j   perepplian    on 

hlap  becneben  o]i\ie  on  pm  jejniben .  -j  eac  p  beah  pij? 

ablapun^e    prej-    milrej'  •    51^   jjonne    fio    ajfinbunj    ]?8e]- 

pmbef   femninja  cymS  ]7onne  ne  majon   }>af  j^mj    hel- 

pan  •  pop  \0Tx  Se  ^  pile  penban  on  psetep  bollan  -^  Jip 

nion  CO  ]?am  );a  pypmenban  J^mj  be];  J;omie  ycj>  nion  j^a 

able,^      Pi]?   milce   feocum   men   liim  mon  pceal  pellan 

eceb  on  ]7am  fuj^epnan  Isecebome  J?e  hatce  oxumelle  ]?e 

^  pe  ppicon  pi]^  J>8epe   liealpbeaban    able  "j  bi^ebpan  able  • 

^  Ntm    lanpej-    pmbe  •  *j  bpije    mmtran  -j  pipop  "j  puban 

^  fseb  .^  cofc  •  -j   liunan  •  'j    cencaupian  •  ^  if  hypbepyjit 

oSpe    naman    eopl^jealla   fpij^ufc    ]7?epe    peap  •    bo    ]?ap 

pypra   on    ]?one    asp    neuiban    Isecebom    on   ]>    j'op    jai 

meabc  jefeon  aet  j^am  sep  jenemban  ablum  liu  j^u  8one 

fol.  93  b.  oxumelle    pypcean    peealc.''      Alepep^    pmbe    feo]>    on 

pgecpe  o}>  j5  J?8ep  ]?Eerpep  fie  J^pibban  bsel  unbepelleb  •    'j 

V,  pele    j7onne    J^sep   jobne   ceac  pulne   to    bpmcanne    on 

]7]iy    fij^ap   Iset   fimle    bsejj^ejine    becpeonum.      ])tp  ilce 

beah  lenbenj-eocum  men  •  ept  J78ef  blacan  ipijep  ^  cpop- 

pan   sepefc  •    ]7peo  •    ept  .v.  j^onne    .vii.    ]?onne    nijon  • 

])onne  .XL  J?onne  .xiil.    |7onne  .xv.  ]7onne   feopancyne  • 

bonne   nijancyne  •    J^onne   .XXL  fele  fpa  sepcep   bajum 

bpmcan  on  pme.     Tip  fe  man  lisebbe  eac  pepep  pele  ]7U 

]>a  cypnlu  j^sep  eopj^ipijep   on    hacum   pjetpe    bpmcan  • 

];ip  lice  beali  pi]?  lenbenpeocum  men.     Gpc  eopSjeallan 

on  pme  jefobenne  pele  bpmcan.      Gpc    betonican^    pyl 

on  pme  j-ele  bpmcan.     Sealp  *j  onle^en  piS  milce  psepce 

^  MiXv^wvas,  wavy  movements,  m.x\Q\\  1  -rrevKiSavoy  :     rue    seed    is   ir-qyavov 

the  same  as  fiop^upvyixa.  |  ayplov  ff-rrepfia. 

-  aviffou,  Al.  Trail.,  p.  480.  I        "  So  far  from  Alex.  Trallianus  or 

^  Taoe  7ap    Trpocivcet,   et  o   vhepus  \  Philagrios. 

ouK  avTiKa  fvOivSe  rvyxavei  el  de 
(^ai(pvris  yeyivqra.L,  tots  ovdafxSss 
raura  ffviJL<pepfi. 

'  I'rom  Alex.  Trail.,  viii.  1 1,  p.  481. 

■"  ]Many    -words    are    omitted,    as 

'  See   Marcellus,  col.  149  d.  :  ci/- 
perus  for  abuts. 

^  Marcellus,  col.  o4',»,  a. 
"  Marcellus,  col.  348,  ii. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  24!) 

For  ill  juices  and  wavy  movements  and  yoxing,  or  luc-  P.ook  ir. 
keting,  which  cometh  from  the  spleen.  A  southern  wort  ^''"  ^''•'"■''• 
hight  gith,  which  is  good  to  eat  on  bread,  and  seed  of 
marche  and  of  coriander  and  of  parsley  kneaded  up 
into  bread  or  rubbed  Ji^ie  into  wine  :  and  also  that  is 
beneficial  for  inflation  of  the  milt.  If  however  the 
distention  from  the  vv^ind  cometh  suddenly,  then  these 
things  cannot  help,  since  that  will  turn  into  dropsy. 
If  one  applieth  the  warming  leechdoms  to  that,  then 
one  eketh  or  augmentetk  the  disease.  For  a  miltsiek 
man,  one  must  give  him  vinegar  in  the  southern  leecli- 
dom  which  hight  oxymel,  which  we  wrote  of  against 
the  half  dead  disease  and  disease  of  the  bladder.  Take 
rind  of  laurel,  and  dry  mint,  and  pepper,  and  seed  of 
rue,  costmary,  and  Ao7'ehound,  and  centaury,  that  is 
herdwort,  or  by  another  name,  earthgall,  chiefly  the 
juice  of  it,  add  these  worts  to  the  before  named  leech- 
dom  into  the  ooze.  Thou  mayest  see  where  we  have 
spoken  of  the  before  named  diseases,  how  thou  shalt 
prepare  the  oxymel.  Seethe  in  water  rind  of  alder  until 
there  be  of  the  water  a  third  part  unboiled  away,  and 
then  give  a  good  jug  full  of  it  to  be  drunk  at  three 
times  ;  leave  always  a  days  space  between  the  doses. 
This  same  is  beneficial  for  a  loinsick  man.  Again,  of 
the  black  ivy,  first  three  berry  bunches,  next  five,  then 
seven,  then  nine,  then  eleven,  then  thirteen,  then  fif- 
teen, then  seventeen,  then  nineteen,  then  twenty-one, 
give  them  so,  according  to  the  days,  to  be  drunk  in 
wine.  If  the  man  have  fever  also,  give  thou  him  the 
little  grains  of  the  ground  ivy  in  hot  water  to  drink. 
This  same  is  good  for  a  loinsick  man.  Again,  give 
him  to  drink  earthgall  sodden  in  wine.  Again,  boil 
betony  in  wine,  give  him  that  to  drink.  A  salve  and 
a   plaster  for  milt  pain,   work  it  up  of  honey   and  of 

■  As  followB  :  II.  lix. 


L^CE   BOC. 

pypc  op  humje  "j  of  ecebe  bumelu^  -j  Imyseb  to  "j  bepef 
V  5p;^tta  mepcep  fseb  leje  on  "j  fmijie  mib  y-yj.     bo  eac 

bpijep  pepmobey  blofcman  to. 

6ft  ]?omie  pe  milte  ablapen  pypS  fona  he  pile  aheap- 
bian  -j  bi]?  J^onne  uneaj^laecne  •   ]70iiiie  f  blob  aheajibaS 
on    ]7am    sebptim    J^sep    miltep  •    lacna    hme   ]7onne   mib 
fol.  94  a.-  J7am   sep    jenemban    pyptum  •    menj   J?a    joban    pypta 

PI'S  oxumelli  J^one  fujjepnan  eceb  bpenc  •  Se  pe  sep 
ppiton  ]7a  lacniaS  ]7one  milte  "j  ape^  aboS  ^  j^icce  -j 
lippije  blob  •  -j  ]7a  yp elan  psetan  •  n?ep  ]?upli  Sa  mic- 
jean  ane  ac  eac  ]?uph  oj^epne  titjanj.  ]2>ipbepyp^t  feo 
Iseppe  leje  jebeatene  utan  •  Nim  eac  clseppan  pypt- 
tpuman  bo  on  eceb  -j  jate  typblu^  Pypc  J>onne  to  pealpe 
■j  bepen  melo  bo  J^septo  ■  pele  him  |?ip  eac  on  pme 



fol.  94  b. 

yi]>  ]?8epe  heapbneppe  -j  pape  ]?8ep  miltep  •  fpinep 
blsebpan  mm  fpa  mpe  jepyl  mib  fceappe  ecebe  aleje  opep 
^a  heapbneppe  ];8ep  miltep  befpe]?e  J7onne  ^  hio  apej  ne 
jlibe  •  ac  py  J?peo  niht  jjsepon  p sefte  jebmiben  •  seftep 
pon  onbmb  •  J^onne  pmbept  J>u  jip  hit  tela  biS  |7a 
blsebpan  jelsepe  -j  f  heapbe  tohnepceb  -j  ^  pap  jefcilleb. 
6pt  jemm  ipiep  leap  feoS  on  ecebe  -j  opeppylle  on 
]?am  pelpan  ecebe  fipe])an  •  bo  J^onne  on  blsebpan  bmb 
on  f  pap  •  pele  ]7onne  septep  pyptbpenc  fona  ]?up  je- 
pophtne ;  ]?ij>  heapbneppe  milcep  •  ^emm  eoji^jeallan 
jebeat  oJ^J^e  je^mb  to  bufre  fpa  fpa  J?peo  cuclep  msel 
fien  oSSe  ma.     bo  fapman  bufcep  to  cuclep  mael  J^peo  • 

'  Read  bo  melu. 

-  Alexander  Trallianus,bookviii., 
chap,  xii.,  p.  481,  ed.  Basil. 

■'  Alex.  Trail.,  p.  .500,  line  8, 
ed.  Basil;  from  Galenos. 

■*  The  next  chapter  of  Alex.  Tr. 
is  on  the  same  subject  ;  but  the 
receipts  are  not  his. 

LEECH   BOOK.   11.  251 

vinegar,  add  meal  and  linseed,  and  barley  groats,  and  nook  Ji. 
seed  of  marclie ;  lay  on  and  smear  •with  this.  Add  ^^"  -''^^'^• 
also  blossoms  of  dry  wormwood. 


Again,  when  the  mUt  becometh  upblown,  soon  it  will 
harden,  and  then  it  is  not  easy  to  cure,  when  the 
blood  hardeneth  on  the  veins  of  the  milt:  then  treat 
it  with  the  before  named  worts,  mingle  the  good  worts 
with  oxymel,  the  southern  acid  drink,  which  we  before 
wrote  of,  they  will  cure  the  milt  and  will  do  away 
the  thick  and  livery '  blood,  and  the  evil  humours, 
not  by  the  mie  only,  but  also  by  the  other  evacua- 
tion passage  or  outgang.  Lay  on  externally  the 
lesser  herdwort  beaten  up.  Take  also  roots  of  clover, 
put  them  in  vinegar,  and  goat  treadles,  then  work  them 
to  a  salve,  and  add  thereto  barley  meal ;  give  the  man 
also  this  in  wine  to  drink. 


For  the  hardness  and  sore  of  the  milt;  take  a 
swines  bladder  so  new,  fill  it  with  sharp  vinegar,  lay 
it  over  the  hardness  of  the  milt,  then  swathe  up, 
that  it  may  not  glide  away,  but  may  be  thereon, 
fast  bounden,  for  three  nights.  After  that  unbind ; 
then  thou  wilt  find,  if  it  be  good,  the  bladder  clear, 
and  the  hard  fart  made  nesh,  and  the  soreness  stilled. 
Again,  take  leaves  of  ivy,  seethe  them  in  vinegar,  and 
boil  in  the  same  vinegar  some  bran,  then  put  this  into 
a  bladder,  and  bind  upon  the  sore ;  then  soon  after 
give  a  wort  drink  thus  wrought :  for  hardness  of  the 
milt ;  take  earthgalls,  beat  or  rub  them  to  dust,  so  that 
there  may  be  three  or  more  spoon  measures,  add  three 
spoon  measures  of   dust    of  savine    thereto,  and  three 

'  Such  as  flows  through  the  liver. 

252  L^CE   BOC. 

y  "J  peallenbej'  picey  bufce]'  ])peo  cticleji  m?el  •   appte  eall 

j'ele  ]7onne  on  pme  neahrnej-tijuDi  to  bpincanne  cucleji 
piilne  •    jij:    be    fie    eac   on    jrejrpe    pele   Inm  on  hatuni 

"^  pjBCjie   jeplecebum   J?a   pypta  bpincan  ]>y  lasp  p  pic  op- 

Ibanbe  mib  J>y  oJ>pe  bufce.  Gpc  Co  milte  feocum  men 
■j  pij?  eallum  mablum  •  eceb  pi]?  jlsebenan  jemenjeb 
pypc  })U]'  jlsebenan  pmbe  lycelpa  jebo  ]>peo  punb  on 
^Ivey  pa3r  pel  nucel  •  ^ebo  ]7onne  Ipsey  pceajipeptan  pmep 
ro  .V.  pepcpap  apete  ]7onne  on  hate  Sunnan  on  fumepa 
]  onne    pa    liatoiran    pebep    fynb  •  -j    J^a    pcipan    ba^af 

^  lijntan  J?e  pe  jeppitene  habba'S  •  ^  hit   fipije  'j   pocije 

.nil.  bajaf  oJ>]7e  ma  •  pi])]7an  j^sef  ecebep  pele  J^u  milte 
feocum  men  cuclep  pulne  'j  fona  jip  htm  ?eptep  ];am 
bpincan  •  po*^  ]?on  ]>e  ^  ip  fpi]?e  fupanj  J^am  "pe  f  napa 
^  sep  j'ljbe.     bonne    beah    ]np    pi]?    hunije  jeyceb  ^e  piS 

fol.  95  a.  unite  able  •  je  yip  majan  •  je  piS  hpean  je  pi]?  ]7on  ]?e 

mon  blobe  fpipe*  je  pi]?  eallum  mnan  ablum*  eac  ]?6n^ 
piep]?o  *j  3ic])a  fon  ape^  be]?.  bep  Ipecebom  beah  je 
pi]?  hpiepSo  -j  5ic]'an  •  pyjic  op  ecebe  j'eaxpealpe  •  jemm 
J«ep  ecebep  .V.  cucleji  m^el  bo  on  nipne  cpoccan  bo 
elep  bollan  pulne  to  feoS  setfomne  fceab  nipep  fpeplep 
ptp  cuclep  mgel  •  "j  lytel  peaxep  opep  pylle  ept  o]?  f 
hmx:  eceb  fie  pojipeallen  •  bo  ]?onne  op  pyj^e  -j  hpejie  -j 
pi]7j?an  fmipe  mib  }?y  ]?a  hpiepj'o  -j  ]?one  jic'San. 


(^ip  omihtc  blob  *j  ypel  ])a3te  on  ]?am  milte  fie  J7in- 
benbe  ]?onne  pceal  htm  mon  blob  ]?up  hetan.  Gip  ])e 
]?iiice  ]?  ])u  o]?epne  mapan  l?ecebom  bon  ne  bujipe  •  pop 

'  Road  \>ou,  that  is,  t)onne. 

LEECH  r>OOK.   II.  25.'] 

spoon  measures  of  the  dust  of  "boiling  pitch  ;"  '  sift  <all  ^^""k  II. 
this,  then  give  a  spoon  full  in  wine  to  the  man  after  his 
nights  fast  to  drink :  if  he  be  also  in  a  fever,  give 
him  the  worts  to  drink  in  "hot"  water  made  "luke- 
warm," lest  the  pitch  form  a  concrete  with  the  other 
dust.  Again,  for  a  miltsick  man,  and  for  all  inward 
disorders  ;  vinegar  mingled  with  gladden  ;  work  it  thus  : 
put  three  pound  of  little  bits  of  rind  of  gladden  in  a 
good  sized  glass  vessel,  then  add  thereto  of  the  sharpest 
wine,  five  sextarii,  then  set  this  in  the  hot  sun,  in  sum- 
mer, when  the  hottest  seasons  are,  and  the  clear  white 
days  of  which  we  have  written,  that  it  may  macerate 
and  soak  for  four  days  and  more  ;  afterwards  give  thou 
to  the  sick  man  of  the  vinegar  a  spoon  full,  and  after 
the  dose  soon,  give  him  something  to  drink,  since  that 
is  very  strong  for  him  who  never  before  tasted  it.  Fur- 
ther, this  eked  out  with  honey  is  of  benefit,  either  for 
milt  disease,  or  for  maw  disease,  or  for  rawness,^  or  in 
case  a  man  spew  blood,  or  for  all  inward  diseases  :  it  also 
further  soon  doth  away  roughness  of  sJcin,  and  itch. 
This  leechdom  is  good  either  for  roughness  or  itch  : 
work  of  vinegar  a  wax  salve,  or  cerote ;  take  five  spoon 
measures  of  tlie  vinegar,  put  it  into  a  new  crock,  add 
a  bowl  full  of  oil,  seethe  together,  shed  therein  five 
spoon  measures  of  new  brimstone,  and  a  little  wax, 
boil  it  strongly  "again,"  till  the  vinegar  is  boiled 
off,  then  remove  from  the  fire,  and  shake,  and  after- 
wards smear  therewith  the  roughness  and  the  itch. 


If  inflamed  blood  and  evil  humour  be  in  the  milt, 
distending  it,  then  shall  the  sick  be  thus  let  blood. 
If  it  seem   to  thee,  that   thou  dare  not  to  do  another 

*  Our  Saxon  has  made  some  mis- 
take :  the  receipt  is  similar  to  one 
given   by   Marcellus,   col.    348,  B., 

■where  we  read  "  ex  picato  moro  vcl 
"  nigvo  tepefacto." 

^  Probably  cruilitcts,  i/idiycstioH. 



unmihce  ^sey  mannej'  oS8e  foji  unmeltunje  o}>]?e  poji 
jibe  •  o])]>e  pop  31050^6  •  oJ>J?e  poji  unjepibepum  •  o]>]>e 
poji  ucjnhtan  •  jebib  )7onne  o|7  ^  J7U  mse^e  •  o^'Se  ^ 
byjipe  •  jip  hseto  o}>)?e  mehc  ne  pypne  Isec  him  blob 
on  |?am  pmefrjian  eajime  op  ]?8epe  upeppan  aebjie  •  jip 
]f\i  ]?a  pinban  ne  mseje  Iset  op  J^sepe  mibmeptan  aebjie  • 
5ip  ]?u  |?a  pinban  ne  mseje  liet  op  ]??epe  heapob  sebpe. 
j^onne  jip  mon  pa  pinban  ne  mseje  Iset  op  J^sepe  pme- 
fcpan  hanba  neah  j^am  lytlan  pmjpe  op  sebpe  •  Tip  hit 
fpi'Se  peab  fie  o]?]?e  pon  |>onne  bi5  hit  j)y  |>e  fpi]7op  to 
Isetanne  •  jip  hit  chene  o])j;e  liluttop  fie  Iret  |?y  pe 
l8e]')'e.  Jp  hpse]?epe  fpa  to  Isetanne  fpa  ^  hphce  msejen 
ne  afppmje. 


hup  ^  him  mon  pceal  ];up  mettap  fellan  on  |?8epe 
able  jefeape  pyfan  'j  Map  on  hatum  paetepe  'j  oxu- 
melle  J?e  pe  ppiton  sep  bepopan  pi]>  blsebpan  able  fu- 
}»epne  eceb  bpenc  •  mepce  on  pastpe  jefoben  "j  fpilca 
pypta  -j  mijole  bpmcan  "j  ]?ynne  ptn  him  ip  to  pel- 
lanne  pel  fcip  f  bet  f  msejen  };a3p  miltep  -j  pcellihte 
pifcaf  him  fmt  to  Jjicjenne  •  -j  pujlaf  J^a  ]>e  on  pen- 
num  ne  fien.  bip  him  if  to  popjanne  •  ne  J^icjen  hie 
pen  pixaf  •  ne  fee  pixaf  Jja  pe  habba'S  heapb  plsepc  •  *j 
jjicjen  hie  ]?a  sap  jenemban  mettaf  •  oftpan  •  -j  pme- 
pmclan*^  ne  pa,  mettaf  pa,  pe  ablapan  monnan  msejen* 
ne  hpijjepep  plsepc  •  ne  fpmep  ne  fceapep  ne  j^icjean 
hie*  ne  jate  •  ne  ticcenep  •  ne  bpmce^  ]>icce  pm  •  ne 
mete  ne   to   fpi'Se    hatne  •    ne   eac    to    eealbne.     6pt^ 

'  o««,  MS. 

-  l^ij*,  MS.  With  the  text  compare, 
E,K<i\v(Ta  Se  TtdvTa  ra  yM(TXpovs  Kol 
Traxfis xvfJ-uvs  yevvwvra,  wffavrais  [Se] 
ical  TO.  Kpia  [to]  fi6eta,  xo/peia,  wpo- 
Bdreia,  alyeia  Koi  iplcpeia,  Kcu  tuv 
opviduv  TO,  iv  XiixudtSeffiv  i/Sacrj  Statr(i>- 
/xeva,  Koi  tCiv  IxOvwv  Ttavras  eXedSeis 
Kol  iTfKayiovs,    &\\u>s  re  [«ai]   robs 

ffKXripas  Kul  ■jraxets.  0pp.  Alex. 
Tralliani,  p.  496,  ed.  Basil. 

^  y  not  p  ;  see  note,  p.  240.    . 

^  bpmcan  would  be  better. 

^  Kal  avTiKa  Kar  ctpxV  ''"''''  ^pos 
alfia  TToAv  e'/c  rod  apiCTepov  ayKuyos 
aipripovv.  0pp.  Alex.  Tralliani, 
p.  427,  ed.  Basil. 

LEECH  BOOK.   II.  255 

greater  leechdom,   for  the   want  of  might  in  the  man,      Book  II. 

or  for  want  of  digestion,  or  for  old  age,  or  for  youth, 

or  for  bad  weather,  or  for  diarrhoea,  then  wait  till  that 

thou  may  so  do*  or  dare.     If  heat,  or  his  capacity  to 

bear  it,  forbid  it  not,  let  him  blood  from  the  left  arm 

from  the  upper  vein  ;   if  thou  canst  not  find  that,  let 

hiTTh  blood  from  the  midmost  vein ;  if  thou   canst  not 

find  that,  let  him  blood  from  the  head  vein.     Further, 

if  that   cannot   be  found,    let   Jdm  blood  from  the  left 

hand,  near  the  little  finger,  from  a  vein.     If  the  blood 

be  very  red  or  livid,   then    must  it   be  let  flow  more 

plentifully ;  if  it  be  clean  or  clear,  let  it  flow  so  much 

the  less.     Blood  however  is  so  to  be  taken  from  the 

man  as  that  his  vital  power  may  not  be  unsettled". 


Thus  shall  the  sick  mens  diet  be  administered  in 
that  disease ;  juicy  peas,  and  bread  in  hot  water,  and 
oxymel,  of  which  we  wrote  before,  when  speahiAig  of 
Ijladder  disease,  the  southern  acid  drink ;  marche  also 
sodden  in  water,  and  such  worts  and  dim-etic  drinks, 
and  thin  wine  must  be  given  them,  and  sheer  or  clear; 
that  will  better  the  power  of  the  milt ;  and  shell 
fishes  are  to  be  taken,  and  fowls,  those,  Tiamely,  which 
are  not  dwellers  in  fens.  This  that  folloiveth  is  to 
be  foregone ;  let  them  not  partake  of  fen  fishes,  nor 
sea  fishes  which  have  hard  flesh,  and  let  them  take 
the  before  named  meats,  oysters  and  periwinkles,  not 
the  meats  which  puff"  up  a  mans  strength,  nor  let 
them  take  flesh  of  bullock,  nor  of  swine,  nor  of 
sheep,  nor  of  goat,  nor  of  kid,  nor  let  them 
drink  thick  wine,  nor  food   either  too   extremely  hot 


L^CE   EOC. 

blob    biS  50b    to    laBCanne    on   pjian   lenctene  oj:  pam 
pmfrjmn  eajime. 


Gpt;  lascebom  j-e  p  yjiel  wc  trihS  Of  ])am    milre  "j    j'e 
beali  to  raanejum  o];>]ium  abluni  •    jemm  jpene  puban 
^  ane  bseje  ?eji  jeporana  *j  mebmicel  pipojie]-  •  o]?e]i  fpile 

cymenep  oSSe  ma  •  bo  ]3  cymen  ane  breje  seji  oSSe 
tpam  o])])e  ]?pim  on  eceb  abpije  *j  ajnib  to  bufte  ealle 
JM]"  pyjita  •  menje  piS  liunij  afipen  •  jebo  J^onne  on 
jlsepene  ampnllan  -j  pele  J»onne  cuclep  pnlne  ])ey  beah 
y\]>  majan  ablapunje  ^  mnoJ>a  •  hnej'ce]?  J?a  pambe  • 
]?ynna'S  }?a  oman  bitpe  hpsecetunje  apej  bej>  -j  bpeoft 
co|?e  •  -j  pib  ppepce  •  "j  lipep  able  •  -j  lenben  ppepce  •  -j 
milte  psepce  eal  ]3  liht. 

.  XLV. 

Ijfecebomap  -j  I'piS  bpenc  yi])  afpoUenum  milce  •  acele 
fol.  9G  b.  JSu  pealhat  ipen  ];onne  hit  pupjmm  fie  op  pype  atojen  • 

on  pme  o]?]?e  on  eeebe  j-ele  ]3  bpmcan  p  pu  mealit  eac 
pellau  pam  ];e  habba]?  lieapbne  liclioman  •  ne  pceal 
mon  lipsepepe  ]nyne  bpmcan  j-ellan  on  popepeajibne 
pone  ece  -j  pa  able  ac  ymb  pela  nilita. 


3DeR  fjnbon  loscebomap  pip  nsjhpaepejipe  fiban  pape  -j 
tacn  liu  fio  abl  topeapb  fie  •  "j  hu  p  mon  onjitan 
mse^e  •  -j  liii  Inojia^  mon  tilian  pcyle  •  ]7ap  Isecebomaf 
pceal  mon  bon  pip  fiban  pape  •  'j    ]ny  fmbon  psejie  able 

•  Koi  /uV  Kul  (Troj.i.wiJ.aTus  Aeirlj, 
?;j/  iKiiVO  fv  x^\Keiois  TrvpovfjLevuu  re 
KOI  a<l>vpq.  KoiTTdjxevov  airo^aWei,  ffiip 
i/SttTi  avajxefii-yiiiVT}  iv  iroTtJi  ffvixtpipa. 
Opp.  Alex,  Trail.,  lib.  viii.,  13, 
p.  50G,  ed.  Basil. 

-  Alexandres  of  Trallcs,  lib.  vi. 
chap.  1,  treats  of  the  diagnosis  be- 
tween pleurisy  and  disease  of  Ihe 

^  This  plural  may  refer  to  the  raen 
or  the  Riban. 

LEECH   BOOK.    11.  257 

or  too  cold.      Again,  it  is  good  to  let  blood  in   early      jiouk  ii. 
lent  07'  spring  from  the  loft  arm.  *-''•  ^'"'■ 


Again,  a  leeclidom  whicli  draweth  out  the  evil  from 
the  milt,  and  which  is  efficacious  for  many  other  dis- 
orders. Take  green  rue  one  day  before  it  is  uned, 
collect  it  and  a  moderate  quantity  of  pepper,  so  much 
also  of  cummin,  or  more.,  put  the  cummin  one  day 
beforehand,  or  two  or  three,  into  vinegar,  dry  it  and 
rub  to  dust  all  the  worts,  mingle  iliis  with  honey 
strained,  then  put  tliem  into  a  glass  })itcher,  and  so 
give  the  maii  a  spoon  full.  This  is  good  against  \ip- 
blowing  of  the  maw  and  of  the  inwards  ;  it  raaketh 
neshthewamb;  it  thinneth  the  corrupt  gastric  juices, 
it  doth  away  breakings,  and  breast  disease,  and  side 
])ain,  and  liver  disorder,  and  loin  pain,  and  milt  pain  : 
all  that  it  lightenetli, 


Leechdoms  and  strong  drink  for  a  swollen  milt ;  cool 
thou  a  fiercely  hot  iron,  when  it  is  just  withdrawn  from 
the  fire,  in  wine  or  in  vinegar,  give  the  man  that  to 
drink.  Thou  may  est  also  give  that  to  them  who  liave 
a  hard  body :  notwithstanding,  this  drink  shall  not 
be  given  in  the  early  stage  of  the  ache  and  the  disease, 
but  after  many  days. 


Here  are  leechdoms  for  sore  of  either  side,  and  tokens 
how  the  disease  approaches,  and  how  a  man  may  under- 
stand that,  and  how  a  man  shall  treat  it.  These  leech- 
doms shall  be  done  for  sore  of  side,  and  these  are  the 

VOL.  TL  R 

258  hMCF.  p.or. 

cacn'  ?;elic  lunjen  able  tacnum  "j  lifep  psepcef  tac- 
num.  ha  men  beo]?  mib  hjiijnnjum  fpi]?e  fcjianjum 
pgecebe  •  *j  micel  faji  on  bam  fibum.  lOpilum  cnyjjej? 
'p  yap  on  ]^a  jiib  •  hjnlum  op ep  ealle  fiban  bi]:>  f  yaji  • 
hpiltim  becymS  on  'pa.  peo]?oban  -j  ept  ymb  lytel  je 
]>a  jefculbpiu  je  efc  Jjone  nepefeo];an  p  pap  5]iet  •  -j 
V  lipopab  -  jelome  •  hpilum  blobe  hpseca]^  •  pmjale  psec- 
cean  J^popiaS  •  tunje  bi8  bpije  •  ne  majou  jelicjean 
on  l^sGpe  pmefcpan   fiban  •    ^tp  on  j^sojie  fpiSjian  p  paji 

fo].  97  a.  ^^^^  •  11^  majon  eac  ept  on  pa  fpiSpan  •  jip  on  pa  pm- 

fcjian  p  pap  bip  •  jepela'S  p  pa  mnopap  hi  penbap  mib 
hiojia  hepijneppe  -j  on  pa  piban  peallaS  pe  he  on  hc- 
jeaS  •  ?ep  psejie  able  pap  tacn  beop  •  bip  eac  jeonb 
pingjia]""^  cele  'j  cneopa  unmeht:  eajan  jieabiaS  peob^  "j 
beop  heop  -j  pamij  utjanj  micje  ajeolpob  -j  lytel  bip 
pfiep  mnopej-  melrunj  'j  ■'*  rebpa  clasppetunj  •  epunj  biS 
paplic  jehnycneb  neb  -j  papa  bpeofca  bip  beapij  ptetunj 
fpa  fpa  fie  jefpat  •  mobep  elhyjb  ceolan  hjnfcun^  -j 
hpeonnj  •  hlybenbe  fpipufc  mnan  piMa'6  op  pam  bsele 
];e  p  paji  biS  hlmunje  "j  hlijiunje  jnS  pi})e]ipa3C  •  jip 
pap  tacn  lanje  puma's  •  ponne  bip  feo  abl  to  ppecen- 
lico  'j  ne  msej  him  mon  jetilian  •  ahpa  hpseppe  pone 
mannan  pe  pip  ppopaS  hpsepeji  he  seppe  )>?e]ie  plejen 
on  pa  piban  oS8e  jefcunjen  oppe  hp^Bpep  he  lenje  £ep 
apeolle  oSSe  jebpocen  pupbe  •  jip  Int  p  p^epe  ponne 
bi'5  he  py  ea^lsecna  •"  jip  hit  bip  op  cyle  cumen  oppe  op 
ypeljie  mptetan  hit  biS  pe  uneaplsecpa.'    J^F  ^^^   ponne 

fol.  97  I).  l>ip  o?]i  on  paejie  lipjie  oppe  on  pam  lunjenum  jefajijob 

'  These  symptoms  are  fully  stated  ,  -  Bead  hyoyza'S. 

in  nearly  the  same  words  by  Are-  j  ^  Aretseos  accompanies  ns  no  fur- 

tseos,    Acut.    I.   X.      Possibly   the  '  ther. 

diagnosis  and  the   symptoms  were  I  ^  Read  "j  bi|>  heoj'  peoh  ? 

stated,  as  they  are  in  the  text,  by  ^  JJeapb  or  some  word  to  express 

Philagrios.  The  Saxon  author 
mentions  mechanical  causes  for  the 
sore  of  the  side,  as  well  as  nosolo- 
gical ;  he  does  not  therefore  confine 
himself  to  pleurisy. 

2/cA?7/)o's  is  wanting. 
'•  Read  ea'iJleacnjja. 
'  For  unea'Sleacnjia. 

LEECH    BOOK.    TI.  259 

tokens  of  the  disease,  like  unto  the  tokens  of  Inng  Book  ii. 
disease,  and  the  tokens  of  h'ver  pain.  'I'he  men  are  ^^-  ^'^''• 
afflicted  with  very  strong  fevers,  and  miekle  sore  on 
both  sides.  At  whiles  the  sore  striketh'  upon  the  ribs, 
at  whiles  the  sore  is  over  all  the  side;  at  wliiles  it 
coineth  up  on  the  collar  bones,  and  again,  after  a  little, 
the  sore  greeteth  either  the  shoulders  or  the  lower 
belly,  and  they  cough  frequently,  at  whiles  they  break 
up  blood,  they  suffer  a  constant  wakefulness,  the  tongue 
is  dry,  they  cannot  lie  on  the  left  side  if  the  sore  is 
on  the  right  side,  nor  again  can  they  lie  on  the  right,  if 
the  sore  is  in  the  left ;  they  feel  that  their  viscera  by 
their  weight  shift  place,  and  fall  upon  the  side  on 
which  they  lie.  These  tokens  are  before  the  disease. 
Theie  is  also  cold  all  through  their  fingers,  and  power- 
lessness  of  their  knees,  their  eyes  are  red,  and  red  is 
their  hue,  and  their  discharge  ^  is  foamy,  their  mie 
is  turned  yellow,^  and  the  digestion  of  the  inwards  is 
little,  and  /i«rcZ  the  pulsation  of  the  veins,  the  breath- 
ing is  sorelike,  the  face  twitched,  and  there  is  a  dewy 
wetting  of  the  breast,  as  if  it  sweated,  a  delirium  of 
the  mind ;  a  spasmodic  action,  and  roughness  of  the 
throat,  sounding  chiefly  from  within,  whistleth  from 
the  part  on  which  the  sore  is ;  the  disease  is  unfavour- 
able to  a  leaning  posture  and  to  laughing.  If  these 
tokens  continue  long,  then  is  the  disease  too  dangerous, 
and  one  can  do  nothing  for  the  man :  notwithstanding, 
ask  the  man,  who  endureth  this,  whether  he  ever  were 
stricken  or  stabbed  in  the  side,  or  whether  he  long 
before  had  a  fall,  or  got  a  breakage ;  if  it  were  that, 
then  will  he  be  easier  to  cure.  If  it  is  come  of  cold 
or  of  inward  evil  humour,  it  is  so  much  the  harder  to 
cure.  If  further  the  man  have  been  before  troubled 
with    soreness   in    the    liver,    or   in  the  lungs,  and  the 

Nwo-o-ei,  doubtless.  I      '  Thus  the  Saxon. 

■  Expectoration  ?  | 

R   2 

260  LMCE  BOC. 

•j  l^anan  cyraeS  fio^  jnbpfiejic  ]?onne  bi];  ]>  fjnSe  ppecne. 
Jip   Int;   on    ];am   milte  bi]>  re]\  ponne  bi]'  liir  ])y  oaj)- 

^  ]ac]ie  •  31}:  he.  jwiiiie  bi])  a?]i  on  ]?a3pe  lunjene  ^epunbob 

*j  jjanan  cymS  fe  j-ibp^ejic  ponne  bi];  ■]>  fpiSe  pjiecne  • 
51]:  hit  on  ]?am  miltre  bi8  seji  •  ponne  cymS  p  ]-a]i  on 
]>a  pmfcpan  fiban  •  je  ])a  habbaS^  hepije  yjiecenneyye  • 
ahfa  hme  hpfe|)ep  hmi  fe  miltre  ]"a]\  fie  o6Se  hppe]?e]i 
htm  fpeopcoj^u  fie  •  fpa  \)u  meahc  onjitan  Jj  ]>8epf  fiban 
]-a]i  cymS  oy.  ypelpe  pretan  'j  bi)^  fpiSe  ppecne.  Tip  him 
fe  ut^anj  pojifeten  fie  o6Se  jemi^an  ne  mseje  mib 
^  fine]?jie  onbounje  pyptbjiencep  ]>u]ih  liojni  oSSe  pipan 
fio    pamb    bi];   co    ckenfianne  •   ppecne    biS    eac    ];onne 

^  J^ppp  peocan  mannef  lijiaca  biS  manijep  hipej'  ^j    bleo  :-^ 

be  J?ipnm  tacnnm  ]ni  meaht  lippep  fe  man  to  lac- 
manne  fie  onjitaii  hpteji  ne  fie  •  hpcep  mon  imfopte 
jetilaS  on  pojiepeapbe  J)a  able  ]?onne  p  fap  rejiefr 
jefcihS  on  pa  fculbpu  'j  on  pa  bpeofr.  Sona  j'ceal 
mon  blob  op  £ebpe  Isecan.  Jip  f  T^P  S^punije  on  ]>am 
bpeoftum  anum  oppe  on  pam  upejian  hpipe  o])pe  on 
fol.  93  a. '  pam  mibhjnpe  •  ponne  pceal  liim  mon  ]'yptb]ienc  )-ellan 
'j  niman  fpete  pjBteji  mib  ele  jebon  on  fpmep  bla^bpan 
*j  be]nan  p  fap   mib. 

.  XLVII. 

Laicebomaf  pa  pe  pynnunje  msejen  h^bben  -j  fmal- 
unje  •  pam  lichoman  pa  "Sa  hseto  mebmicle  oppe  fcjianje 
ppopian    -j   hu    him    mon    fcyle    fpmef    blcebpan    onbon. 
V  5emm   hunan  -j  peax  -j    ele    ^emenje    oppe    jejiub   to- 

jtBbpe  ealpa  empela  p  hit  an  fie  fmipe  mib  -j  bo  on 
clsep  leje  on.     ^ip  iape  fiban  ept  jemin  pnbaii  leap    -j 

»  Read  fe. 

-  hub,  MS.,  at  the  end  of  a  line, 
tlie  writer  forgettinp;  to  complete 
the  word. 

^  In  I.  xlv.  .'j,  the  genitive  wafs 
bleoj'.  Bleo,  by  a  zeugma,  may  be 
genitive  plural. 

LEECH    LOOK.    IL  261 

side  pain  coinetii  thence,  then  is  tliat  very  dangerous  ;       Hook  II, 
if  it  lias  been  ere  that  on  the  milt,  then  it  is  the  easier  ^ '' 

to  cure.  Further,  if  the  man  have  been  before  wounded 
in  the  lung,  and  thence  eometli  the  side  pain,  then  is 
that  very  dangerous.  If  it  liave  been  formerly  in  the 
spleen,  then  the  sore  cometli  on  the  left  side,  yea,  those 
tokens  have  heavy  mischief;  ask  him  whetlier  the  milt 
be  sore,  or  whether  he  hath  neck  disease.  So  tliou 
mayest  understand  that  sore  of  the  side  cometh  from 
evil  humour  and  is  very  mischievous.  If  his  anal  dis- 
charge be  stopped,  or  if  he  may  not  mie,  the  wamb 
must  be  cleansed  by  an  always  easy  application  of  a 
wort  drink,  hh  this  case  a,  clyster,  through  a  hoin  or 
})ipe.  There  is  danger  also  when  the  sick  mans  cxijec- 
tovation  or  break  is  of  many  a  hue  and  complexion.' 
2.  By  these  tokens  thou  mayest  understand  in  what 
case  the  man  is  curable,  in  what  case  he  is  not.  In 
case  one  treateth  a  man  unsoftly  in  the  early  stage 
of  the  disease,  then  the  sore  first  mounteth  into  the 
shoulders  and  into  the  breast.  Soon  must  one  let  lilood 
from  a  vein,  if  the  sore  continue  on  the  breast  alone, 
or  in  the  upper  belly,  or  in  the  midriff;  then  must 
one  cfive  the  tnu/ii  a  wort  drink,  and  take  sweet  water 
with  oil  put  into  a  swiues  bladder,  and  warm  the  sore 


Leechdoms  wliich  have  the  power  of  thinning  and  of 
makintr  small,  for  the  bodies  which  suffer  the  heat, 
either  moderate  or  strong,  and  how  one  must  apply  a 
swines  bladder  to  then).  Take  /ioyehound,  and  wax, 
and  oil,  mingle  or  rub  together  equal  quantities  of  all, 
that  it,  the  mixture,  may  be  one  ;  smear  therewith,  and 
put  also  on  a  cloth  and  apply.     For  sore  of  side,  again  ; 

'  TlavTo.  ovo.-miiTo.i  KiXP'^'^l-'-^'"'-     Alex.  Trail. 

262  L^CE   BOC. 

laupe]^  cpoppan  jebeat  Imtele  -j  feoS  on  hunije  leje 
on  cla^  o])pe  on  pel  f  hit  ealle  ]?a  fibau  -j  f  j'aji  oye\i- 
licje  lege  on  -j  bej^e  mib  ]?y  -j  beleje  ssfteji  Jpiejie 
bel^mje  mib  hatte  puUe  •  "j  bmb  peaxhlaj:  on  •  jip  ^^ 
pap  |7onne  ne  fie  ]>e  Iseyye  teoh  J^onne  mib  jlsej'e  on 
]?a  fculbpu  •  'j  Iceajipa  ];sep  hit  fap  fie  fpijpuft  •  "j  fcpep 
'p  blob  Of  fpiSe  •  "j  jip  Mt  ]?onne  jit  fpij^oji  pap  fie  • 
ne  bo  l^ii  jjonne  mib  fealte  ]?a  blsebpan  on  •  ac  on  jrope- 
j^eapbe  ]?a  able  J^enben  f  paji  lajft  fie.  Ruban  jefeoS 
on  ele  oS8e  on  pine  •  "j  bile  fmipe  j^a  fiban  mib  ]7y 
iol.  08  b.  neoblice  •    'j  be]:>e    mih    hnefcpe    pulle  -j    mib    ]?y    ele   -j 

bo  Jjonne  J'a  blsebpan  on  •  bo  peapm  j^ealt  to  bo  eac 
feofo]7a  on  pealt  ptetep  bo  on  |?a  blgebpan  aleje  on  f 
fap  bo  ]?ip  ]7peo  niht. 


^ip  j?ap  pultumaf  ne  pyn  helpe  •  last '  blob  j^onne 
on  sebpe  op  eapme  nsep  on  j?a  healpe  ]7e  f  pap  bi}»  •  -j 
]7a  pambe  man  pceal  cltenpian''^  mib  fme]?e  pyptbjience. 
^  Gpc  eof opfpinej- '^  cpeab  p  mon  pmt  on  puba  jemylce 
on  psecpe  apeoh  bo  on  hip  bpincan*  o]?];e  bpije  jemenj 
•j  jejnib  on  hif  bpmcan  ]?  htel]?  ]rcG]\e  piban  pap.  6pt 
celenbpep^  fseb  jejnib  -j  feo]>  on  hunije  o]>  p  hit  Sicce 
fie  •  jemm  psep  ponne  on  mopjenne  -j  on  sepenne  ppeo 
cucleji  msel  pele  to  j^icjenne. 


LcBcebomap  -j  peaxj'ealpa  "j  jceappunja  pip  fiban  pape- 
•j  hpyet  him  fie  to  picjanne.  6ac  pu  j'cealt  ponne  pu 
on  pam  pculbpum  tyhfu  blob  ceon  fpiSe  on  psepe  j'lban 

'  Trallianus,  p.  85,  ed.  Lutet,  re- 
commends (pKefioron'ia  and  the  ko.- 

-  claej-nian,  MS. 

^  Marcellus,  col.  351,  b. 

dapaiVTris  KoiKias,  after  Ilippokrates.  '  Marcellus,  col.  351,  c, 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  263 

take  leaves  of  rue  and  bunches   of  laurel   heads,  beat     Book  ii. 

them  small   and  seethe  them  in  licmey,  lay  on  a  cloth         •  ^  ^  "• 

or  on  a  skin  so  that  it  may  overlie  all   the    side  and 

the  sore  ;    lay   on  and  foment  with   that  mixture,  and 

cover  after  the  fomenting  with  hot  wool,  and  bind  on  a 

cake  of  wax.     Then  if  the   sore  be  not  the   less,   then 

draw    with   a    cupping    g-lass    on    the    shoulders,    and 

scarify  where  the  sore   is  most,    and   scrape   the  blood 

off  thoroughly  ;    and   if  it   then  be  still  more  sore,  do 

not  thou  then  apply  the  bladder  with  salt,  but  do  this 

in  the  early  period  of  the    disease,  while   the   sore   is 

least.     Seethe  rue  in   oil   or   in  wine,  and  dill ;  anoint 

the  sore  with  that,  of  necessity,  and  foment  with  nesh 

wool  and  with  oil,  and  then   apply    the   bladder  :   add 

warm  salt,  put  bran  also  into  salt  water ;  put  it  on  the 

bladder:    Jay  it  on  the  sore,  do  this  for  tliree  nights. 


If  these  remedies  are  no  help,  then  let  blood  on  a 
vein  from  the  arm,  hut  not  on  the  side  on  which  the 
sore  is,  and  the  wamb  shall  be  cleansed  with  a  smooth 
wort  drink.  Again,  melt  in  water  the  dropping  of  a 
boar  swine,  which  one  findeth  in  a  wood,  sti'ain  it,  j)ut 
it  into  his  drink  :  or  dry  it,  mingle  and  rub  it  into 
his  drink,  that  will  heal  the  sore  of  the  side.  Again, 
rub  small  sotne  seed  of  coriander,  and  seethe  it  in 
honey,  till  it  be  thick,  then  take  of  that,  at  morning 
and  at  even,  three  spoon  measures ;  give  the  man  this 
to  swallow. 


Leechdoms  and  wax  salves  and  scarifyings  for  sore 
of  side,  and  what  the  sieJc  are  to  take  for  diet.  Also 
thou  shalt  when  thou  drawest  blood  on  the  shcnilders, 
draw  it  strongly  on  the  side,  and  for  about  three  days 

264?  L^CE   BOC. 

.  V         'j  3m;ib  .111.    iiilic  Iceajipian  -j  peax  j^ealjie  -j  ele  on  lec- 

jean  "j    yellan    bjiencay    })a    ]ni    pite    ^    yih    yib   psejice 

i'cylen  •  jij:    ]>e    pypt:   bpenc    ne    liinpe    pele    Itjianjne  • 

fol.  'J9  a.  leolice   metcaf  jncje  "j  jej-eap   bpojni '   'j  jepeape  i)ypan 

'j    jeplejen    iejpu    'j    bjieab    jcbjiocen    on    hat;    pseteji' 

"-J     jnnepinclan  ^  aboii  oj:  ]-ccllum  mib  pyj-iim. 

6pt:  ]n])  piban  pajic  betomean    leap    jepeoS  on  ele  -j 
jebpyte  aleje  on  )7a  piban. 


JDeR  septep  fint  lunjen  abla  laSlicu  tacn  *j  hj'anau 
i'lo  Clime  "j  hu  mon  Isecehomaf  jn])  ]?on^  pyjicean  pcyle* 
bpeoib  ablapen  "j  paji  ]?eoli  -j  lipa  •  "j  Inm  I'e  maja 
miela  ]nnbe];  -j  ban  "j  per  pela  Ipellenbe  ypele  Ipilap 
unpelenbe  "j  lane  bpece]?  }>y]ipe  lipofcan  -j  Inm  on  ]?am 
hpofuan  hpiliim  lopa'8  fio  fremn.  Smijie  Jjone  mannan 
mib  ele  •  -j  eac  mib  nij'pe  jmlle  he]>e  ];a  fiban  -j  jub  • 
■j  betpeox  fculbpum  hpene  i^]i  sepenne  •  Ifer  ])onne  on 
)>elan  •  repcep  J^on  la^t  Inm  blob  op  ]?am  balan  lia]wli- 
];an  In  opne  ];?e)i  him  ne  ejle  pyji*  jip  ]>u.  him  to  pela 
Isetfc  ne  bi]>  him  J^onne  peopep  pen.  Pypc  htm  bpip 
op  pealpyjice  mopan  •  -j  op  pleaj^an  pyjite  •  'j  hiinan 
fol.  90  b.  "j  bile  ]-?eb    peo]?    ]?ap    on    butjian   pele   etan  colne   on 

niojijcn  -j  on  niht  bpip  liif  mete  pij;  ele  -j  eal  hip 
bjiinca  Tie  cealb.  CT^anejum  men  lunjen  potaS  on 
bpmce  ''"'  he  I'piplep  bjiencef  -j  pela  henne  iejpu  jeplea 
on  an  pa3t  fpa  hjieap  •  5e];]'ejie  ]?onne  "j  J'lcje  -j  je- 
menje  cBp  ]n])  pletan  "j  nan  oJ»ep  inolcen  J'lcje.  Leoht 
bjienc  •    jenlm   jajellan   j^yl  on  pyjite  Iset  ]?onne  hpon 

'  TlTiffadvTjf  Alex.  Tr. 

lino  15,  ed.  Lutct. 

^  Marcclliis,  col.  351,  u. 

*  I'oii,  wc  expected  a  feminine. 

-  il/i'xes,  tvum^.v,  Alex.Trall.,  p.  87,  ''The  stop  is  misplaced  thus  in 


LEECH    BOOK.    11.  2G5 

scarify  and  lay  on  cerote  and   oil,  and  give  such  drinks       Book  li. 
as  thou  knowest  are  suitable  for  side  pain.     If  ixmUd       <-''• -'^''^• 
wort  drink  do  not  sufHce,  give  a  strong  one.     Let  the 
laari  take  light  meats  and  juicy  broths,  and  juicy  peas, 
and  beaten  eggs,  and  bread  broken  in  hot  Avater,  and 
periwinkles  removed  from  the  shells,  with  [leas. 


Again,  for  sore  of  side,  seethe  in  oil  leaves  of  bctony, 
and  bruise  them,  lay  them  on  the  side. 


1.  Hereinafter  are  set  forth  the  loathly  tokens  of 
lung  disease,  and  whence  it  cometh,  and  how  one  must 
work  leechdoms  against  it.  The  breast  is  npblown, 
and  the  thigh  and  muscle  is  sore,  and  the  onmis  maw 
distendeth  much,  and  his  legs  and  his  feet  swell  much 
with  evil  unfeeling  swellings,  and  a  drier  cough  vexes  him, 
and  in  the  cough  at  whiles  his  voice  is  gone.  Smear  . 
the  man  with  oil,  and  also  warm  the  sides  and  the 
ribs  with  new  wool,  and  between  the  shoulders,  a  little 
before  evening,  then  let  the  oil  remain  on  him  ;  and 
after  that  let  him  blood  from  the  sound  elbow  "  in  an 
oven,  where  the  fire  cannot  harm  him;"  if  thou  lettest 
him  too  much  blood,  there  will  be  no  hope  of  his  life. 
Work  him  a  brewit  from  roots  of  wall  wort,  and  from 
Heath  wort,  and  horehound,  and  dill  seed ;  seethe  these 
in  butter ;  give  him  this  breiuit  to  eat  cold  in  a 
morning ;  and  at  night  dress  his  meat  Avith  oil,  and 
let  all  his  drink  be  cold.  In  many  a  man  the  lung 
decayeth.  Let  him  drink  some  emetic  drink,  and 
beat  up  many  hens  eggs  into  a  vessel,  all  raw,  then 
let  him  curdle  it  and  eat  it,  and  previously  mingle 
with  curds,  and  let  him  take  no  other  milk  diet. 
A  light  drink  ;  take  gagel,  or  siueet  gale,  boil  it  in 
wort    of   beer,  then   let    it   stand  a  little,    remove  the 

266  LiECE  BOC. 

jefcanban  bo  oy  jm  jajellaii  bo  J>omie  mpne  jiir  on 
beppeoh  J?onne  f  hit  ahebbe  pell  •  bo  ]7onne  eolenan  • 
•j  pejimob  •  -j  betomcan  •  -j  mepce  •  *j  antjian  to  jfele 

Jepypc  beopypt  ]n]>  lunjen  piinbe  •  'j  banpypt  feo 
lf)e  hsebbe  cpoppan  jecnua  |>a  pyjita  tj;a  pyl  on  but- 
pan.  bjienc  pi6  lunjen  able  jentm  hmbheoloj^an  leap  • 
•j  limb  bejijean  •  -j  japclipan  heopbpemlep  ^  leap  pyl 
on  pypte  Iset  bjnncan. 

Pij?  lunjen  able  •  hmb  bepi^ean  leap  -j  hpeobef  fpiji 
peabe  liopan  •  btpeeopj^ypt  bolhpunan  •  neptan  on  clse- 
num  pfetpe  ealle  ]7ap  ]'ypca  pylle  "j  bpmce.  ]}ip  lunjen 
able  ]'ypc  pealpe  on  butepan  "j  j^ije  on  meolcum  •  mm 
bpiine  pypt  meobopyjit  •  bepc  pajo  •  nepte  •  japclipe. 
fol.  100  a.  Pi]?  lunjen  able  bpime  pyjit  cneopholen  •  betomca  • 
pubu  mepce  fnpie  •  eopop  peapn  •  acumba  •  japclipe  • 
tpejen  bjiemlaj'  •  uouelle  •  pab  •  pypc  to  bpence  -j  to 
)*ealpe.  Je^i^i  eopoppeapn  jecnupa  *j  apylle  on  butpan 
bo  |)a  pealpe  on  apyllebe  jate  meoluc  'j  Jncje  on  neaht 
neptij  •  -j  on  upan  mete.  bpenc  pi]?  bpijpe  lun- 
jenne  •  holen  pmbe  •  -j  .V.  leapan  •  bile  •  -j  pebic  je- 
cnua  to  bufte  •  'j  op  jeot  mib  ealoS  pele  bpincan 
jelome.  6pt  bpenc  •  mapubian  •  -j  betomcan  •  mepce 
jiube  •  fupapulbpe  pmbe  •  jiah  ]7opn  pmbe  bpince  on 
ealaS.  bpip  pi)?  lunjen  able  •  ontpan  •  eolonan  •  majiu- 
bian  •  penpypt  •  j^a  clipihtan  •  pube  •  mepce  •  pipo^  • 
huni^.  Pi}>  bpijpe  limjenne  •  op  pealpyjite  mopan  •  ^ 
op  pleol^an  pypte  •  hunan  •  bilep  pseb-  feo]?  on  butpan 
pele  etan  colne  on  mop^enne  •  ^  on  nilit  •  -j  bpip  hi]* 
mete  pi]?  ele.  6pt  mm  alpej-  pmbe  feo]?  on  pa3tpe  o]? 
f  }?3ep  psetepef  pie   ]?pibban  bsel  onbepylleb  pele  ];oime 

'  heopbpem  bjiemie)-,  ]\IS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II.  267 

gagel,   then   add    new   yeast,   then  wrap  it  up  that  it      I5nf'l^  !• 
may  rise  well,  then  add  helenium,  and  wormwood,  and 
betony,  and  marche,  and  ontre  ;  give  the  man  this  to 

2.  Work  together  beewort,  for  a  lung  wound,  and  that 
bonewort  which  hath  bunches  of  floAvers ;  pound  the 
two  worts,  boil  in  butter.  A  drink  for  lung  disease  ; 
take  leaves  of  hindheal,  and  hind  berries,  or  raspberries, 
and  garclife,  or  agrimony,  and  leaves  of  the  hip 
bramble,  or  dogrose;  boil  them  in  wort  of  beer;  make 
the  man  drink. 

3.  For  lung  disease  ;  leaves  of  hind  berries,  or  rasp' 
berries,  a  spike  of  a  reed,  red  hove,  bishopwort,  dol- 
hrune,  nepeta ;  let  the  man  boil  all  these  worts  in  clean 
water,  and  drink.  For  lung  disease,  work  a  salve  in 
butter,  and  take  the  same  in  milk ;  take  brownwoii, 
meadwort,  birch  lichen,  nepeta,  garclife,  or  agrimony. 
For  lung  disease ;  brown  wort,  knee  holly,  betony,  wild 
marche,  sorrel,  everfern,  oakum  (ashes),  garclife,  the 
two  brambles,  the  dogrose  and  blackberry,  wowelle, 
woad ;  work  these  into  a  drink  and  into  a  salve.  Take 
everfern,  pound  it,  boil  it  in  butter,  put  "the  salve" 
into  boiled  goats  milk,  and  let  the  man  take  it  at 
night  fasting,  and  on  the  top  of  that  his  meat.  A 
drink  for  a  dry  lung ;  pound  to  dust  rind  of  holly  and 
cinqfoil,  dill  and  radish,  and  pour  them  all  over  with 
ale ;  give  the  man  that  to  drink  frequently.  Again, 
a  drink  ;  let  him  drink  in  ale,  marrubium  and  betony, 
marche,  rue,  rind  of  crab  apple  tree,  sloe  thorn  rind. 
A  brewit  for  lung  disease  ;  ontre,  helenium,  marrubium, 
wenwort,  that  namely  which  is  bulbed,  rue,  marche, 
pepper,  honey.  For  a  dry  lung  ;  some  root  of  wallwort, 
and  of  fleath  Wort,  Iborehouud,  seed  of  dill ;  seethe  these 
in  butter,  give  the  brewit  to  the  man  to  eat  cold,  in 
the  morning  and  at  night,  and  di'ess  his  meat  with 
oil.  Again,  take  rind  of  alder,  seethe  in  water  till  a 
third  part  of  the  water  be  boiled  away,  then  give  the 

268  LMCE  BOC. 

V  cailic  jrulne  to  bpiiicanne  on  |>]iy  ]'i]7al'  •  Iset  liinle  btej- 
]?e|ine  betpeonuiii.  ]?i];  limjen  punbe  •  )«e]-  blacan 
fol.  100  b.  ipjep  cjioppena  *j  cojma  ?epelu  |>peo  on  bjoj  .v.  on 
niopjene  feojran  ]'y  jjpibban  breje  ])onne  nijon  •  ]7onne 
.XI.  ))onne  ];jieotcyne  •  ]?onne  pjityne  •  ];onne  feo}:on- 
t^me  •  ]7onne  nijantyne  •  Jjonne  .xxi.  yele  Ipa  refteji 
bajum  bpmcan  on  pme.  6pt;  jnjj  lunjen  punbe  beto- 
nican  pyl  on  pine  pele  bjuncan.  pi|?  J>on  ilcan  jemni 
miijcpyjit  nipepeapbe  •  "j  bpunepypt  pyl  on  butepan. 
])\j)  lunjen  able  jentm  cpican  •  -j  ac  pmbe  •  -j  jajiclipan 
^ecnupa  tojfebepe  •  bepylle  ];onne '  ]7]nbban  bsel  on 
hpcetrene  fy]\te  iupe  sepceji  amylte  butepan. 

Gpt  ^emm  bpune  j'yjit  •  -j  l:)ij'ceop  pypt  •  pubu  mejice  • 
pubu  cepfillan  •  eopop  peapn  •  hmb  hiolo];e  •  acuinba  • 
attoplaJ;e  •  jieabe  hope  •  "j  ma^bejie.  pi]'  lunjen  able  • 
bolbpune  •  -j  i\3pep];e  nioj^opeajib  •  -^  bjiune  pyjit  •  'j 
peabe  hope  •  "j  jieabe  netlan  apylle  on  hunije  '-j  on 
cubutepan  pup  on  meolcum.  6ft  i^emin  jitebicep 
.III.  Ihcieba  •  -j  bpabe  leacep  jelice  -j  i'picep  .ill.  bo  f 
.III,  bajaf  o]']7e  1113011. 

fol.  101  a.  -Lll- 

To  fpip  bjience  .VI.  cojin  aljuiii  .  xxx.  lybcojma  -j 
J^a  jpeatan  pyjit  nio]?opeapbe  •  lipejij'e  liatte  bjnje  ]?a 
on  lunnan  "j  ellen  jiinbe  nij^ej'eajibe  bjuje  eac  *j  ^etju- 
pula  fpijje  fmsele  •  bo  healpnc  bollaii  ealoS  to»  "j  fpete 
v^  inib  liunije  •  bo  lipon  butepan  •  -j  pipojiep  hpon  •  *j 
jehaste  •]>  ealu  -j  bo  hpon  pealtep  to.  6ft  pepmob  -j 
eolonaii  la3ppe  last  ftanban  tjia  niht  on  ealo])  bjiince 
Jjonne.  6ft  jlasbene  •  hope  p leotj'ypt  cnupa  on  eala]?  -j 
jefpet  bjunce  ]H)mie.  Tip  inon  hme  bpeee  opeji  ;»;emec 
to  fpipanne  fij^jjan  hiiii  i'pip  bjicnc  op  lie  •  jemin  pa;tte]- 
flaifce]-  )-ele  tpa  fnseba.      Pece  bjienc  •  elene  ]?one  lasp- 

Iiisert  0)',  as  emcudution. 

LEECH    P.OOK.    II.  2fi9 

man  a.  chalice  full  to  drink  at  three  times  ;  leave-  liook  ii. 
always  a  days  space  between.  For  hmg  wound ;  of  *^''''  "• 
the  berry  bunches  of  the  black  ivy  and  of  its  grains, 
at  first  three  a  day,  live  on  the  inorrow,  seven  the 
third  day,  then  nine,  then  eleven,  then  thirteen,  then 
fifteen,  then  seventeen,  then  nineteen,  then  tAventy-one; 
give  them  so,  according  to  the  days,  to  be  drunk  in 
vrine.  Again,  for  lung  wound,  boil  betony  in  wine, 
give  it  to  be  drunk.  For  the  same  ;  take  the  nether- 
ward  part  of  jnugwort  and  brownwort,  boil  in  butter. 
For  lung  disease  ;  take  quitch,  and  oak  rind,  and  agri- 
mony ;  pound  them  together,  then  boil  to  the  third  part 
in  wheaten  wort  of  beer  ;  sip  afterwards  some  melted 

4.  Again,  take  brownwort,  and  bishopwort.  wild 
)narche,  wood  chervil,  everfern,  hindheal,  oakum  (aslies), 
attorlothe,  red  hove,  and  madder.  For  lung  disease  ; 
dolhrune,  and  the  netherward  part  of  feferth,  and  brown- 
wort, and  red  hove,  and  red  nettle  ;  boil  them  in  honey 
and  in  cows  butter ;  sip  this  in  milk.  Again,  take 
three  slices  of  radish,  and  the  like  of  broad  leek,  and 
of  bacon  three  :  do  that  for  three  days  or  nine. 


1.  For  an  emetic  ;  six  grains  of  aloes,  thirty  of  lib- 
corns,  and  the  netherward  part  of  great  wort,  wherwe 
it  hight,  dry  it  in  the  sun,  and  elder  rind,  the  nether- 
ward part,  dry  it  also,  and  triturate  it  very  small,  add 
half  a  bowl  of  ale,  and  sweeten  with  honey,  add  a 
little  butter,  and  a  little  pepper,  and  heat  the  ale,  and 
add  a  little  salt.  Again,  wormwood,  and  helenium,  but 
less  of  it ;  let  them  stand  for  two  nights  in  ale,  then 
let  the  man  drink.  Again,  gladden,  hove,  float  wort, 
pound  these  in  ale,  and  sweeten  it,  then  let  the  man 
drink.  If  a  man  strain  himself  overmuch  to  spew,  after 
a  spew  drink  is  past  oflf  from  him,  take  some  fat  flesh, 
give  him  two  slices.  A  weak  emetic  drink;  helenium, 
VOL.  IT.  R   7  ••- 

270  LiECE   BOC. 

Tan    bsel   j^unjei'  •  cammoc  pyl  f  on   eala);    j'ele  f  lyt- 

lum  fupan  |;onne  hit  col  fie  o]?  f  he  fpipe.     ij)  i]'  hope 

nijjepeapb   belcjiepen  "j  jecnuab  •    -j   ellen   pyjittjiuman 

jimbe  ap^ej'c  }>a   cleene  'j  befcjiepene  •    apenb   ];onne  op 

S     J'am  pyjittpuman  •    -j  jecnua    50tpo]:>an  •  -j  penpypt  fio 

peaxe]>  on  ealbum  lanbe  •  jeot  ]?onne  hlutco^  eala  to  • 

fol.  101  h.         pylle   fpa   ipijjpe   mebo   jip  liebbe    beppeo    *j  laet   I'tan- 

ban   mhtepne    apeoh    liollan   piilne   jel'pete   )?onne   mib 

hunije  aj-eoh  ]?onne  ept  •  bebinbe  ]7onne  jenoh  peapme  • 

)o    Isete     J'onne    Itanban    neahtepne.       bpmce    ]?onne    on 

mojijen  'j  hme   pjieo   peapme  'j  liim  pla^p  beop^e  fpij^e 

jeopne  •    lanje    he    msej   on   )7am   ])yptuni   ftanban   ^ 

J^onne   hme    mon    bpmcan    piUe    onhpepe    ept.     Py]ice 

J'onne  m  J^iep  bollan   pulne   fpa  he  Mep  pophte  •  jip   he 

15-    fie    to    unfpi'6    jejnibe    he    piptij    lyb    copna    jefpete 

jjonne.     Pypce  fpiSpan  jip  he  piUe  •  abelpe   J^a  jpeataii 

pypt  afcpep  ]?a  jpeatan  pmbe  op  jecnupa  Jjonne  fmsele 

jeot  ]7onne  hhittop   eala    on.     Se  bpene  bi]?   fpa  peljia 

fpa  f  ealu  j-elpe  hip.     Spipe    bpenc  •    jeiiim   ellenpmbe 

2  o  m]?epeapbe  •    ^  hamp3i7ite    'j   hunbteontij   lybcopna   je- 

cnua  fpi|>e  pel  ealle  j;a  pypta  bo  on  ealo  menje  ]?onne  • 

V  jenim  ]?onne   pah  mela    hseplep  o]?]?e  alpej-   aj'ipt  ];onne 

pul    clsene   tela   micle   hanb   piille    bo   on   ^emanj    Iset 

fol.  102  a.         neahtepne    ftanban    ahlyttpa    fpi]7e    pel  •    jefpet    mib 

2.  r     hunije  jebpinc  fcenc  pulne  tela  micelne,     jtp  pe  bpenc 

nelle  op  jemm  onjieb  pelle  on  eala^  bpmcan  fcenc  pulne 

])eapmep  j'ona  bi|>  pel.    Pypc  fpipbjienc.     jenim  lybcopn 

V         -j   pipoji    copn   "j   hpit    cpuba    *j    alpan    jpmb    to  bufce 

jja  pypta  fpi)?e  •  bo  on  beop  fpa    on  ptn  fpa  on   l^eoppe 

LEECH    BOOK.   IF.  271 

the  least  bit  of  thung  ov  aconite,  cammock  or  pence-  ijook  il 
ilanwm;  boil  that  in  ale ;  when  it  is  cool,  give  the  man  ^^'  '"' 
that  to  sip  little  by  little,  till  he  spew.  .  .  .  that 
is,  hove,  the  nether  part  of  it  scraped  and  pounded, 
and  the  rind  of  elder  roots  ;  wash  them  clean,  and  have 
them  scraped,  then  rend  the  rind  away  from  the  roots, 
and  pound  goutweed,  and  wcnwort,  that  namely  whicli 
waxeth  in  old  land,  then  pour  thereon  clear  ale,  boil 
it,  or  strongish  mead  if  thou  have  it,  wrap  it  up  and 
let  it  stand  or  the  space  of  a  night,  strain  out  a  bowl 
fuU,  then  sweeten  with  honey,  then  strain  again,  then 
bind  it  up  warm  enough,  then  let  it  stand  for  a  nights 
space;  then  let  him  drink  it  the  morning,  and  let  him 
wrap  himself  up  warm,  and  let  him  very  earnestly 
beware  of  sleep.  Long  may  the  drink  stand  upon  the 
worts,  and  when  a  man  hath  a  mind  to  drink  it,  let 
him  shake  it  up  again :  then  let  him  work  thereinto  a 
bowl  full,  as  he  before  wrought  it ;  if  it  be  too  weak 
let  him  rub  small  fifty  libcorns,'  and  then  sweeten  it. 
Let  him  work  it  stronger  if  he  will ;  delve  up  the 
great  wort,  scrape  away  the  great  rind,  then  pound  it 
small ;  then  pour  clear  ale  upon  it  :  the  drink  is  the 
better  according  as  the  ale  is  better.  An  emetic ;  take 
the  nether  ward  part  of  the  rind  of  elder,  and  home- 
wort,  and  a  hundred  libcorns,  pound  them  very  well, 
put  all  the  worts  into  ale,  then  mix ;  then  take  fine 
meal  of  the  hazel  or  alder,  then  sift  it  full  clean,put  in 
a  good  large  handful  amidst  the  rest,  let  it  stand  for 
a,  nights  space,  clear  it  very  thoroughly,  sweeten  with 
honey,  drink  a  good  mickle  cup  full.  If  the  drink  will 
not  he  thrown  ofi",  take  onred,  give  in  ale  a  cup  full  of 
it  warm  to  the  man  to  drink;  soon  he  will  be  well. 
Work  a  spew  drink  thus;  take  libcorns,  and  pepper- 
corns, and  mastich,  and  aloes,  grind  the  worts  to  dust 
thoroughly,  put   into   beer,  or  into  wine,  or  into  skim 

'  Seeds  of  Momordka  elaterium. 

272  LMCE   1500. 

meoluc  jij:  ]>n  ];a]ia  o)?ep]\a  napj^ep  na:^bbe  •  j^iy  ]n\  on 
pme  pyjice  o]y]>e  on  meolce  jefpet  mib  linnije  hpince 
tela  micelne  j'cenc  pulne, 

Spipe    bjienc   ]'ypc   of   beope    bo    cofc   to  'j   alpan   -j 
3"     lybcopua  piptyne  J^apa  oj^epa  jelice. 

Spipe  bpenc  liampypte  .III.  fnfieba  •  -j  ellen  jinibe  be- 
penbe  jebce  micel  .xxv.  lybcojma  ^  Sesnib  bo  hunije]- 
fpilce  an  fnseb  fie  on  ete  ]jonne  mib  cuclepe  on  fup 
batej*  psetepef  oSSe  cealbej".  Jtp  bjienc  op  men  nelle  • 
jemm  mepce  •  "j  eejipillan  feo];  fpi];e  on  psetpe  bo  j-ealt 
to  bpmce  |;onne.  Jip  hme  nman  psejTce  •  jemm  nij[;ep 
ealaS  ambep  pulne  bo  hanb  pulle  hampypte  on  •  Iset 
on    hebban    bjiince  o]?  •]?  ];n    fpipe  •    fcmi;    ]>onne    pe];]ie 

fol.  102  b.      on  mub  teoh   pa   jelleftpan  tit    bpmc   ept   Sona:- 

.;  Ntm  fcamomam  f  penij  5epe;^e  -j  jejnib  I'msele  -j 
hpep  benne  cej  fpi8e  pealt  bo  |?a  pyjit  on  ne  laet  jeyp- 
nan  f  se^  ac  pup.  Pyptbpenc  •  fcamonian  jeceo]'  )>up 
bpec  on  tu  bo  hpon  on  jjine  tunjan  jtp  bto  hpite  opeji- 
bpejbe];  fpa  meluc  ):»onne  bio  bi])  30b  •  ^ejnib  ];onne 
1;^  on  tpeopenum  prete  nsep  on  nanum  o}>pum  mib  fciccan 
o]>]>e  mib  bcepte  bo  op  p  mon  jejmban  ne  mjBje  -j? 
bi)?  jeupnen  •  bo  caubcef  on  .11.  bpopan  o'S'Se  })py  • 
oj?|?e  eleleapep  ftelan  jej^yl  toj-omne  •  jip  luo  bi]j  j^ob  • 
b]ienc  bi6  on  pemnje  •  jip  msetpa  hv6  on  oSpum  beal- 

^  IS     pum  oSSe  on  t])am  aumpe];pimsenem?e.^      Spipe  bpenc  • 

bopan  'j  onjieb  •  -j  ellen  jnnbe  jecnua  to  Somne  ellen 
Ifeft  •  bo  l^onne  to  .XXX.  pipoji  copna  jefpet  mib  bimije 
pele  bpincan. 

'  cybcopna,  MS.  I  ma  ?     Yet  the   letters  of  the   text 

-  Read  anb  S'l"  iV^  I'lum  ac  ne   1  are  quite  legible  and  clear. 

LEECH  BOOK.  TT.  273 

milk,  if  tliou  have  neither  of  tlie  others;  if  tlioii  work  P.ook  li. 
it  in  wine  or  in  milk,  sweeten  it  with  honey;  let  Ihc  *''•'"• 
man  diink  a  good  niickle  cup  full. 

2.  Work  a  spew  drink  of  beer,  add  costmary,  and 
aloes,  and  fifteen  Hbcorns,  of  the  others  similarly. 

3.  An  emetic ;  of  homewort  three  pieces,  and  rend 
up  elder  rind,  the  same  quantity,  twenty-five  libcorns, 
rub  them  to  dust,  and  of  honey  as  much  as  would  l)e 
one  piece  or  'proportion,  then  eat  thereof  with  a  sjioou, 
sip  some  water  hot  or  cold.  If  sucli  a  draught  will 
not  'pass  from  a  mau,  take  marche  and  chervil,  seethe 
them  thoroughly  in  water,  add  salt,  then  let  the  man 
drinl'.  If  there  is  inward  pain,  take  a  jug  full  of  new 
ale,  add  a  hand  full  of  homewort,  have  the  jug  held 
up  and  drink  till  thou  spew ;  then  poke  a  feather  into 
thy  mouth ;  draw  the  bad  matter  out,  drink  again 
soon.  Take  scammony,  so  much  as  may  weigh  a  penny, 
and  rub  it  small,  and  half  cook  a  hens  egg,  salt  it 
thoroughly,  j^ut  the  wort  into  it,  let  not  the  egg  coa- 
gulate, but  sip  it.  A  wort  drink ;  choose  scammony 
thus,  break  it  in  two,  put  a  bit  on  thy  tongue,  if  it 
bursteth  out  white  as  milk,  then  it  is  good ;  I'ub  it 
then  in  a  treen  vessel,  not  in  any  other,  with  a  spoon 
or  with  a  handle,  remove  what  cannot  be  rubbed  down, 
that  part  is  coagulated,  add  two  or  three  drops  of 
xuoKixov,^  or  boil  together  ivifJt  it  a  stalk  of  olive 
leaf:  if  it  be  good  the  dose  will  be  one  pennyweight; 
if  moderately  good,  one  and  a  half  or  two  penny- 
weights; if  bad,  three;  no  more  than  that.  A  spew 
drink ;  hove,  and  onred,  and  elder  rind  ;  pound  these 
together,  ]nf^t  least  of  elder,  then  add  thirty  -pepper- 
conis,    sweeten  with  honey,  give  the  ma7i  to  drink. 

'  "  Est  etiam  mecllcamentum  •  •  •  I   xiv.     See  the  moiition  fif  0-iifnaicuv. 

"  quod  KuAiKhf  nominatur. .  .  magis  I   Book  II.  Ivi.  4. 

"  prodest  potiii  datum."  Celsns,  IV.  ! 

VOL.  IT.  S 

274  LMCF.  BOC. 


To  leohcum  bjience  selfj^onan  5yp»jii]:an  •  betonican 
pa  cliipyhtaii  penpypt  •  eopop|?potan  •  heah  liiolo)?aii  • 
ealehrjian  •  eolonan  tpa  fnseba  •  clatan  •  pejbpgeban  • 
6ntj\e  •  cpopleac  to  p^tan  liealp  Lalij  pa3tep  •  Iiealp 
pie    hlutto'^    eala.     To  leohtum  bpence  •    bifceop   pyjit 

fo].  in3a.  elehcpe  •  pepmob  •  pulpep  camb  pyl  on  meolcum  fpij^e 
V  appmj    l^onne    Jmjih   claS   bpyp   ealo   on  o5Se    pm   j'eie 

fupan,  Leoht  bpenc  bipceop  pypt  ontpe  eolone  • 
mapubie-  bpeopje  bpofcle-  mepce-  [epcj^potu  •  beConica* 
lieah  hioloSe  •  limb  hiolo|?e  •  jajille  •  m'lnte  •  bile  •  pmul  • 
cepfiUe  •  bpmce  on  Bain's  jepophte.  Unfpipol  bjienc 
bifceop  pypt  •  ]?epmob  •  actoplaSe  •  fppmj  pypt;  jy '6- 
^  pipe  •  bpeopje  bpofde  •  pmul  •  jebeaten  pipop  •  jebo  ]>a 

pyjita  ealle  on  an  pset  jebo  j^onne  ealb  pm  hlutcoji 
on  "Sone  bpenc  oSSe  fpiSe  50b  mebo  bpmce  jjonne  ];one 
bpenc  neahcnej-tij  •  *j  fpa  betepe  him  Ip  fpa  he  opco]x 
bpmce  -j  ete  ]?one  bpip  j^e  hep  appiten  i]-  •  byjiij  eolo- 
nan omppan  •  ontjie  •  50t:po]?e  hjiomjeallan  •  jefcab- 
pyjiC  niojjopeapbe  •  jecnua  ])&  pypta  bo  fealt  on  pyl  on 
butpan.  Gpc  unfpipol  bpenc  •  bifceoppypr  •  syj'liipe  • 
fppmj  pypt  .V.  bajaf  bpmce  setfomne  fimle  on  mopjne 
poplsete    oJ?]ie    pipe    .v.    bpmce.       Leoht   bpenc   jemm 

fol.  1U3  b.  pepmob  •  -j  betonican  •  "j  hioloj^an^  laeft  -j  hmb  hioloj'an 
bo  on  eala.  Stille  bpenc  •  betonican  •  eolone  •  pepmob  • 
ontpe  •  hune  •  elehtpe  •  penpypt  •  ^eappe  •  bpeopje 
bpoftle  •  acto)ila<Se  pelbmojm. 


J)ip  mfcice  •  jenllm  appotanan  •  -j  attopla^an  •  bifceop 
pypt  ]?a  fuj^ejman  •  jehaete  on  beope  -j  fupe.    Jip  ftice 

Read  eh  hiolojjan. 

LEECH   BOOK.   II.  276 

Hii.  Book  n. 

Ch.  liii. 
For  a  light  drink,  iwe  elfthon,  githrife,  betony,  the 

cloved  wen  wort,  everthroat,  liorse  heal,  lupins,  two  pro- 
portions of  heleniiim,  clote,  waybroad,  ontre,  cropleek, 
for  liquid  let  half  bo  holy  water,  half  clear  ale.  For 
a  light  drink ;  bishopwort,  lupin,  wormwood,  wolfs- 
comb,  boil  thoroughly  in  milk,  then  wring  through  a 
cloth,  drop  ale  or  wine  upon  it,  give  it  the  onan  to 
sip.  A  light  drink ;  bishopwort,  ontre,  helenium,  mar- 
rubium,  dwarf  dwostle,  marche,  ashthroat,  betony,  horse 
heal,  hind  heal,  gagel  or  sweet  gale,  mint,  dill,  fennel, 
chervil,  let  the  Tnan  drink  them  wrought  up  in  ale.  A 
not  emetic  drink;  bishopwort,  wormwood,  attorlothe, 
spriugwort,  githrife,  pennyroyal,  fennel,  beaten  peppei-, 
put  all  the  worts  into  one  vessel,  then  put  clear  old 
wine  into  the  drink  or  very  good  mead,  then  let  the 
man  drink  the  draught  after  his  nights  fast,  and  it  is 
the  better  for  him  according  as  he  oftener  drinketh,  and 
let  him  eat  the  brewit  which  is  here  written  ;  borough- 
helenium,  ompre  07'  sorrel,  ontre,  goutweed,  ramgall, 
the  nether  part  of  oxeye,  pound  the  worts,  add  salt, 
boil  in  butter.  Again,  a  not  emetic  drink  ;  bishopwort, 
githrife,  springwort ;  let  the  man  drink  for  five  da5^s 
together,  always  in  the  morjiing,  let  him  leave  it  alone 
for  other  five,  and  drink  for  five  mo^^e.  A  light  drink; 
take  wormwood,  and  betony,  and  horse  heal,  the  least 
of  this,  and  hind  heal,  put  them  into  ale.  A  quieting 
drink ;  betony,  helenium,  wormwood,  ontre,  horehound, 
lupin,  wenwort,  yarrow,  dwarf  dowstie,  attorlothe,  field- 
more  or  carrot. 


For  an  inward  stitch  ;  take  abrotanon  and  attorlothe, 
the  southern  bishopwort,  that  is,  arami,  let  the  man 
heat  them  in  beer  and  sip.     If  there  be  a  stitch,  but 

s  2 


L^CE   BOC. 

butan  iiinO(Se  fie  •  jenim  ]>oniie  ])a  jieabnn  iietlan  -j 
ealbe  j^apan  jebeat  troSomiie  'j  iniijie  mib  -j  he]^e  mib 
ro  ):y]ie. 


Dpenc  -py.  mon  mnan  }:o]ili£epb  fie  •  jecnua  eolonan 
^  pyl  on  ealoS  'j  betonican  •  pepmob  'j  ]7a  clupibtaD  ' 
pen]»y]ir  pele  bpmcan.  pi]^  Income  cofcep  jobne  brel  • 
-j  pmolep  ]-?ebep  o])e]i  fpilc  jebeat;  fniffile  "j  jejnib  to 
bufue.  Jemm  }>aep  cucleji  pulne  •  jebo  on  ealb  ptn  o}>];e 
ct^pen  bpmce  ]?onne  neahcneptii;  ];py  bajap. 

^^  PiJ>  pcejicope  bipceoppypt:  •  pepmob.  betonica  •  jiebtc* 

mepce  •  cof-  •  jiuban  j-teb  pyjic  ro  bpence. 

f,)l.  Ull 

.  LVI. 

2iy  mon  ne  mseje  tirjejan  •  jemm  uman  •  -j  eac 
jecpypte  banb  pulle*  "j  mebmicebie  bollan  puhie  eala'S' 
Ijejjyl  ]?pimme  f  ealo  on  ]>sd]\e  pypte  bjnnce  ]>onue 
/  s  neahtnepcij.  Gyt  jip  mon  fy|>  jajileac  on  henne 
bpo])e  'j  yeVS  bpmcan  j^onne  Co  Iset:  hio  f  paji.  Gpr 
jate  meoluc  -j  eceb  feo)?  {ecjrebepe  pele  bjimcan.  6pc 
jate  meoluc  "j  humj  -j  pealc  pele  bpincan.  6pt;  pylle 
3;eappan  on  bunije  -j  on  bucpan  ece  p>a  pyjic  mib. 

?c         ]?i]j    tirpsejice    ept;    epelaptan    upepeapbe  •    pej^bpasban 

ellenpmbe  yealc  on  ealo  jejniben. 

Tacn  ^  be  ucpihtan   je  on  );am  upeppan  hpipe  je  on 

])am    nij^eppan.     ])a    able    mon    mse^    onjitan    be    pam 

nt^anje  hpilc  pe  on  tinfyne  fie.     Sum    bij;    ];ynne   fum 
2 ':     mib   ))iccuni   psetum    jeonb   joren.     Sum    mib    ]?a3p   m- 

no|?ep  •  "j  mib  ]>apa  fmsel  J>eapma  jebpocum  ^  jemenjeb . 

'  The  MS.  has  a  stop  after  chiy- 

-'  Nearly  as  Trallianus,  hook  x., 

cap.   i.  p.  1G7,  line  27,  cd.  Liitet. 
hook  viii.,  p.  4.'i5,  od.  Basil. 
■'  ^va-jj-aTa,  Trail, 

LEECH    l}()(^K.    11.  277 

not  in  tlje  inwards,  then  take  the  red  nettle  and  old  B'>"k  n. 
soap,  beat  them  together  and  smear  therewith,  and  ''  '^' 
foment  therewith  at  the  fire. 


1.  A  drink,  if  a  man  be  costive  within ;  jxumd  hele- 
nium,  boil  in  ale  it  and  betony,  and  the  cloved  wen- 
wort  ;  give  tlte  man  to  drink.  For  inward  disease ;  a 
good  deal  of  costmary,  and  as  much  more  of  seed  of 
fennel,  beat  small  and  rub  to  dust ;  take  a  spoon  full 
of  this,  put  it  into  old  wine,  or  wine  boiled  down  one 
third,  let  the  ona^t  drink  tliis  after  his  nights  fast  lor 
three  days. 

2.  For  sudden  sickness  ;  bishopwort,  wormwood, 
betony,  radish,  march e,  costmary,  seed  of  rue ;  work 
these,  into  a  drink. 


1.  If  a  man  may  not  discharge  his  bowels ;  take 
"  uman,"  and  also  a  contracted  hand  full  of  it,  and  a 
moderately  mickle  bowl  full  of  ale  ;  boil  strongly  the 
ale  on  the  wort,  then  let  tlie  Tiian  drink  it  after  his 
nights  fast.  Again,  if  one  seetheth  garlic  on  chicken 
broth,  and  giveth  it  the  man  as  a  drink,  then  it  removes 
the  sore.  Again,  seethe  together  and  give  him  to  drink 
goats  milk,  and  honey,  and  salt.  Again,  let  him  boil 
yarrow  in  honey  and  in  butter,  let  him  eat  the  wort 
with  tJiOse. 

2.  For  painful  evacuation  ;  the  upper  part  of  ever- 
lasting, waybroad,  elder  rind,  salt,  rubbed  up  into  ale. 

3.  Tokens  of  dysentery  either  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  belly  or  in  the  nether.  One  may  understand  the 
disease  by  tlie  ftecal  discharged,  observing  what  like 
it  is  in  appearance :  some  is  thin ;  some  is  suffused 
with  thick  humours ;  some  is  mingled  with  fragments  of 
the    inwards,    and    of  the    small    guts  ;   some  is   nuich 

278  LiECE   BOC. 

pum  I'pi^e  3e}:ylleb  mib  jjopml'e.  Sum  fpiSe  blobij. 
V  Sum    cym<S    op    ]mm    upeppau    iijupe.      Sum    op    ]mm 

ni)?e]ipan  •    |?am   |7e    op    ]?am    upeppau    hjiipe    cymS   pe 

v  ticpfejic    )>if   tacn    biS  •  f  pe    man   paji    jepelS    set    hif 

i'liapolaii    -j    on    hip   Iculbpum    hepij    pap  •    ^    ]mplr    -j 

unlufc  'j  )?upli  b^c  J^eajim  lytel  blob  bpopaS ; 

fol,  104  b.  gi5  uCpiht  abl  cymS  manejum   aejiel'u  op  to  miclum 

utjanje  •  -j  j^onne  lanje  lipile   ne  jymS  mon  )?tel"  o]>  f 

ye    innoj?    py]^^    S^    onbujinen   je    ]?ujili   ]?    jepunbob  • 

j      ,'chpikim  onpnneS  op  |?am    mibhpipe  pe  ip  betpeox  ]?8epe 

pambe  -j  J^sejie  lippe  •  -j  ]?a  j-eap  |7a  '^e  beo^  jemenjebu 

op    mettum    pij?    blob    -j    pi]?    oman    jeonbjeota]?    ]7one 

Inno]?    pyjiceaS   ypelne    utjanj  "j  po]i   }nejie   jjumnepj'e 

)7apa,omena  ne  m^ej  beon  jehsepb  ]jy  fe  mete  ac  beoj? 

/s  pomob  j?a  inno]7af  bebpipen  ]7onne   py)V^  f  to  utpsepice. 

JOu  mon    ]7a   utypnenban  men  pcyle   lacnian  pann  mon 

fceal   j'ellan    |;a    mettaj-    |?a  ^e  pambe    neappian  -j  J?am 

V  majan  ne    fce]?|;an  •    caulej-   leaj>  •  hpilum    pyi'ena   b]io}> 

•j  eceb  •  *j  pop    mib    pejbpasban   ^efoben   -j    ealbne  cyl'e 

c  gelbbenne  on  ^ate  meolce  mib  ]y  fmeppe  jate  •  lipilum 

bpsebe  ];one  cyfe  ^]  bpijne   lilap  *j  psetep  f  pie  pofe  on 

jefoben  hpilum  j'ceapp  pm  bpmce.     pync  him  onlejena 

to  clame  jepojiht  •  bejien  raelo  o]7)?e  hpreten  mib  hunije 

jeSoben  •  nub  mebmicle       *         *         '*         *         * 

Here  ma7iy  folios  have  been  taken  from  the  MS.     In 
the  margin  "  hic  lacuna  efc,"  now  erased,  may  be  read. 


LEECH   BOOK.    II.  279 

filled  with  ratten ;  some  is  very  bloody  ;  some  cometh  I^ook  11. 
jfrom  the  upper  belly/  some  fi-om  the  lower :  of  that 
in  which  the  discharge  cometh  from  the  upper  belly,  this 
is  a  token,  that  the  man  feeleth  sore  at  his  navel,  and 
heavy  sore  on  his  shoulders,  and  thirst,  and  loss  of 
appetite,  and  a  little  blood  droppeth  through  the  back 
gut  or  rectum. 

4.  The  disease  d3''senteria  cometh  to  many  first  ft-om 
too  mickle  fsecal  discharge,  and  then  a  man  for  a  long 
while  attendeth  not  to  this,  till  the  inwards  become 
either  inflamed,  or  through  that  neglect  wounded. 
At  whiles  it  beginneth  from  the  midriff,  which  is 
betwixt  the  wamb  and  the  liver,  and  the  juices  fi-om 
meats  which  are  mingled  with  blood  and  with  bad  hu- 
mours, pour  themselves  through  the  inwards  and  cause 
an  evil  faecal  discharge,  and  for  the  grimness  of  the 
inflammatous  matters  the  food  cannot  be  contained, 
but  the  inwards,-  along  with  it,  are  driven  down, 
then  that  turneth  to  dysentery.  We  say  noiv,  how 
one  must  cure  the  man  thus  afflicted ;  to  him  one  must 
give  the  meats  which  restrain  the  wamb  and  do  not 
scathe  the  maw,  juice  of  colewort,  at  whiles  peas  broth, 
and  vinegar,  and  porrum  or  leek  sodden  with  waybroad, 
and  old  cheese  sodden  in  goats  milk,  along  with  the 
grease  of  goat.  At  whiles  roast  the  cheese  and  diy 
bread,  and  let  him  drink  water  which  has  been  sodden 
upon  roses,  at  whiles  sharp  wine.  Work  him  poultices 
wrought  to  a  clammy  mass,  barley  or  wheaten  meal 
sodden  with   honey,  with  a  moderately  mickle  * 

'  'E|  vi|/ijAfc'i/  ivTfpuv,  boioels  cor-  i    tions  of   the    intestines,    and    tw 
rectly.  j    iyrtpcDV  fj   tpvaiKi]    TrtfifK-q,    the  fat 

-  That  is  c,vaiJ.ara,  abraded  poi^  \   naturally  adhering  to  them. 

280  ■  L.ECE  i;oc. 

^:  W-  -if-  S'  *  ^-  *  *  *• 

MS.  liarl.  00.,  fol.  1  a. 

ndf-t-Tis  or  pi5    |7iejie    liealj:    beabau    able  -j    bjninon    seo    cume  • 

,seo  abl  cyiii'6  on  Jja  Ipi'Span  heal):e  ]my  lichoiiiaii  • 
o(SSe  on  ]7a  pynlrjian  •  ]?ce]i  ])a  pna  roj'lupaS  ^j  beoS 
nub  ]-lipiT;]ie  'j  jnccejie  ptetan  ypeljie  'j  vfeljie  ]?iccejie 
•j  mj'celpe.' 

])a  j^peran  man  j-cicl  niib  bloMiej'um  -j  bjiencnm  -j 
liecebonnmi  on  j^ej  abon  •  J'onne  peo  abl  cume  jepelr 
on  Sone  niannan  ]?onne  ontync  ];u  Ins  niu'5  j'ceapa  hip 
tunjan  j'onne  biS  heo  on  J^a  healpe  lipittpe  ]>e  peo  abl 
on  beon  ])ilc  •  lacna  linic  |:»onne  ]nip  •  Gepejie  j^asne 
mannan  on  j'piiSe  proptne  cleo]:an  -j  peapinne  jepel'ue 
hnn  pjnSe  pel  hleope  ]78ep  "j  peapme  jleba  bepe  man 
jelonie  mn. 

Onpjieoh  hme  |)onne  -j  pceapa  Ins  lianba  jeojme  •  'j 
ppa  hp;e)?ejie  ppa  Su  cealbe  pmbe  Iset  hnn  j-ona  blob 
on  ]7a3pe  cealban  sebpe  •  septeji  ]>iejie  blobltepe  •  Imhjieja 
yrab  .III.  mho  lele  him  pypt  bpenc  litypnenbe  bo 
jiScojma  Ipa  peala  ]'pa  JfEcap  piton  p  to  pyptbpence 
]-culoii  'J  YfA  jepabe  pypta. 

JOpilum  alpan  a3}:re]i  hipe  juhre  •  him  men  Ictel  j-ellan 
hpilum  Icamoniam  •  hpilum  eyt  septreji  j'yjicbpencum  • 
];onne  he  jepelb  j-y  .  tec  eyz  blob  on  rebjie  ppa  ]m  on 
ppuman  bybepr  •  hpilum  ]yu  reoh  mib  jla^pe  o8Se  mib 
hopne  blob  op  ]niin  j-ajian  fuojnim  abeabobum. 

fol.  1  b.  ]h]y    J;;e]ie   healpbeaban    able  •  bej^e   hpilum    J^a  papan 

f-ope  iGX:  heojrSe  oS8e  be  jlebum  •  -j  pmepe  mib  ele  • 
•j  mib    luilpenbum    pealpum  •  *j  jntb  ppySe  f  j>a  pealpa 

'  The  MS.  thus. 

LEECH    EOOK.    11.  281 

lix.  ]?o(,k  II. 

llic  Mt^.  i^ecvLS  to  have  been  turitteu  about  A.D.  1040. 

1.  For  the  Iialf  dead  disease  and  whence  in  coincth.  Hemiplegia. 
The  disease  cometh  on  the  right  side   of  the  body,  or 

on  the  left,  where  the  sinews  are  powerless,  and  are 
afjiided  with  a  slippery  and  thick  humour,  evil,  thick, 
and  niickle. 

2.  Tlie  humour  must  be  removed  witli  bloodlettings, 
and  draughts,  and  leechdoms.  When  first  the  disease 
cometh  on  the  man,  then  open  his  mouth,  look  at  his 
tongue,  then  is  it  whiter  on  that  side  on  which  the 
disease  is  about  to  be  ;  then  tend  him  thus :  carry 
the  man  to  a  very  close  and  warm  chamber,  rest  him 
very  well  there  in  shelter,  and  let  warm  giedes  be 
often  carried  in. 

3.  Then  unwrap  him  and  view  his  hands  carefully, 
and  whichsoever  thou  find  cold,  on  that  cold  vein  let 
him  l>lood.  After  the  bloodletting,  somewhere  about 
three  nights,  give  him  a  pui-ging  wort  drink,  put  in 
as  many  githcorns^  as  leeches  know  nmst  be  put  into 
a  wort  drink,  and  suitable  worts. 

4.  At  whiles  must  be  given  him  aloes  after  their 
[)roper  method,  at  whiles  scannnony  ;  at  whiles  again 
after  wort  drinks,  when  he  is  in  repose,  let  blood 
again  on  a  vein  as  thou  didst  at  fii-st  ;  at  whiles  draw 
blood  with  a  cupplny  glass  or  a  horn  from  the 
sore  deadened  places. 

5.  For  the  half  dead  disease.  Warm  at  whiles  the 
sore  place  at  the  hearth  or  by  giedes,  and  smear 
with  oil,  and  with  healing  salves,  and  rub  smartly  so 

Berries  of  the  Dafnc  Idurcvla. 

282  LiECE  BOC. 

in  bej^mcen.  Pypc  ro  jealfe  ealbiie  pyple  jealtne  heoji- 
tejf  meajili  •  jof e  jiyfle  •  o^^e  hsenna  •  -j  bo  jobe  pypta 
to  beSe  J^a  sapan  I'rope  tet  pype. 

JOpilum    onleje    -j    onbinb    pic  •  "j    peax  •    pipop  •    "-j 

I'mepii  •    -j    eie  •    tojeebepe    jemilteb.      IDpilum    on    ]?a 

V^  j'apan    j-mua    "j    appollenan    leje    on    'j    bmb    on    jate 

cypbelu  jemenjeb  piS   hunij  •  oSSe   on  ecebe  jepoben  • 

]?onne  J^pmaS  J?a  aj'lapenan  "j  ]?a  aj^pollena  ^  j'lna. 

Pyi^c    liini    pyp~    bpenc    ]?e    ne    biS   utypnenbe  •    ue 
ppipol    ac    cobjiip^  -j  lyclab    ])&,   yfelan  pgetan  •  on  ])ain 
feocum  men   ]7e    bi]?    ]"pa    j'pa  hoph    o^Se    pij'oba    oS^e 
V  Genim  hunijep  ]7ip^  ly'^le  punb  bo  J?onne  to  };an  je- 

beaten  'j  apift  pipop  •  syle  Jjonne  to  picjanne  J^am 
uncpuma  ^  men.  EfC  ymbe  ]>peo  niht  j-yle  liim  on 
])am  ilcan  ^emete  oS8e  mape  •  -j  ]-pa  ymb  fcopep 

PrS  ]?8e]ie  healp  beaban  able  •  bo  p>u  hpilum  pealtep 
cuclep  msel  to  menje  piS  hunij  'j  ej:t  pipoji  •  cunna 
fpa  sejj^ep  je  on  ]?ipum  loscebome  je  on  oSpuin  ]:>8ein 
\ie  ic  eac  ppite  liu  hit  on  ntman  polbe  •  pp  p  lie 
heapb  pi  utan  leje  on  Jiane  Isecebom  j;e  f  lieapb  popbi 
lipelije  -j  ]?8et  ypel  uc  teo.  Ceoli  limi  blob  op  jip  pset 
fol.  2  a.  neb  o^Se  f  heapob    j-ap  pi  on  |?am  hnepcan  •  -j  nicca  ~ 

]'apa  Iseceboma  ]?e  J^ane  hoph  op  ]?am  heapbe  teo  •  ^  o]?];c 
l^uph  mu'S  .  o^^e  jmjili  nopu  •  -j  ];onne  he  ]>a,  miht 
hsebbe  ^ebo  p  he  jelonie  jepnepe  •  syle  him  J^a  mettaj' 
J>e  pyn  eaSmylte  •  -j  50b  j-eap  heebben  "j  he  ppam  ];am 
mectum  rasege  piuahjan  •  psec  pyn  jej'obene  pypta  • 
pyll  •  jeoce    man  ]3  sepefce    pop  -j  p  aptepe    onpej  •  bo 

MS.  thus.  I  -  Corrected  to  nycca,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.   II.  283 

that    the    salves    may   sink  in.       Work    into  a   aalve      Book  ii. 
somo  old   salt  grease,  some   horse  marrow,  some  goose 
fat  or  hens,  and  add   good  worts,  and  warm  the  sore 
2:)laces  at  the  fire. 

6.  At  whiles  lay  on  and  bind  on  pitch,  and  wax, 
and  pepper,  and  grease,  and  oil  melted  together.  At 
whiles  lay  on  and  bind  on  the  sore  swollen  sinews 
goats  treadles,  mingled  with  honey,  or  sodden  in  vine- 
gar ;  then  the  paralyzed  and  swollen  sinews  dwindle 
to  their  -proper  size. 

7.  Work  him  a  wort  drink,  which  is  not  purging 
nor  yet  emetic,  but  which  driveth  off  and  diminishes 
the  evil  humour  in  the  sick  man,  which  is,  as  it  were, 
foulness,  or  rheum,  or  mucus. 

8.  Take  of  honey  this  small  pound,^  then  add  to  it 
beaten  and  sifted  pepper  ;  then  give  it  to  the  infirm 
man  to  eat.  Again,  about  three  nights  after,  give  it 
him  in  the  same  quantity,  or  more ;  and  so  about  four 
nights  after  that. 

9.  For  the  half  dead  disease;  at  whiles,  apply  a 
spoon  measure  of  salt ;  mingle  with  honey  and  pepper 
besides.  Try  both  in  this  leechdom  and  in  others, 
which  I  also  write,  how  it  will  hold;  if  the  body  be 
hard  on  the  outside,  lay  on  the  leechdom  that  the  hard 
part  hy  it  may  turn  to  ratten,  and  may  draw  out  the 
mischief.  Draw  blood  from  him,  if  the  face  or  the 
head  he  sore,  in  the  tender  place ;  and  make  use  of  the 
leechdoms,  which  may  draw  the  foul  matter  from  the 
head,  either  through  tlic  moutli  or  through  the  nose ; 
and  when  he  hath  the  power,  cause  him  to  sneeze  often ; 
give  him  the  meats  which  are  easy  of  digestion,  and 
have  a  good  succulence,  and  that  he  by  means  of  the 
meats  may  grow  slender ;  that  is  to  say,  (jive  hion 
sodden  worts ;  boil  them  ;  let  the  first  and  the  second 

'  That  is,  a  pound  by  weight,  not  a  pint  by  measure  :  see  Leechbook, 
II.  Ixvii. 

284  L^CE    EOC. 

jwiiiie  gob  yoy  to  •  ^  yyle  to  I'j'Cjanne  bo  lycel  yealc  • 

V        'j  ele  •  *j  mejice  to  -j  pojiji  •  'j  J'aiin  ^elice.    Jlealb  ]?onne 

jeojine  ]3    ye  mete    y'i    jemylt    teji    he    him    eyt    jype  • 

j:o]iSan  ]'e  ]"e  unjemylra  mece  him  pyjicS  mj'^cel    yyel  • 

5  ycijiej"  pmey  bjimce  ?et    hpseja  gij:  he  ma  jJille  •  bjimce 

hac    preteji.     liealbe    hine  jeojine    pi^    bae]>  •    -j    hj'iliim 

jjonne  he  hit  jejjpopian  mceje  l?ete  him  blob  on  mnaii 

eapme  "j  pceappije  ]>a   pcancan  •  sepele   lascebom  •  "j  hu 

]-eo  ]iealp   beabe    abl  •    (s]i  peopeptijum    obSe   piftijum 

10  pintjia  npeppe  on  men  ne  becume. 

Sume  bee  l?ejiaS  ])iS  Jjiupe  healpbeaban  able  ]i  man 
pmtpeo]'  b?epne  to  jlebum  "j  J^onne  ])a  jleba  j-ette 
topopan  ]?am  ]-eocum  men  -j  -j)  he  ]7onne  oncynbum 
ea^um  -j  opene  mu];e  ]7ane  jiec  ipelje  ];a  Jjpage  ])e  he 
I  s  mieje  •  "j  ]?onne  he  ma  ne  raseje  onpenbe  his  neb 
apej  lychpon  *j  ejic  penbe  to  -j  onpo  6am  ftenie  *j  ]pa 
bo  telce  biege  o'6  ]3  pe  biel  ]?xy  lichoman  J^e  j'tUji  abea- 
bob  psej"  *j  jelepeb  to  J^iejie  reppan  hselo  becume. 
fol.  :2  b.  SoShce  peo  abl  cym8  on  inonnan  teptep  peopeptijmii 

o^iSe  fiptijum  piiitpa  jip  he  bi'S  cealbpe  jecynbo  ]7onne 
cym5  aepteji  peopejicijum  elcoji  cym^  septeji  piptijuin 
pmtjui  his  jsepjetale]-  •  jip  hit  jmjjian  men  jehmpe 
]>onne  biS  p  eablsecnepe  •  ^  ne  biS  peo  ylce  abl 
J7eah  ]>e  nngleape  hecap  penaii  ]>  p  peo  ylce  healp- 
beabe  abl  y'i.  liu  jelic  abl  on  man  becume  on  jeo- 
^oSe  on  pumum  lime  ppa  ayii  peo  healpbeabc  abl  on 
ylbo  beS.  ne  biS  hit  peo  healp  beabc  abl  ac  hpilc 
jcthpeja  ypel  piece  biS  jejoten  on  f  lim  ]?e  hit  on 
jepic  •  ac  biS  ea'bhecnepe  •  ac  peo  j'oSe  healpbeabe  fibl 
C}^mS  a3ftep.  piptijum  pmtpa. 

Gip  inon  jy  ptepe  healfbieban  able  j'eoc  •  o^b'e  bjuuc 
peoc  •  pypc  him  oxumelli  pubepne  eceb  bjienc  ecebej-  • 
•j  hunijep  •  'j  piutepep  jemanj. 

LEEOTT    r.OOK.    TI.  28' 

infusion  of  them  he  poured  away;  then  aJd  some  <;oo(l  Hook  II. 
decoction,  and  give  it  him  to  partake  of;  add  a  httle  *''■''"• 
salt,  and  oil,  and  marche,  and  leek,  and  such  as  those. 
Observe  then  carefully  that  tlie  meat  be  digested,  ere 
one  give  him  any  again ;  since  the  undigested  meat 
worketh  liim  much  evil :  let  him  drink  some  sheer  wine ; 
if  he  want  more,  let  him  drink  hot  water.  Let  him 
hold  back  carefully  from  the  bath,  and  at  whiles,  when 
he  may  endure  it,  let  him  blood  on  the  inner  part  of 
the  arm,  and  scarify  his  shanks.  A  noble  leechdom  ! 
And  noiv,  how  the  half  dead  disease  never  cometh  on 
a  man  before  forty  or  fifty  years  of  age. 

10.  Some  books  teach  for  the  half  dead  disease,  that 
one  should  burn  a  pinetree  to  gledes,  and  then  set  tlie 
gledes  before  the  sick  man,  and  that  he  then,  with 
eyes  disclosed  and  open  mouth,  should  svv^allow  the 
reek,  for  what  time  he  may  ;  and  when  he  is  no  longer 
able,  he  should  turn  his  face  away  a  little,  and  again 
turn  it  to  the  hot  embers,  and  accept  the  glow ;  and 
so  do  every  day,  till  the  part  of  the  body  which  was 
deadened  and  injured  come  again  to  its  former  health. 

11.  Well,  the  disease  cometh  on  a  man  after  forty 
or  fifty  winters;  if  he  be  of  a  cold  nature,  then  it 
cometh  after  forty ;  otherwise,  it  cometh  after  fifty 
winters  of  his  tale  of  years  :  if  it  happen  to  a  younger 
man,  then  it  is  easier  to  cure,  and  it  is  not  the  same 
disease,  though  unclever  leeches  ween  that  it  is  the 
same  half  dead  disease.  How  can  a  like  disease  come 
on  a  man  in  youth  in  one  limb,  as  the  half  dead 
disease  doth  in  old  age?  It  is  not  the  half  dead 
disease,  but  some  mischievous  humour  is  effused  on  tlie 
limb,  on  which  the  harm  settles ;  but  it  is  easier  of 
euro ;  and  the  true  half  dead  disease  cometh  after 
fifty  years. 

12.  If  a  man  be  sick  of  the  half  dead  disease,  or 
epileptic,  work  him  o0ujw.eA<,  a  southern  acid  drink,  a 
mixture  of  vinegar,  and  honey,  and  water. 

286  l;ece  boo. 

Him  ecebey  anne  bsel  •  hunijey  rpejen  bselay  pel 
jeclaej'nobej*  •  psetejiej*  jzeopSan  •  jpeoS  j^onne  oS  f 
]?pibbaii  bsel  J)fepe  psetan  •  oS'Se  peop'San  •  -j  pleot 
■p  pam  -j  p  pot  fymle  ^  op  oS]>8et  hit  jepoben  pi  • 
jip  J»u  piUe  ]?one  bpenc  ptpenjpan  pypcan  •  ]7onne 
bo  )pu  ppa  mycel  ]78ep  ecebep  ppa  }>sep  hunijep  -j  nytta 
Jjpep  Ifieceboma]-  je  pi5  pippe  able  je  piS  pelcepe  pul 
neali.  llim  pimble  ])veY  ecebbpencep  fpa  jepophtep 
j'pa  mycel  ppa  ]>e  ]?ince  •  bo  piS  jjippum  ablum  psebic 
fol.  3  a.  oil    f   peap   ]7£B]-    bpmcep   la^t   beo   nilitepne   on  •    syle 

Jjonne  on  mopjenne  J^am  j-eocum  men  •  neahtnefui- 
511m  ]7ane  psebic  fpa  jefeapne  to  Jjicjanne  fpa  he 
fpySuft  mseje  •  -j  p  ]m  Jeanne  laepe  j^sej'  seapep 
j-ySSan  ]-e  psebic  ope^  py  •  jeot  hat  pteteji  on  syle 
bjuncan  ])am  seocum  men  to  pylle.  anb  ]?onne  ymbe 
anep  bse^ey  hpile  ftmje  him  mon  pe];epe  on  muS 
oSSe  pmjep  nebe  hme  to  fpipanne.  mm  ept  elej' 
anne  bsel*  peapmep  psetepej-  tpe^an*  pealtep  tpejaii 
cucele]'^  puUe  menj  tojsebejie  pyle  to  bpmcanne  ceac 
pulne  -j  ]?anne  fringe  pmjeji  on  mu8  bsebe  to  fpi- 
panne •  Iset  ]?anne  fpipan  on  ]?ane  ylcan  ceac  ]>e  he 
tep  op  bpanc  jefceapa  ponne  hpseSeji  pe^  spipSa  ]-y 
ppa  micel  ppa  he  pbji  jebpanc  •  jip  he  mapa  jy  tyla 
hi]'  ppa  •  jip  he  emmicel  pi  pane ''  pe  he  seji  jebpanc 
pyle  ept  on  Sa  ilcan  pipan  oSpset  he  ma  fpipe  panne 
he  jebpmce  teji  •  pis  pceal  fpipuft  piS  blsebpan  able 
♦j  J^sem   fta.num   pe   on   blsebbpan  pyn. 

PiIS  pifBpe  healpbeaban  [able]  •  Nim  p  ]J8ete]i  pe 
pyopan  jifBpan  on  jepobene  opep  piUeba  pyle  bjimcan 
fpiSe  ponne  pecS'^  p  pone  innoS  "-j   cl^enpaS.     Ept  pyn- 

'  fuiyle,  MS. 

-  Read  O]-,  for  oye. 

^  Read  cuclejiaj-. 

'  On  this  form,  see  St,  Marharete, 
p.  84. 

^  Read  I^am. 

'■  Perhaps  j'ej-c^,  washeth. 

LEECH   BOOK.  fT.  287 

13.  Take  of  vinegar,  one  part;  of  honey,  well  Book  ir. 
cleansed,  two  parts;  of  water,  the  fourtli  iwH ;  then  < '■•  i'^- 
seethe  clo^vn  to  the  third  or  fourth  part  of  the  liquid, 

and  skim  the  foam  and  the  refuse  off  continually,  till 
the  mixture  be  fully  sodden.  If  thou  wish  to  work 
the  drink  stronger,  then  put  as  much  of  the  vinegar 
as  of  the  honey,  and  use  the  leechdom  either  for  this 
disorder,  or  for  full  nigh  any  one.  Take  always  of  the 
acid  drink,  so  wrought,  as  much  as  may  seem  good  to 
thee.  For  these  disorders  put  a  radish  into  the  liquor 
of  the  drink ;  let  it  be  in  it  for  the  space  of  a  night ; 
then  give  in  the  morning  to  the  sick  man,  after  his 
nights  fast,  the  radish  so  liquored  to  eat,  as  he  best 
may;  and  then,  when  the  radish  is  gone,  pour  thou 
hot  water  on  the  remains  of  the  liquor ;  give  it  to  the 
sick  man  to  drink  to  the  full.  And  then,  after  about 
a  days  space,  let  some  one  poke  a  feather  into  his 
mouth,  or  a  finger ;  1-et  him  compel  him  to  spew. 
Again,  take  of  oil,  one  part ;  of  warm  water,  two  ;  of 
salt,  two  spoons  full ;  mingle  them  together ;  give  to 
drink  a  jug  full,  and  then  poke  a  finger  into  his  moutli ; 
bid  him  spew;  let  him  spew  into  the  same  jug  from 
which  he  before  di'ank ;  then  examine  whether  the 
vomit  be  as  much  as  he  ere  drank.  If  it  be  more,  tend 
him  then ;  if  it  be  just  as  much  as  he  before  dranlc, 
give  him  again  in  the  same  wise,  till  he  spew  more 
than  he  drank  before.  This  must  be  applied  chiefly 
for  disease  of  bladder,  and  for  the  stones  which  are 
in  the  bladder. 

14.  For  the  half  dead  [disease].  Take  the  water  on 
which  peas  were  sodden,  and  overboiled  ;  give  it  tJir 
man  to  drink.     That  strongly  waketh  up  and  cleanseth 

288  JuMCR   T,OC.     ' 

pnlliiii   leaj:    on    pin   jejmben    p   cl^enpaS   ])ane     mnac). 
Pi5  pan  ilcan  ep  •    ellene)^  bloj'man    jenim  -j  jejnib  ^ 
v^  5emeni;e  pi6  liunij  'j  [^ebo  on  box  •    -j   ]?onne    ]^ea]\y    pi 

;t;eniin  bollan  pulne  hluccjiep  jefpettep  ptnep  jemeuje 
piS  ]3  'j  apeohhe  pyle  bpmcan.  yrti  ];an  ilcau  betan 
mib  liipe  pyptjiiiman  peo^S  on  j^retejie  butan  pealte  • 
]-yle  l^onne  jjtpp  psetejiej-  bollan    pulne  to  jcbjiincanne. 


fol.  io5a.  jSce  o]?epne  healpne  penmj  ^epeje  jejmb  fpi|;e  finale 
bo  ];onne  on  liluttoji  rej  -j  pele  |)am  men  to  fup- 
anne  •  hio  ip  fpi];e  50b  eac  on  ]>ap  pifan  piS  hpoftan 
•j  pi|?  fpjiin^e  bo  pap  ]'y]ite  on  he  bi]?  pona  hal.  Jjip 
ip  bakaman  fmypmj  pi}^  eallum  untpnmnepj-um  ]>e  on 
niannep  lieboman  bi]?  •  pi]?  pepjie  •  'j  pi]:>  pcmlace  -j  pri 
eallum  jebpolj^mje.  Sal  fpa  pame  j-e  petpa  oleum  lie 
]]■  50b  'jpealb  CO  bpmcanne  pi's  mnan  ciebepnej-pe  'j 
utan  to  fmejipanne  on  pintpep  ba:i3e  pop  ]?on  J^e  he 
h{iep6  fj'iSe  micle  hrete  poji  5y  hme  mon  fceal  bjuncan 
on  jnntpa  •  'j  he  ip  30b  jip  hj^am  feo  fpjitec  o]>fylS 
nime  ];onne  -j  pyjice  cjiifcej'  mjel  unbep  hip  tunjan  *j 
hi]-  an  lycel  fpelje  •  jTp  mon  eac  op  hip  jepitte  peopSe 

^selcmu?  |?onne  nime  he  hip  btel  "j  pypce  epiftep  mtel  on  selcpe-^ 

,  lime    bucan    epuc   on    J^am    heapbe   popan    pe   fceal  on 

balzame  beon  -j  o]jep  on  ]7am  heapbe  upan.  Tyjuaca 
"Tp  50b  bpenc  pi})  eallum  innoS  tybepneppum  •  *j  pe 
man  fe  ]>e  hme  f])a  bejas])  fpa  hit  hep  on  pejS  j^onne 
msej  he   him   miclum   ^ehelpan.      To   ]?am    boeje  ]>e  he 

fol.  105  b.  pille  hine  bpincan  he  fceal  preftan  o]?  mibne  brej  *j  ne 
Itete  hme  pinb    beblapan    ])y    btej^e  •    ;^a  liim  ]wnne  on 

LEECH   ROOK.   II.  289 

the  inwards.  Again,  leaves  of  liouseleek  bruised  in  Book  li. 
wine;  that  cleanseth  the  inwards.  For  the  same  again ;  CU.  lix. 
take  blossoms  of  elder,  and  rub  them,  and  mix  them 
with  honey,  and  put  them  in  a  box,  and  when  need 
be,  take  a  bowl  full  of  clear  sweetened  wine,  mingle 
with  that  and  strain :  administer.  For  the  same ; 
seethe  beet  with  its  roots  in  water  without  salt ;  then 
administer  a  bowl  full  of  the  water  to  drink. 

Ixiv.  Patriarch 

Ilelias  sends 
********  -:ij  these  to  King 


so  much  as  may  weigh  a  penny  and  a  half,  rub  very 
small,  then  add  the  white  of  an  egg,  and  give  it  to  the 
man  to  sip.  It  (balsaon)  is  also  very  good  in  this  wise 
for  cough  and  for  carbuncle,  apply  this  wort,  soon  shall 
the  man  be  hole.  This  is  smearing  with  balsam  for 
all  infirmities  which  are  on  a  mans  body,  against 
fever,  and  against  apparitions,  and  against  all  delusions. 
Similarly  also  petroleum  is  good  to  drink  simple  for 
inward  tenderness,  and  to  smear  on  outwardly  on  a 
winters  day,  since  it  hath  very  much  heat ;  hence  one 
shall  drink  it  in  winter :  and  it  is  good  if  for  anyone 
his  speech  faileth,  then  let  him  take  it,  and  make  the 
mark  of  Christ  under  his  tongue,  and  swallow  a  little 
of  it.  Also  if  a  man  become  out  of  his  wits,  then 
let  him  take  part  of  it,  and  make  Christs  mark  on 
every  limb,  except  the  cross  upon  the  forehead,  that 
shall  be  of  balsam,  and  the  other  also  on  the  top  of 
his  head.  Triacle  (Syj^iuxov)  is  a  good  drink  for  all  in- 
ward tendernesses,  and  the  man,  who  so  behaveth  him- 
self as  is  here  said,  he  may  much  help  himself.  On 
the  day  on  which  he  will  drink  triacle,  he  shall  fast 
until  midday,  and  not  let  wind  blow  on  him  that 
day :  then  let  him  go  to  the  bath,  let  him  sit  tliere 
VOL.   IL  T 

290  L^CE  BOC. 

hve]?  yicte  }^£e]i  on  oS  f  he  fpfete  •  nime  ];onne  ane 
cuppan  bo  an  lytel  peapmep  pcetpej'  on  mnan  nime 
jjonne  ane  lytle  pnreb  ]>£&]"  cypiacan  -j  jemenje '  pi|>  ]3 
psetep  "j  peoh  J>upli  }>ynne  lipsejl  bjimce  ]7onne  •  -j  ja 
s  him  j7onne  to  hip  pefre  "j  beppeo  hme  peapme  •  ^  hcje 
fpa  o]7  he  pel  fpaste  •  apij'e  ]?onne  -j  fitre  him  up  "j 
fcippe  hme  -j  J^ic^e  pi]7);an  hip  mete  to  nonef  -j  beopje 
him  jeopne  pi);  ];one  pmb  p^jep  baejep  •  ]?onne  ^elype 
ic  to  jobe  ^  hit  ]7am   men   miclum  jehelpe.     Se  hpita 

1 0  ftan  msej  pi]>  fcice  -j  pi]?  pleojenbum  atcpe  •  -j  pi|? 
eallum  uncuj^um  bpocum  •  bu  j-cealt  hme  fcapan  on 
psetep  "j  bpmcan  tela  mieel  "j  J'sepe  peaban  eopj^an  bsel 
pcape  jfseji  to  -j  ]?a  franaf  fmt  ealle  fpiSe  jobe  op  to 
bpmcanne    pi]?    eallum  uncu]7licu   ]?in5  •  ^    honne  f  pyji 

1 1  op  ]?am  fcane  aplejen  Wt  ip  50b  pi^  lijetta  •  -j  pi^ 
]7unoppaba  -j  piS  aelcep  cynnef  jebpol  j^m^  •  "j  jip  mon 
on  hif  pege  bi]>  jebpolob  j-lea  him  anne  fpeajican 
bepopan    bi]?    he    j-ona    on    jiihtan.      bip    eal    het   ]ju]' 

fol.  IOC  a.         pec;5ean    ffilppebe    cynin;<;e   bomne  heliaj'   patpiapcha  on 
2  b  ^epuj-alem. 


Q^p  hopf  oj'fcoten  pie  •  Nim  Jjonne  ■^  peax  j^e  ^vet 
lisepte  fie  pealo  h]iy];e]ief  hojm  -j  pien  .  III.  rejiene 
nse^laf  on  •  Pjiit  }?onne  j^am  hopj-e  on  pam  heapbe 
pojian  cpifcep  msel  "j  on  leoJ»a  jehpilcum  ]?e  J?u  aetpeo- 

ixs  Ian  TOseje  •  Nim  ]?onne  f  pmefcpe  eape  ]7U]ili  ftmj 
fpi^enbe  •  ]?ip  j^u  j-cealt  bon  •  ;5enim  ane  jipbe  pleah 
on  f  base  {?onne  bi];  f  hopp  hal  •  -j  appit  on  ]isey 
pcaxep  hopne  ];a]'  jjojib  •  benebicite  omnia  opepa 
bomini  bommum.     Sy  f  ylpa  ];e  him  fie  ]np  him  maej 

3c   Co  bote,     pi]?    utppepce    bpembel   ]?e    pien    bejeii  enbaf 

After  semense,  MS.  lias  ])e  pij'.  |       -'  Head  ealle. 

LEECH   BOOK.    TI.  291 

till  he  sweat ;  then  let  him  take  a  cnp,  and  j)iit  a  Book  II. 
little  warm  water  in  it,  then  lot  him  take  a  little  bit  '"  '"^' 
of  the  triacle,  and  mingle  with  the  water,  and  drain 
through  some  thin  raiment,  then  drink  it,  and  let  him 
then  go  to  his  bed  and  wrap  himself  up  warm,  and 
so  lie  till  he  sweat  well ;  then  let  him  arise  and  sit 
up  and  clothe  himself,  and  then  take  his  meat  at  noon, 
three  Jiours  past  midday,  and  protect  himself  earnestly 
against  the  wind  that  day  :  then,  I  believe  to  God, 
that  it  may  help  the  man  much.  The  white  stone  is 
powerful  against  stitch,  and  against  flying  venom,  and 
against  all  strange  calamities :  thou  shalt  shave  it  into 
water  and  drink  a  good  mickle  ,  and  shave  thereto  a 
portion  of  the  red  earth,  and  the  stones  aie  all  very 
good  to  drink  of,  against  all  strange  uncouth  things. 
When  the  fire  is  struck  out  of  the  stone,  it  is  good 
against  lightenings  and  against  thunders,  and  against 
delusion  of  every  kind  :  and  if  a  man  in  his  way  is 
gone  astray,  let  him  strike  himself  a  spark  before  him, 
he  will  soon  be  in  the  right  way.  All  this  Dominus 
Helias,  patriarch  at  Jerusalem,  ordered  one  to  say  to 
king  Alfred. 


If  a  horse  is  elf  shot,'  then  take  the  knife  of  whicli 
the  haft  is  horn  of  a  fallow  ox,  and  on  which  are  three 
brass  nails,  then  write  ujDon  the  horses  forehead  Christs 
mark,  and  on  each  of  the  limbs  which  thou  may  feel 
at :  then  take  the  left  ear,  prick  a  hole  in  it  in  silence  ; 
this  thou  shalt  do ;  then  take  a  yerd,  strike  the  horse 
on  the  back,  then  will  it  be  hole.  And  write  upon  the 
horn  of  the  knife  these  words,  "  Benedicite  omnia  opera 
domini,  dominum."  Be  the  elf^  what  it  may,  this  is 
mighty    for    him    to    amends.      Against    dysentery,    a 

*  Elf  shot  in  the  Scottish  phrase.    I   partitive,   as    II)nlc     haele'Sa,   what 
-  The   construction  as  in  Ic  hir  I  hero. 
eom,  /  am  he ;  combined  with  the  I 

T   2 

fol.  lOG  b. 

292  L^CE   BOC. 

on  eo]i)?an  •  jenim  ]?one  neopjian  pyjittjiuman  belj:  up 
]7pi'c  iiijon  fponaf  on  ];a  pmfcjian  hanb  *j  ymj  ]?pi]ia 
miSejiejie  mei  beuj-  •  -j  nijon  fijmm  patep  nojfteji  • 
jennn  j^omie  mucjpyjit;  •  -j  epelafcan  •  pyl  ]?ap  ]>peo  ^  on 
meolcum  o]>  p  hy  jieabian  fiipe  }>onne  on  neahc  nejxij 
jobe  blebe  puUe  hpile  sep  he  oJ?ejine  inete  J^icje  •  pefce 
lime  j'opre  •  -j  ppeo  hme  peapme  •  jip  ma  j^eapp  fie  bo 
eft  fpa  •  jip  ]>n  J^onne  jit  ]?uppe  bo  }>pibban  pi]je  ne 
}>eappt  ]m  optop.  rtp  utjanj  popfeten  fie  jenim  ji'S- 
cojmep  leapa  jobe  hanb  pulle  -j  pa  pupan  pejbpseban 
nio]?opeapbe  •  "j  boccan  ];a  ]>e  fpimman  pille  •  pyl  paj" 
|7peo  on  ealbum  ealab  fpi]7e  -j  bo  pealte  butepan  on 
pylle  l^icce  Iset;  bpmcan  jobe  blebe  pulle  lipile  sep  oSpum 
mete  -j  ppeoh  lime  peapme  •  'j  pefce  fcille  bo  }>up  ];pipa 
iS  ne  ]7eapp  opto*^. 

pip  lunjen  able  laecebom  bun  caslire  •  paluie  •  pube  be 

liealpan  ]:'sepe  paluian  •  pepep  pujian  emmicel  |)apa  tpejea 

pypta  ]7a3]ie  j-aluian  ]?peo  fpelc  bpeopje  bpoftlan  liiepe  ])e 

nu^  ealpa    pypta    pypmej-t    on  ]?a   pealpe  ]>e  him  J^ipej' 

20    laecebomep  peapp  fie  healbe  hme  jeojme  pi]?  jefpet  eala 

bjimce  hluttop    eala    -j    on    ]?£e)'    hluttpan  ealaS  pyjite 

pylle    jeonje    acpmbe    "j    bjimce.     pij?    utpsepce    gemm 

unfmepijne    healpne    cyfe    bo    enjlipcep    huni^ep     .ill. 

fnseba  to  •  pylle  on  pannan  op  f  hit  bpunije  •    jenim 

?i  l^onne    jeonjpe    acpmbe    hanb    pulle  "j  fpa  fpijenbe  set 

ham  jebpmj  'j  nseppe  m  on  j^one  mon  j-ceape  p  jjiene 

on  utan  pylle  pa  fagp  fpone  on  cu  meolce  jefpete  mib 

fol.  1U7  a.         })pim  fn^ebum  humjef  pone  bpenc   picje   ponne  mib  Sy 

cype    jepceji    bpence     .vii.    niht    eala    popja    *j    meoloc 

,.  picje  unfiipe.     ^ip  unlybbum  fupe    cu  butejian    .villi. 

'  Two  herbs  are  named  :  the  chips  |       -  These  words  are  scarcely  with- 
are  third.  I  out  error. 

LEECH   BOOK.   II.  293 

bramble  of  which   both   ends  arc  in  the  earth ;  ^    take      Booli  il. 

the  newer  root,  delve  it  up,  cut  up  nine  chips  into  the      ^'^'  '■''^' 

left  hand,  and  sing  three  times  the  Miserere  mei,  deus, 

and  nine  times   the  pater  noster ;  then   take  mug  wort 

and   everlasting,  boil   these   three,    the   vjorts   and  the 

chips,  in  milk  till  they  get  red,  then  let  the  man  sip 

at  night  fasting  a  good  dish  full,  some  while  before  he 

taketh  other  meat ;  let  him  rest  himself  soft,  and  wrap 

himself  up    warm ;   if  more    need    be,    let  him    do    so 

again :  if  thou  still  need,  do  it  a  third  time,  thou  wilt 

not  need   oftener.     If  the    fsecal  discharge    be   lodged, 

take    of  the  leaves   of  githcorn  a  good  hand  full,  and 

the  nether  jDart  of  the  rough  waybroad,  and  the    dock 

which  will  swim  ;  boil  these  three  in  old  ale  thoroughly 

and  add  salt   butter,   boil  it  tliick,   let  the  inan  drink 

a  good   dish   full  a  while   before   other  meat,   and  let 

him   wrap   himself  up   warm,  and   let  him  rest  quiet ; 

do  this  thrice,  no  need  to  do  it  oftener. 

2.  For  lung  disease,  a  leechdom ;  Dun  taught  it ; 
sage,  rue,  half  as  much  as  of  the  sage  ;  feverfue  as 
much  as  of  the  two  worts  ;  of  pennyroyal  three 
times  as  much  as  of  the  sage  ;  take  thee  of  it  of 
all  worts  foremost  to  put  into  the  salve.  Let  the 
man,  who  hath  need  of  this  leechdom,  withhold  him- 
self earnestly  from  sweetened  ale,  let  him  drink 
clear  ale,  and  in  tlie  wort  of  the  clear  ale  let  him 
boil  young  oak  rind,  and  drink.  For  dysentery,  take 
an  ungreasy  half  cheese,  and  four  parts  of  English 
honey,  boil  in  a  pan  until  it  browneth,  then  take  a 
liand  full  of  young  oak  rind,  and  so  in  silence  bring 
it  home,  and  never  bring  it  in  to  the  mans  presence, 
shave  off  the  green  outside  the  house,  boil  the  sappy 
chips  in  cows  milk,  sweeten  it  mtli  three  parts  of 
honey,  let  the  man  take  the  drink  with  the  cheese, 
afterwards  let  him  drink :  for  seven  days  let  him  fore- 
go ale  and  take  milk  '  not  turned  sour.  For  poisons  ; 
let  him  sip  cows  butter   for  nine   mornings,  for  three, 

'  Frequently  seen  :    spontaneous  propagation 

294  L2ECE  BOC 

mojijnaj"  .  III.  yopan  ,  viii.  mojxjnay  cepfillan  jemefclice 
on  pine  ])]ubba  bsel  psetpef  mme  j^onne  lipejilipettan 
nio])opea]ibe  jmb  on  pylifc  ^  ealo  fpete  mib  liumje 
bpmce  l^sepe  teoj'an  niht  •  Co  mete  ]7one  bjienc  on  J^jieo 
Jjicje  sQu  ]7am  ]?pim  honcpebum. 

Pi]?  ]?£epe  jeolpan  able  •  jenim  nio]7opeapbe  eolenan 
jebo  ]3  J>u  hsebbe  on  Jmm  jzopman  baaje  J?onne  J?ii  hipe 
eepefc  bpuce  on  mopjen  nnn  jjjieo  fnseba  *j  )?peo  on  mht 
■j  hipe  pculon  beon  on  hunij  ^efnseb  •  ^  ]yj  sepcejian 
mepjen  .  Iiii.  fnseba  -j  iiii.  on  mhc  •  "j  ]?pibban  mep- 
jen  .V.  fnaeba  -j  .  V.  on  niht  •  -j  J^y  peop]?an  mepjen. 
.VI.  "j  VI.  on  nihr.  j)ep  bpenc  pceal  pi]?  |)on  ilcan. 
jemm  alexanbpian  "j  jpunbefpeljean  cnua  fmale  -j  bo 
Co  bpence  on  bluccjium  eala^.  Tiy.  men  fie  pseplicc 
ypele  j^ypce  .  iii,  cpifcep  msel  an  on  J^eepe  cunsan  o]7ep 
on  |?am  heajzbe  •  Jppibbe  on  J^am  bpeofcum  pona  bi8  pel. 
To  jehealbanne  lichoman  liselo  mib  bjnhcnep  jebebe  • 
j^if  ip  8e]?ele  Isecebom  •  genim  myppan  -j  jejnib  on  ptn 
fpilce  fie  cela  micel  fceap  ful  -j  J^icje  on  nihc  nepcij  • 
fol.  107.  b.  "j  epc  ]?onne  pefcan  pille  f  jehealbe]?  punboplice  Iteho- 
man  liselo  "j  htc  eac  beah  pi)>  peonbep  cofcunjtim 

Jjonne  ip  epfc  pe  je];elefca  Isecebom  Co  ]7on  ilcan  •  jenim 
N/  myppan  -j  lijnc  pecelp  *j  fap man  •  -j  faluiam  •  'j  pupman  -j 

jyvey  pecelj-ep  -j  myppan  fy  mjepc  •  -j  ]?a  o]7]ie  fyn  aj^ejene 
)?apa  fien  empela  •  'j  aecfomne  on  mojicepe  jejnibe  Co 
bufce  pefcCe  unbep  peopob  jjonne  cpifcep  Cib  fie  -j 
jefmje  mon  .iii.  maejyan  opep  J>a  .in.  bajaf  on  mibne 

V  pmcep    -j    sec   fcepanep    cibe    "j    See    lohannep  euanje- 
bfca  -j  ]?a  ]7py  bajap  ]>icje  on  pme  on  nealiC  nepcij  -j 

V  f   ]>8ep    Co    lape   fie   Jjsep    bufcep   haja    -j   jebealb;  hit 

'  pyhcf,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.   IJ.  295 

soap,  for  eight  mornings  of  chervil,  a  moderate  quantity,      Book  II. 
in  wine.,  a  third  part  cdso  of  water ;  then  let  him  take         ''  ^^' 
the    netherward    part    of    cucumber,    rub    it   up    into 
foreign   ale,    sweeten   with   honey,   let  the   man   di-inlc 
that  the  tenth  night,  for   meat  let  him  take  the  drink 
at  three  times  at  the  three  cock  crowings, 

3.  For  the  yellow  disease ;  take  the  netherward  part 
of  helenium,  contrive  that  thou  mayest  have  it  on  the 
previous  day ;  when  first  thou  usest  it,  take  three 
pieces  in  the  morning  and  three  at  night,  and  they 
shall  be  hits  of  it  sliced  into  honey ;  and  the  second 
morning  four  pieces,  and  four  at  night;  and  the  third 
morning  five  pieces,  and  five  at  night  ;  and  the  fourth 
morning  six,  and  six  at  night.  The  following  drink 
shall  avail  for  the  same ;  take  alexanders  and  ground- 
sel,  pound  them  small,  and  form  them  into  a  potion  in 
clear  ale.  If  a  man  have  sudden  ailments,  make  three 
marks  of  Christ,  one  on  the  tongue,  the  second  on  the 
head,  the  third  upon  the  breast,  soon  he  will  be  well. 
To  keep  the  body  in  health  with  prayer  to  the  Lord : 
this  is  a  noble  leechdom :  take  myrrh  and  rub  it  into 
wine,  so  much  as  may  be  a  good  stoup  full,  and  let 
the  man  take  it  at  night  fasting,  and  again  when  he 
will  rest ;  that  wonderfully  upholdeth  the  health  of 
the  body,  and  it  also  is  efficacious  against  the  evil 
temptings  of  the  fiend. 

4.  This  is  the  noblest  leechdom  for  the  same ;  take 
myrrh  and  white  frankincense,  and  savine  and  sage,  and 
dyeweed,  and  of  the  frankincense  and  of  the  myrrh 
let  there  be  most,  and  let  the  others  be  weighed,  of 
them  let  there  be  equal  quantities ;  and  have  them 
rubbed  to  dust  together  in  a  mortar,  have  them  set 
under  the  altar,  when  it  is  Christmas  tide,  and  let  one 
sing  three  masses  over  them,  for  three  days  in  mid- 
winter, and  at  St.  Stephens  tide,  and  St.  John  the 
evangelists  day,  and  for  those  three  days  let  the  man 
take  the  leechdom  in  wine  at  night  fasting,  and  what 
there  is  left  of  the  dust  hold  and  keep  ;    it  is  power- 

296  LiECE   BOO. 

mtej  ]n]}  eallum  ym]x '  untpymnej'j'um  •  je  pi]?  peppe 
ge  pi]?  lenccen  able  ^e  pi]?  acjie  •  je  pi]?  ypelpe  lypce. 
Jeppicu  eac  j'ecjea]?  ]-e  ]?e  ]?one  Isecebom  beja  ^  he 
lime  mseje  jehealban  .  Xll.  mona]?  pi]?  ealjia  unCpym- 
neppa  pjiecenejye, 

^  J>onne    epc    pi^    5ic]?an   •]?    eal  pe  lichoma  jy  clanep 

hipep  'j  jlabep  -j  beophtep-  jenim  ele  "j  ealbep  pinep 
bjiseptan  empela  bo  on  moptepe  jemenj  pel  to  fomne 
•j  fmijie  mib  ]?y  ]?one  liclioman  on  funnan.  pi^  selpe 
<j  ]n]?  micu]?um  fibpan^  jnib  myppian  on  ptn  "j  hpitep 
pecelpep  em  micel  •  -j  peeap  jajatep  bsel  ]?fep  fcanep 
fol.  1(38  a.  on  p  ptn  bpmce  .ill.  mopjenap  neahc  nej-tij  o]^]?e 
.  vim.  o]7]?e  .  XII.  pi]?  lonb  able  pyl  pepmob  fpa  bjiijne 
fpa  jpenne  fpa  ]?ep  lie  hsebbe  on  oleo  [mpipmopum]  ^ 
o}>  ]?  ]?sep  elep  fie  ]?pibban  bsel  bepylleb  -j  fmipe  mib 
]?oiie  lichoman  ealne  get;  pype  •  "j  msejye  ppeofr  pceal 
bon  ]?one  Igecebom  jip  man  liffip}?.  Pi]?  jonjel  pjeppan 
bite  fmic  on  ij'en  fpat.  pi]?  utpilite  meji  ;5eallan  • 
bla3C  fnejl  pyl  on  meolcum  pup  on  sepenne  -j  on 
^  mopjenne.  !Deapob  pealp  mupjie  -j  alpe  libania  ealpa 
jelice  pela  menj  jn]?  eceb  fmipe  mib  ]?  heapob.  pi]? 
]?on  ilcan  fpepl  "j  fpejlep  seppel  mujijie  •  -j  pejhpilce]' 
^  cynnep  pecelf  nijon  j'yjita  enjlifce  .  poUeie  •  bpem- 
bel  •  seppel  •  elehtjie  •  bipceop  pypt  •  pmul  •  pupe  peg- 
bpaebe  •  liajian  fppecel  •  fio  liape  pyjit  •  li]?  pypt  •  ealpa 
]?ippa  empela  •  oleuni  [mpipmopum]  •  ^  halij  psetep  • 
lialij  pealc  •  o]>ep  ele  •  fmipe  ]?e  mib  }?yp  upan  J?onne 
]?u  hi  jnibe. 

.  LXVI. 
Cf.  Marbodscus.      Be  ]?am  fcane    ]?e    jajatep  hatte  ip  pseb  jj?  he  .  viil. 
msejen  haebbe.     An    i]-    ]?onne  J?unoppab  bij?  ne  pce]?e'S 

'  Head  jxjiliciim.  I       •'  The    letters    have    been    paled 

-  Perliaps  niiswritten.  |  away  purposely. 

LEECH  BOOK,   II.  297 

fill    against    all    dangerous    infirmities,    cither   against      Book  li. 
fever,  or  against    typhus,  or  against   poison,  or  against      ^''''  ''''^' 
evil  air.     Writings  also  say,  that  he  who  employs  the 
leechdom  is  able  to  preserve  himself  for  twelve  months 
against  peril  of  all  infirmities. 

5.  Then  again,  against  itch,  and  that  all  the  body 
may  be  of  a  clean,  and  glad,  and  bright  hue  :  take  oil 
and  dregs  of  old  wine,  equally  much,  put  them  into  a 
mortar,  mingle  well  together,  and  smear  the  body  with 
this  in  the  sun.  Against  an  elf  and  against  a  strange 
visitor,'  rub  myrrh  in  wine  and  as  mickle  of  white 
frankincense,  and  shave  off  a  part  of  the  stone  called 
agate  into  the  wine,  let  him  drink  this  for  three  morn- 
ings after  his  nights  fast,  or  for  nine,  or  for  twelve.  For 
land  disease  or  nostalgia,  boil  wormwood  so  dry  (or) 
so  green,  as  he  hath  there,  in  oleum  infirm  orum,  the 
oil  of  extreme  unction,  till  a  third  part  of  the  oil  is 
boiled  away,  and  smear  all  the  body  at  the  fire  with 
it,  and  a  mass  priest  shall  perform  the  leechdom,  if  a 
man  hath  means  to  pet  one.  For  a  bite  of  r'-ano- 
weaving  spider,  smudge  hydromeP  on  iron.  For  dia- 
rhoea,  boil  in  milk  horse  gall  and  black  snail,  sip  in 
the  morning  and  evening.  A  head  salve  ;  myrrh  and 
aloes,  and  libanum  or  frankincense,  of  all  a  like  quan- 
tity, mingle  with  vinegar,  smear  the  head  therewith. 
For  the  same ;  sulfur  and  swails  apple,  myrrh  and 
fi-ankincense  of  every  sort ;  nine  English  worts,  pule- 
gium,  bramble,  apple,  lupin,  bishopwort,  femiel,  rough 
waybroad,  vipers  bugloss,  the  hoar  wort,  lithewort,  of 
all  these  equal  quantities  ;  oil  of  unction,  holy  water, 
holy  salt,'^  common  oil,  smear  thyself  with  this  up- 
wards on  the  head,  when  thou  hast  rubbed  them. 


Of  the  stone  which  liight  agate.  It  is  said  that  it 
hath  eight  virtues.     One  is  when   there  is  thunde)-,  it 

'  Interpreted  by  Herbarium  cxi.  3.    I       ^  Salt  which  has  had  the  formula 

^  Perhaps 'S'weaf.  |  of  benediction  pronounced  over  it. 

298  LiECE  BOC. 

}?am  men  ])e  ];one  lean  mib  linn  heefS.  Oj^eji  msejen 
ly  on  fpa  hpilcum  Lufe  fpa  he  bi]?  ne  msej  J)8ep  mne 
peonb  pefan.  bjiibbe  maejen  ip  f  nan  attoji  jmm  men 
fol.  108  b.  ne  rasej  pce]?]?an  l^e  ];one  fran  mib  hnn  liapa]?.  Feop]7e 
msesen  ip  p  fe  man  pe  pe  jjone  la];an  peonb  on  hmi 
beajollice  liEepj^  jip  he  ]>8e]'  franep  jepceapenep  hpilcne 
bsel  on  ptetan  onpehS  ];onne  bi]^  pona  fpeotol  a3'ceopob 
on  him  f  sep  beajol  maS.  Fipte  msejen  if  pe  ]>c 
jienijjie  able  jebjieht  bi]>  jip  he  pone  fean  on  psecan 
pijep  him  hip  pona  ]-el.  Syxre  mjBjen  if  f  bjiycjuepo 
pam  men  ne  bejiej)  pe  ];e  lime  mib  him  hsepS.  Seopope 
masjen  if  ^  pe  ]ye  pone  fcan  on  bjimce  onpehS  he  hrepp 
pe  fmeppan  lichoman.  Gahtope  ip  pjBp  franej-  msejen 
']3  nan  nsebjian  cynnep  bite  pam  pceppan  ne  mtej  pe 
pone  fcan  on  psetan  bypijp. 


bimifcce.  Punb  elep  jepih'S  .  xii.    penejum  Iseppe  ponne    punb 

paBtjief  •  "j  punb  ealo^  jepihS  .  vi.  penejum  mape  ponne 

punb    p^tjief  •    "j  .  I.  punb  piiiej-  jepiliS    .  XV.  penejum 

map.e  ponne  .  I.  punb  psetpef  •  -j  punb  hunijej*   jepihS 

^  .  xxxiiii.    penejum    mape    ponne    punb   pastpep  •  -j    .  i. 

punb  butejian  jepiliS  •  Ixxx.  penejum  Iseppe  ponne  punb 

^  psetpep  •    "j   punb  beojief  jepiliS  .  xxii.  penejum  Iseppe 

ponne  punb  pa3t]iep  •  "j   I.    punb  melopep   jepihB   .  cxv. 

»  penejum  Irepj'e   ponne  punb  psetpep  •  'j  I.   punb  beana 

jepihS  .  Iv.  penejum  Iseppe  ponne  punb  psecpef  •   -j  XV. 

fol.  109  a.         punb  *  psetjief  jap  to  peptpe  :• 

balb  liabet  hunc^  libpum  cilb  quem  confcpibepe  lufpic: 
lOte  pjiecop  appibue  cunctif  m  nomine  cpipti' 
Quo  ^  nuUup  to  Hat  litinc  libpum  peppibuf  a  me  • 
Nee  ui  nee  pupto  nee  quobam  pamme  palpo- 
Cup  qiua^  nulla  nnhi  tam  cajia  eSc  optima  jaza- 
Qiiam  capi  libpi  quop  cpipti  jpatia  comit. 

'  An  error,  read  yntj-an,  ounces.      I       '-^  Head  Quod. 

-  liunb,  MS.  I       '  Read  as  Cur  ?  Quia. 



cloth  not  scathe  the  man  who  hath  this  stone  with  liim. 
Another  virtue  is,  on  whatsoever  house  it  is,  therein  ;i 
fiend  i')erha'ps  enemy  may  not  be.  The  third  virtue  is, 
that  no  venom  may  scathe  the  man  wlio  hath  the  stone 
with  him.  The  fourth  virtue  is,  that  the  man,  who 
hath  on  him  secretly  the  loathly  fiend,  if  he  takcth  in 
liquid  any  portion  of  the  sl)avings  of  this  stone,  then 
soon  is  exhibited  manifestly  in  him,  that  wliich  before 
secretly  lay  hid.  The  fifth  virtue  is,  he  who  is  afilicted 
with  any  disease,  if  he  taketli  the  stone  in  lic^uid,  it 
is  soon  well  with  him.  The  sixth  virtue  is,  that  sor- 
cery hurteth  not  the  man,  who  has  the  stone  with  him. 
The  seventh  virtue  is,  that  he  who  taketh  the  stone 
in  drink,  will  have  so  much  the  smootlier  body. 
The  eighth  virtue  of  the  stone  is,  that  no  bite  of  any 
kind  of  snake  may  scathe  him  who  tasteth  the  stone 
in  liquid. 

Book  II. 
(Jh.  Ixvi. 


A  pint  of  oil  weigheth  twelve  pennies '  less  than  a 
pint  of  water  ;  and  a  pint  of  ale  weigheth  six  pennies 
more  than  a  pint  of  water ;  and  a  joint  of  wine  weigh- 
eth fifteen  pennies  more  than  a  pint  of  water ;  and  a 
pint  of  honey  weigheth  thirty-four  pennies  more  than 
a, pint  of  water  ;  and  a  pint  of  butter  weigheth  eighty 
pennies  less  than  a  pint  of  water ;  and  a  pint  of  beer 
weigheth  twenty-two  pennies  less  than  a  pint  of  water ; 
and  a  pint  of  meal  weigheth  115  pennies  less  than  a 
pint  of  water;  and  a  pint  of  beans  weigheth  fifty-five 
pennies  less  than  a  pint  of  water;  and  fifteen  ounces 
of  water  go  to  the  sextarius.^ 

'  This  is  the  Saxon  silver  penny 
of  twenty-foiir  grains,  ovir  penny- 

-  "  Sextarius    medieinalis    habct 
uncias  deccia."    Plin.  Valer.  Pref. 

300  LMCE  BOC. 

[Book  III.] 

y\]>  heaj-'ob  ece  •  -j  yip  ealbum  lieajrob  ece  •  -j  pi]> 
liealpej'  heafbej-  ece.  II.  pi]?  afpollenum  eajum  -j  50b 
V  eab  yealj:  •  -j  pi^  mifce  on  eajan  -j  pi^  plie  •  "j  pi8  pyp- 
mum  on  eajum  -j  yip  p?em.  jip  jrlsej'c  on  eajum  peaxe  • 
J  "j  6^r  o^  ea^um  peaxan  peabe  fponje  •  "j  jip  ea^an 
rypen  *j  j'ceabe  j'ealp  to  eajum  •  *j  fme]?e  eali 

.III.  yip  eappsepce  -j  pij>  j^sem  jip  pypmaf  jyn  on 
eapan  -j  50b  eap  pealp.  IIII.  ]?!]?  to]:'  ece  "j  jip  tej>  fyn 

•  V.  pi|?  mnan  tobpocenum  muSe  .VI.  ])ip  ceoc  able 
•j  pij>  ceol  psepce.  Vii.  pi]?  healp  psepce.  VIII.  pi}? 
bice.  Villi,  yip  hpoftan.  X.  pi]?  ]7am  pe  mon  blobe 
lipsece.  XL  pij?  ]-eonbum  ^eallan.  xii.  pi]?  pseye 
jeolpan  able.  xill.  pi]?  bpeofc  ])^pce.  xiiii.  pi]? 
h]?ofean  -j  yip  lunjen  able.  XV.  pij?  majan  psepce  -j 
pi]?  a]?unbene]ye.  xvi.  piS  milt  ])8epce. 
fol.  109  b.  .XVII.  pi]?    Imben    ppepce.     xviii.     pi  J?   pambe  psejice 

•j  p^ypel  paepce.     xviiii.  yip  bl8ebbe]^  ppepce. 

.  XX.  yip  ]?am  jip  man  ne  mseje  gemijan  -j  ]?am 
men  pe  ftanaf  peaxan  on  ]?8epe  blsebjian.  xxi.  pj]? 
]?am  jip  men  fie  fe  utjanj  popfeten.  xxii.  yip  iicj-iht 
able  bpenc  "j  bpip.  xxiii.  yip  ]?am  pypmum  ]?e  beo]? 
on  mannep  inno]?e.  xxiiii.  yip  li^  psejice.  XXV.  yip 
peaptum.  XXVI.  piS  ]?am  miclan  lice  fmipmj  -j  ba)]? 
•j  bpenc  *j  bjup.  XXVII.  pij?  finjalum  ]?upfi:e  un- 
tjiumpa  manna,  xxviii.  yip  mnan  pojitoje  -j  fma3l 
]?eapma  ece.  xxviiii.  pi]?  ]?am  ]?e  man  fie  mib  pyjic 
anum  pojxbsepneb  -j  pi]?  pniw  pe  man  fie  mib  psetan 
po^bsepneb  •  -j  yip  funbjiyne.  xxx.  yip  ]?eope  bjienc 
'^  Head  i^cojie.  *j  ept  pi]?  }?£epe=^  "j  fceotenbum  penne  -j  ept  be]?in3  pi]? 
J?am  jip  ]?eo]i  [^epunije  on  anpe  frope.  XXXI.  pij? 
penne  pealp.     xxxii.  pi]?  bolje  pealp.     xxxiii.  yip  ]?am 

LEECTI    7100K.  TIT.  301 

Booh   III.  IJooklTI. 

1.  For  head  ache,  and  for  old  head  ache,  and  for  Contents. 
ache  of  half  the  head,  commonly  called  megrim.  2.  For 
•swollen  eyes,  and  a  good  eye  salve,  and  for  mist  in  the 
eyes,  and  against  white  speck,  and  against  worms  in 
the  eyes,  and  in  case  flesh  wax  upon  the  eyes,  and  if 
red  sponges  wax  on  the  eyes,  and  if  the  eyes  are 
bleared,  and  a  salve  for  obscure  vision  of  the  eyes, 
and  a  smooth  eye  salve.  8.  For  pain  of  ear,  and  in 
case  worms  are  in  the  ears,  and  a  good  ear  salve.  4. 
For  tooth  ache,  and  if  the  teeth  are  hollow.  5.  For  a 
mouth  broken  out  within.  6.  For  cheek  or  javj  disease, 
and  for  pain  in  the  jowl.  7.  Against  neck  pain.  8. 
Against  cancer,  9.  For  cough.  10.  In  case  a  man 
break  up  blood.  11.  For  flowing  gall.  12.  For  the 
yellow  disease  or  jaundice.  13.  For  breast  pain.  14. 
For  cough  and  for  lung  disease.  15.  For  pain  in  the 
maw  or  stomach,  and  distention.  IG.  For  pain  of  spleen, 
17.  For  loin  pain.  18,  For  wamb  or  belly  pain,  and  for 
pain  in  the  fat  about  the  belly,  where  the  kidneys  are 
lodged.  19.  For  bladder  pain.  20.  In  case  a  man  may 
not  mie,  and  for  the  man  in  whose  bladder  stones  wax. 
21.  For  the  case  where  a  mans  fsecal  discharge  is  ob- 
structed. 22.  For  diarrhoea,  a  drink  and  a  brewit.  23. 
For  the  worms  which  be  in  a  mans  inwards.  24.  For 
joint  pain.  25.  For  warts.  26.  For  leprosy  or  elephan- 
tiasis, a  smearing,  and  a  bath  and  a  drink,  and  a 
brewit.  27.  For  the  constant  thirst  of  men  out  of 
health.  28.  For  gripe  and  ache  of  small  guts.  29.  In 
case  a  man  be  burnt  with  fire  only,  and  in  case  a 
man  is  burnt  with  liquid,  and  for  sun  burning.  30. 
A  drink  against  the  "dry"  disease,  and  again  for 
that,  and  for  a  shooting  wen,  ivith  shooting  pai/ns, 
and  again  a  fomentation  for  it,  if  the  "dry"  disease 
remain  in  one  place.  31.  A  salve  for  a  wen.  32.  A 
salve  for  a  wen.     33.  In  case  a  man  be  wounded    in 

302  L^CE   BOC. 

pj:  man  fie  uj:an  on  heapob  piinb  -j  fie  ban  jebjiocen 
•j  pi];  |?am  jij:  fio  eaxl  upfcije  ,  -j  30b  bolh  bjienc 
'j  jip  jebpocen  ban  fie  on  heapbe  -j  op  nelle.  xxxiiii. 
j7i]?  hunbep   plite  -j  pi]?  pon  ^ip  junpe  pojicoppene  -j  pij? 

fol.  110  a.  j'am  jip  fmpe  fien  jefcpuncene.  xxxv.  pij?  jonje- 
pipjian  biCe.  xxxvi.  Pi}?  cancjie.  xxxvii.  pi]?  pam  )?e 
jnp  ne  mseje  beapn  acennan  -j  gip  op  pipe  nelle  jan 
sepcep  ]?am  beop]?pe  f  jecynbelic  fie  •  •j  jip  op  ^  pipe  fie 
beab  beapn  •  'j  pi]?  ]?am  pp  pip  blebe  to  fpi]?e  sepcep 
pam  beop]?pe.  xxxviii.  pi]?  ]?am  ]?e  pipum  fie  popfcan- 
ben  hipa  monaS  jecynb  ^  pi]?  ]?am  jip  pipe  ro  fpi]?e 
opplope  fio  mono]?  jecynb.  xxxviiil.  pi]?  fmeajea 
pyjime  fmipmj  -j  anlejen*  -j  bej?inj  -j  pealp.  XL.  pi]? 
]?am  ]?e  man  fie  mona]?  feoc.  [XLI.]  ^  pi]?  ealle  peonbep 
cofcunja  bpenc  *j  pealp.  pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  -j  hu  man  j'cyle 
jepitfeocne  man  lacnian  •  "j  hu  mon  pcyle  pypcean 
fpipbjienc  ucypnenbum.  XLii.  pi]?  ]?am  jip  fpi]?bpenc  on 
men  jefittan^  ^  he  nelle  utjan.  XLili.  pi]?  atcjiep 
bpence.  [XLiili.]  *  pi]?  lupuni,  XLV.  J}i])  ]?am  jip  }?opn 
fcmje  mon  on  pot  oSSe  hjieob  *j  ]?onne  nelle  opjan. 
XLVI.  Pi]?  sepmselum  -j  pi]?  eallum  ea^na  psepce.  XLVii. 
Pi]?  lypc  able  jip  fe  mu];  fie  poll  o}?]?e  pon  Isecebom  'j 
bepmj  -j  bse]?  pealp  -j  leah  "j  blobej'  Isep.  XLVili,  pi]? 
pic  able   bpenc  -j   be]?in5.      XLVIIII.    pij?   fculbo-^  psejice 

fol.  110  1).  -j  eapma.  L.  pi]?  cneopa  pape,  LI,  pi]?  pota  pape.  LIL 
Pi]?  ]?am  jip  pu  ne  maije  blob  bolj  pojipjii]?an.  LilL 
Pi]?  ]?am  jip  meoloc  fie  jepepb.  liiil  ]}i]>  nihc  jengean 
v^  pealp.     lv.    pi]?    ]?am    jip    men    beo    fio    heapob  paime 

jehlenceb.  LVI.  PiS  }?am  jip  men  nelle  meltan  hip 
mete.  LVii.  pi]?  p'Tp  jemEeblan.  LVIII.  pi}?  peonbep 
cofcunja,  LViiii,  Pi]?  ]?eo'^  penne  jip  he  fie  men  on 
cneope  o]>]>e  on  o]?pum  lime.  LX,  be  ]?am  hu  mon 
pcyle  eap  pealpe  pypcean. 

.  LXI.  pi]?    telp    cynne    pealp   'j    pi]?    nihc    jenjaii ,    "j 

'  Read  on. 

^  xij.  is  omitted  in  MS. 

'  Read  j;cfitce. 

'  xLiiii.  is  omitted  in  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    III.  303 

the  head  and  bone  be  broken,  and  in  case  the  shoulder     r.uok  ill. 

rise  by  dislocation,  and  a  good  wound  drink,  and  if  a     <-'"^"i''^^"''''- 

broken  bone  be  in  the  head  and  will  not  come  aAvay. 

34.  For  tear  by  a  hound,  and  if  sinews  be  cut  tlirough, 

and  in  case  sinews  be  shrunken.     85.  For  the  bite  of 

the   gangwayweaving   spider.     30.  For  cancer.     37.  In 

case  a  woman  may  not  kindle  a  child,  and  if,  after  the 

birth,  that  which  is  natural  will  not  come  away  from  a 

woman ;  and  in  case  there  be  a  dead  bairn  in  a  woman, 

and  in  case   a  woman  bleed  too  much  after  the  birth. 

38.  In  case  womens  natural  catamenia  be  stopped,  and 

in   case   the  natural  catamenia  flow  too  freely.     39.  A 

smearing,  a,nd   an   onlaying,  and  a  fomentation,  and  a 

salve  against  a  boring  worm,     40.  In  case  a  man  be  a 

lunatic.      41.  A  drink  and  a  salve   for  all  temptations 

of  the  fiend.     For  the  same,  and  how  one  must  treat  a 

deranged    man ;   and    how   a  man    shall    work  a  spew 

drink    for   those    that    have    diarrhcea."    42.  In   case  a 

strong  dose  lodge  in  a  man  and  will   not  come  away. 

43.  Against  a  drink  of   poison.     44.  Against  lice.     45. 

In  case  a  thorn,  or  a  reed,    prick  a  man   in   the   foot, 

and  will  not  be  got   rid  of     40.  Against  imminutions 

and  all  pain  of  eyes.     47.  Against  palsy,  if  the  moutli 

be  awry  or   livid,  a  leechdom   and  a  fomentation,  and 

a  bath  salve,  and  ley  and  bloodletting.     48.  Drink  and 

fomentation  for  "fig"  dieease.     49.  For  pain  of  shoulder 

blade  and  arms.     50.  For  sore  of  knees.     51.  For  sore 

of  feet.     52.  In   case   thou   be   not   able  to  bind  up  a 

bloodletting  incision.     53.  In  case  milk  is  turned  sour. 

54.  A  salve  against  night   comers,  incubi,  etc.     55.  In 

case  a  mans  skull  is  "  linked,"  or  seems  to  feel  bound 

round.     56.  In  case  a  mans  meat  will  not  digest.     57. 

Against  womens  prating.     58.  Against   temptations   of 

the   fiend.     59.  Against  a  "dry''  wen,  if  a  man   hath 

it  on  his  knee  or  on  another  limb.     CO.  Of  this ;  liow 

a   man   must  work   an  earsalve.     61.  A   salve   against 

the  elfin  race  and  night   goblins,  and  for  the  women, 

304  L^CE   BOC. 

]?am  raonnum  j^e  beojrol  mib  liEem^.  LXii,  pi]?  ?elf 
able  Isecebom  -j  eyt  liu  mon  j-ceal  on  J?a  pypte  pinjan 
sep  hi  mon  nime  -j  ept  liu  mon  j-ceal  |?a  pypta  bon 
rnibeji  peopob  -j  opeji  fmjan  •  -j  ept  tacnu  be  ]?am 
hpsej^eji  hit  fie  telp  pojoj^a  -j  tacn  hu  ]pu  onjitan 
meahc  hpsej^ep  hme  mon  msej  jelacman  -j  bjiencaf  "j 
jebebu  pi];  selcpe  peonbep  cofcunje.  LXiii.  Tacnu  hii 
J>u  meaht  onjitan  hpEej^ep  mon  fie  on  pfetep  selp  able  • 
-j  Isecebom  yi]>  j^am  -j  jealbop  on  -co  fmjanne  -j  ]5  ilce 
mon  msej  fmjan  on  punba.  LXilil.  pi^  beople  li|?e 
bpenc  •  -j  unjemynbe  •  -j  pi]?  beoplef  cofcunja.  Lxv. 
fol.  Hi  a.  pi]?  }?on  pp  mon  fie  jejymeb  "j  cacnvi  hp8e}>ep  he 
libban  mseje.  lxvi.  bpenc  pi]?  }7am  jip  ]?eop  fie  on 
men.  LXVII.  Pi}?  beople  feoce  "j  pi]?  beople.  LXViii. 
Pi]?  peben  heopfce  leoht  bpenc.  LViiii.  pi]?  ]?am^  pp 
men  fie  maja  afupob  -j  po'^]?unben  •  -j  pi]?  majan 
pjepce  •  -j  jip  man  bi]?  a]?unben.  Lxx.  pi]?  pambe 
psGpce  •  "j  pi]?  majan  psepce  •  'j  pij?  pambe  heapbneppe. 
LXXI.  piS  fppmje  fraipmj  -j  fealp.  LXXii.  Pi]?  attpe 
bpenc  "j  fmipinj.  LXXiii.  pi]?  ]?0epe  jeolpan  able. 
Lxxiiii.  pi]?  }^am  pp  mnelpe  fi  uce.  Lxxv.  pi]? 
selcpe  innan  untjiymneppe  -j  pi]?  hepijnejje  -j  pi]? 
hleopblsece.  LXXVI.  be  ]?am  hu  man  fcyle  halite 
pealpe  pypcean. 

Pi}?  ]?on  ]?e  mon  on  heapob  ace  •  jenim  nio]?o- 
peapbe  ppsecce  bo  on  jieabne  ppasb  bmbe  ■]?  heapob  mib. 
PiJ?  ]?on  ilcan  •  mm  fenepej-  preb  -j  jmbun  jejnib  on  ele 
bo  on  hat;  psetep  ]?peah  jelome  ]?  heapob  on  ]?am  p?et]ie 
he    bi]?    hal.     pi]?    ealbum   heapob    ece    jenim    bpeopje 

>  f  i)>a,  MS. 

LEKCII   BOOK.    III.  305 

with  wlioin  tlio  devil  liatli  commerce.  02,  Against  elf  Hook  irr. 
disease,  a  leeclidom ;  and  again,  liow  one  nnist  sing  ^''""'-■"»'*- 
upon  tlie  Avorts,  ere  one  take  them  ;  and  again,  how 
one  must  put  tlie  worts  nnder  the  altar,  and  sing  over 
them  ;  and  again  tokens  of  this,  whether  it  be  elf 
liicket,  and  tokens  how  thou  mayst  understand,  whether 
one  may  cure  the  man  ;  and  drinks  and  praycM-s  against 
every  temptation  of  the  fiend.  63,  Tokens  how  thou 
mayst  understand  whether  a  man  he  in  the  water  elf 
disease,  and  a  leeclidom  for  that,  and  a  charm  to  lie 
sang  upon  it,  and  that  ilk  may  be  sung  over  wounds, 
G-t.  A  lithe  or  soft  drink  against  the  devil,  and  want 
of  memory,  and  against  tem})tations  of  the  devil.  (i5. 
In  case  a  man  be  overlooked,  and  tokens  whether  lie 
may  live.  GQ.  A  drink  in  case  the  "  dry "  disease  be 
on  a  man.  07.  For  the  devil  sick  or  demoniac,  and 
against  the  devil,  G8,  A  light  drink  against  the  Avild 
heart,  09,  In  case  a  mans  maw  be  soured  and  dis- 
tended ;  and  against  pain  of  the  maw,  and  if  a  man 
be  inflated.  70.  For  pain  of  the  wamb,  and  for  })ain 
of  the  maw,  and  for  hardness  of  the  wainb.  71.  Against 
carbuncle  ;  an  ointment  and  a  salve.  72.  A  drink  and 
smearing  against  venom.  7o.  For  the  yellow  disease, 
jaundice.  74.  In  case  the  bowels  be  out.  75.  For 
every  inward  inflrmity,  and  for  heaviness,  and  for  cheek 
blotch.  7(5.  Of  this,  how  a  man  must  make  a  holy 


In  case  a  man  ache  in  the  head  ;  take  the  nether- 
ward  part  of  crosswort/  put  it  on  a  red  fdlet,  let  In'ni 
bind  the  head  therewith.  For  that  ilk,  take  seed  of 
mustard  and  rue,  rub  into  oil,  put  into  hot  water,  wash 
the  head  often  in  the  water,  the  nnan  will  be  hale. 
For  an  old  head  ache,  take  penn^'royal,  lioil   in  oil,  (.r 

'  Galium  criiciiitiim. 
VOL.  II.  U 

30G  L^CE   BOC. 

bpofclan  pyl  on  ele  0iS6e  on  butjian  fmipe  mib  ^  ]><a 
Jmuponjan  'j  bupan  ]?ani  eajum  on  upxn  f  heapob 
J?eah  him  fie  jemynb  oncypped  he  bi]^  hal.  pi]?  fpi}>e 
fol.  iiib.  ealbum  heapob  ece  mm  pealc  *j  puban -j  ipij  cpop  cnua 
ealle  to  pomne  ^  bo  on  hunij  -j  fmipe  mib  j;a  Jmnpan- 
^  jan  •  *j   }?one   hnij:el  "j    upan   ^    heapob.     To  pion  ilcan 

pec  lycle  franaf  on  fpealpan  bjiibba  majan  -j  healb  f 
liie  ne  hpman  eopj^an  ne  pcetpe  •  ne  o]?]ium  fcanum 
bepeopa  hipa  .  ill.  on  ])on  ]?e  ]?u  piUe  bo  on  ];one  nion 
]?e  hira  ];eapp  fie  him  h\]>  j'ona  pel  •  hi  beo]?  jobe  pi]> 
heapob  ece  -j  pi]>  ea^psepce  -j  pi]?  peonbep  cofcunja  -j 
nilitjenjan  •  "j  lencten  able  "j  majian  -j  pyjitpopbojie  • 
"  "j  malfcpa  •   -j  yplmii  jealbo-^  cpsepcum  •  hit  fculon  beon 

micle  bpibbaj'  ]?e  ]?u  hie  pcealc  on  pmban-  i^ip  mon  on 
healp  heapob  ace  ^ecnna  jiuban  fpi];e  bo  on  fcjian^  eceb 
•j  fmipe  mib  ]>  heapob  iipan  julite.  pij?  J)on  ilcan  abelp 
pejbpseban  butan  ifene  se]\  funnan  upjanje  binb  \)a, 
mojian  ymb  ]3  heapob  mib  ppsete  peabe  ppsebe  pona 
liTm  bi6  pel. 


\)i\>  afpoUenum  eajum  jenim  cucune  hjiepn "  abo 
|7a  eajan  op  -j  ept  eucnne  jebpmj  on  p?etpe  "j  bo  ]?a 
eaii^an  ]>am  men  on  fpeopan  ])e  him  ]'eapp  pie  lie  bi]? 
j'ona  hal.  Pyj^c  jobe  ea^pealpe  Nim  celeJ?oman  -j 
bipceop  pyjit  •  pepmob  •  jnibu  mejice  •  piibu  bmbep 
leap  •  bo  ealpa  empela  cnupa  j'el  bo  on  hunij  •  -j  on 
jun  •  *j  on  tt;pen  pcet  oiSSe  on  cypepen  bo  tpiebe  J^sej' 
fol.  112  n.  pmep  •  -j  ];]nbban  basl  ])?ej'  hiini^ep  bo  y  j'e  pseta  maeje 
puji]nim  opep  ypnan  ]?a  pypta  Itet  ftanban  .VII.  mht 
•j  ])peoh  inib  b]iebe  afeoh  J^iiph  clsonne  claj?  '5one  bpenc 
bo  ept  on  p  lice  pa3t  nytta  fpa  ];e  ]?eapp  pie.     Se  mon 

>  The  MS.  has  a  stop  after  mih.      j       ^  Nearly  as  Marcellns,  col.  269  f. 

2  j-ome,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.  III.  807 

in  butter,  smear  tlicrewitli   tlio   temples,  and  over  the     ^o^^  ^T. 

eyes,  and  on  the  top  of  the  head;  though  his  intellect 

be  deranged,   he   will   be   hale.     For  a  very   old  head 

ache  ;    take  salt   and   rue,  and  a  bunch  of  ivy  berries, 

pound  all  at  once,  add  honey,  and  therewith  smear  the 

temples,  and   the   forehead,    and   the  top   of  the  head. 

For  that  ilk ;  seek  in  the  maw  of  young  swallows  for 

some  little  stones,  and   mind    that   they  touch   neither 

earth,  nor  water,  nor  other  stones  ;   look  out   three   of 

them ;  put  them  on  the  man,  on  whom  thou  wilt,  him 

who  hath  the  need,   he    will   soon   be  well.     They  are 

good  for  head  ache,  and  for  eye  wark,  and  for  the  fiends 

temptations,    and    for    night    gohlin    visitors,    and    for 

typhus,  and  for  the  night  mare,  and  for  knot,  and  for 

fascination,  and  for  evil  enchantments  by  song.     It  must 

be  big  nestlings  on  which  thou  shalt  find  them.     If  a 

man  ache  in  half  his  head,  pound  rue  thoroughly,  put 

it  into  strong   vinegar,  and  smear  therewith  the  head, 

right   on   the  top.     For  that  ilk ;    delve   up   way  broad 

without  iron,  ere  the  rising  of  the  sun,  bind  the  roots 

about  the  head,  with  crosswort,    by   a   red  fillet,  soon 

he  will  be  well. 


For  swoUen  eyes,  take  a  live  crab,  put  his  eyes  out, 
and  put  him  alive  again  into  water,  and  put  the  eyes 
upon  the  neck  of  the  man,  who  hath  need  ;  he  will  soon 
be  well.  Work  a  good  eye  salve  thus;  take  celandine 
and  bishop  wort,  wormwood,  wood  march e,  leaves  of 
woodbind ;  put  equal  quantities  of  all,  pound  them  well, 
put  them  into  honey,  and  into  wine,  and  into  a  brazen 
vessel,  or  a  copper  one ;  put  in  of  the  wine'  two  parts 
in  three,  and  a  third  part  of  the  honey,  order  it  so 
that  the  liquor  may  just  overrun  the  worts ;  let  it 
stand  for  seven  nights,  and  wrap  it  up  with  a  piece 
of  stuff";  strain  the  drink  through  a  clean  cloth,  put  it 
again   into   that   ilk   vessel,    use   as   occasion    may   be. 

u  2 

308  LiECE   BOO. 

ye  him    jebe]?    ymb  .xxx.     nilita    jroxej'    jelynbc]'    b?el 
on  ]';x  ea-(;an  lie  bi];  ece  lial ; 

Ti):  mifc  ]ne  pope  eajum  mm  cilbcy  lilonb  "j  liiinijej' 
ceaji  menj  CO]^omne  bejea  emjrela  friiijie  mib  ]>a  ea^aii 
Jnnan ; 

6j:c  lijiepne]'  jeallan  -j  leaxe]'  "j  eley  -j  ye]h  beon 
huuij  menj  to  j^omne  fmijie  raib  ];a'jie  j-ealjre  mnan  ]>a 
eajan  ; 
\  ])i]>  ybe  jebrejmeb  j^ealc  *j  fpejley  [eppel  -j  atcpum 
ealjia  emjrela  jmb  to  bufte  ^  bo  on  ]^a  eajan  ]>])eali 
leohrlicc  mib  pylle  j^retjie  -j  fmijie  cefteji  mib  piyey 
meolce  ; 

Tij:  pj'pma]'  fien  on  eajum  j'ccajipa  ]>a  bpropaj'  mnan 
bo  on  ]>a  pcea]ipan  celeJ)onian  yeaj'  •  ))a  ])yjimaf  bio]^ 
beabe  "j  j^a  eajan  hale.  Tip  pLDj'c  on  ea^um  peaxe 
pjnnj  ]'ypii^  Pyp'^^  ^^  1^^  eajan  o]?  ]>  him  ]-el  yie. 

Tip  on    ea;5an    peaxcn    peabe    fponje  bjiype    on   hat 

ciilp)ian  blob  o]?pe    fj'ealpan  obiSe    ]'ipep  meoluc  o]>  -p  ]>a 

fponje  apej  pynb.     Tip  eajan  cyjien   mm    bjiije  puban 

•j  hunijep  teaji    menj    cofomne    last  fcanban    .III.  nihr 

fol.  112  1).         •'^Ppii^S    ]m]ih    ]?icne     cla"iS    Imenne    -j   bo    on    ]:>a    eajan 

]'i]>]>an.      Py]ic    5obe    bpije    fcabe    fealpe    mm    fpe^lep 

V  a^pjjel    -j    jebaspneb    j'ealc    "j   pipo-^   'j    atcjium    -j   hpit 

epubu  jejmb    to  bufce  apipc  ]?n]ih  cla5    bo  lytlum    on. 

6pt  hpit  c])ubu  "j  jeboepneb  ofcep   pcyl  jmb    to    bufce 

■j    nytta   fpa    ]>e    ];eapp    fie    a^jl^eji    m?e^    abon  plie    op 

eajan.      Py]ic    fme])e     eajpealpe     mm    butepan    pyl    on 

^  pannan    apleou    p    pam    op  'j    ahlytcpe    ]?a    Initejian  on 

blebe  bo  ept  •]>   hlutt|ie    on    paiinan   jecnua   celepoman 

LEECH    J300K.    III. 


The  man  who  putteth  upon  his  eyes  for  about  tliiiLy 
nights,  part  of  tlie  suet  of  a  fox,  he  will  be  for  ever 

2.  If  there  be  a  mist  before  the  eyes,  t;ike  a 
urine  and  virgin  honey,  mingle  together  of  both  eipial 
quantities,  smear  the  eyes  therewith  on  tlie  inside. 

3.  Again,  mingle  together  a  erabs  gall/  and  a  sal- 
mons, and  an  eels,  and  field  bees  honey,  smear  the 
eyes  inwardly  witli  the  salve. 

4.  Against  a  white  spot  in  the  eye;  rub  to  dust 
burnt  salt,  and  swails  apple,  and  olusatrum,  of  all  equal 
quantities,  rub  to  dust,  and  put  on  the  eyes,  wash 
lightly  with  spring  water,  smear  afterwards  with 
womans  milk. 

5.  If  there  are  worms  in  the  eyes,  scarify  the  lids 
within,  apply  to  the  scarifications  the  juice  of  celan- 
dine ;  the  worms  will  be  dead  and  the  eyes  healthy. 
If  flesh  v/ax  on  eyes,  wring  wormwort  into  the  eyes, 
till  they  are  well. 

G,  If  red  sponges   wax   on    the    eyes,   drop  on  them 
hot  culvers  blood,  or  swallows,  or  womans  milk,  till  the 
sponges  be  got  rid    of     If  eyes  are  bleared,  take  dry 
rue  and  virgin  honey,  mingle  together,  let  it  stand  for 
three    nights,  wring   through  a  thick    linen    cloth,   and 
afterwards  apply  to  the  eyes.     Work  a  good  dry  salve 
for    dim    vision    thus  :    take    swails    apple,    and    l)UiMit 
salt,    and    pepper,    and    olusatrum,  and    mastich  ;     rub 
to    dust,    sift    through    a    cloth,     apply    by    little    and 
little.       Again,     reduce    to    dust    mastich,    and    burut 
oyster   shell,  and   use   as   need  be  ;  either   hath  power 
to    remove     white     spot     from    the     eyes.       Work    a 
smooth    eyesalve    fJtus ;    take    buttei-,    boil    in  a  pan, 
skim   the   foam    off,  and  purify  the    butter   in  a  dish; 
put  the  clear  part   again  into  a  pan  ;  pound  celandine 

15(...k  III. 
Cli.  ii. 

'  "  Corvi  marini  fcl."  Marcellus, 
col.  277.  F.  If  that  passage  were 
in   view,    this    fish    would   be   the 

mullet,  MiKjil  cefalus :  hut  I  follov/ 
the  passage  in  Wanlc},  p.  IG8a. 
IIa3)ci>n  v.i  another  spelling. 

olO  LJiCE   BOC. 

•j   bilceop    pyjit;  •    pubu    mejice  •  yyl    l'pi]?e   aj'eoli  j;u]ili 
cla'S  nycra  Ipa  ];e  J^eaji}:  lie  ; 


pi]?  eap  psejice  jenim  henne  jelynbo  -j  ofcep  ycylle 
yete  on  gleba  jepypm  hpon  -j  bpyp  on  J^a  eapan  Ibua 
Leo's  hale ;  Gft:  celenbpan  ^  j-eap  -j  jnpejf  meoluc  jepypm 
on  pcylle  -j  bjiyp  on  ]?a  eajian  •  jij:  pypniaf  jpien  on 
eapan  bo  belenaii  peap  peapm  on  ]7a  pypmaf  hie  beo]? 
beabe  'j  peallaS  op  "j  ]?a  eapan  hale. 

GpT  pjnnj  cupmeallan  j-eap  on  o^^e  mapubian  o^^e 
])ejunob  peapmne  Sona  hmi  biS  ]-el.  Pypc  jobe  eaji 
j-ealpe  •  jenim  bajiej-  jeallan  •  -j  peappef  •  *j  ele  ealpa 
empela  Iset  bpypan  peajun  on  ]5  eape. 


^0^'  ^^3^-  Pi|j    to])   ece   ceop    pipop    jelome    mib   pain   to)7nni 

him  bip*  pona  pel.  6pr  jeoS  beolenan  mojian  on 
Ibjianjum  ecebe  o]>j7e  on  pine  pete  on  ]7one  papan  coj? 
^j  hj)ilum  ceope  mib  ]>y  jajian  cope  he  biS  hal.  gip  pa 
tep  lynb  hole  ceop  bopenej-"  inojuin  mib  ecebe  on  pa 

Pip  iimaii  trobjiocenmn  niuSe  mm  plum  tjieopej-  leaj- 
pyl  on  pme  -j  Ipile  mib  pone  mup  :• 


VrS    ceoc    able    mm     pone     hj7eoppan    ])e    ptp    inib 
fpmnab    bmb    on    hip    fpeopan    mib    pyllenan    ppsebe    "j 

licad  celeK'Uian. 

bosenc)-,  with  <t;e  dotted,  and  W  written  above,  MS. 

LEECH    JJUOK.  111.  311 

and  bishopwort,    wood   iiiarclic,  boil  thoruiiglily,  stiain     ^^ok  III 
through  a  cloth;  use  as  need  may  be. 


1.  Against  earwark ;  take  a  hens  fat  and  oyster 
shells,  set  them  on  giedes,  warm  a  little,  and  drip  into 
the  ears,  soon  they  will  be  liale.  Again,  warm  juice  of 
coriander  (celandine  rather  ?)  and  womans  milk  in  a 
shell,  and  drop  them  into  the  ears.  If  worms  bo  in 
the  ears  ;  apply  juice  of  henbane  warm,  to  the  worms, 
they  Avill  be  dead  and  fall  off,  and  the  ears  will  be 

2.  Again,  wi'ing  juice  of  centaury  upon  them,  or 
marrubium,  or  wormwood  warm ;  soon  they  will  be 
well.  Work  a  good  earsalve  thus  :  take  a  boars  and 
a  bulls  gall,  and  oil,  of  all  equal  quantities,  have  this 
dropped  warm  into  the  ear. 


For  tooth  ache ;  chew  pepper  frequently  with  the 
teeth,  it  will  soon  be  well  with  them.  Again,  seethe 
henbane  roots  in  strong  vinegar  or  in  wine,  set  this 
into  the  sore  tooth,  and  at  whiles  chew  witli  the  sore 
tooth ;  it  will  be  well.  If  the  teeth  are  hollow,  chew 
rosemary  roots  with  vinegar  on  that  joart. 


For  a  mouth  troubled  with  eruption  within  ;  take 
leaves  of  plum  tree,  boil  in  wine,  and  swill  the  mouth 


For  cheek  disease,  take  the  whorl,  with  which  a 
woman  spinneth,  bind  on  the  'mans  neck  with  a 
woollen  thread,  and  swill  him  on  the  inside  with  hot 

312  L.ECE   BOC. 

I'pile  innan  mib  hate  gate  mcolce  biiii  bi]?  yel.  ]?iS 
ceol  piejice  abelj:  iV]\  liiiinan  up7;aii5e  pe-^b)uvban  bmb 
on  lily  ipeojian.  Gft  biT&jni  fpealpaii  to  biiltc  •  -j  menj 
pi])  pelbbeon  hiini^  pele  linn  etan  jelome. 


Pi]'  healj*  psejTce  pyl  neo]7epca]ibe  nctelan  on  oxan 
finejipe  "j  on  butejian  ];oime  ^  ]?one  healfpnijic  Imijie  (5a 
]'eoh  .  jtp  Ja  ];eoh  j^epce  fmijie  ]?one  liealp  nnb  j^iBjie 
yealpe.  Gyt  pyl  ni]7epea]ibe  netelan  ou  ecebe  bo  oxan 
jeallan  on  ]3  eceb  -j  ]r,i  pyjite  op  Imipe  mib  pone 


fol.  113b.  \'^i]'    bite    pyjic    j'calpe  •    nun  Jap    J'ypte    papenan    'j 

mejii'c  mealpan  "j  attojila]?an  --j  peoj^obenb  "j  lipejilipec- 
tan  -j  chippy pt  -j  lijel  hpeoppan  •  ]iinb  beolo]7an  • 
inucjpypt  •  jHibu  pllan  •  japclipan  •  pjiu^tte  •  lupef-cice  • 
niajejnin  •  jij'cojin  •  ]'ab  •  piniil  •  ]>epan  ]'opn  •  jelpretc  • 
eopo)i];pote  •  cicena  mete  •  bnlhjuine  •  j^ylilc  luojui  • 
liiiiit  beaniep  leap  •  nsep  •  gcajrpe  •  ho}:c  •  hoc  leap  • 
alexanbjie  •  pica  peppica-~  I'e  piila  pepinob  •  lio  jjieate 
banpyjic  •  acleap  •  pegbpiube  •  jjmnbe  fpelje  •  peab 
chvpjie  •  Icahtpic  •  ]nipe  ]>]itel  •  tajiii  •  heje  clipe  •  chip 
V       J^iinj  •  enjlipc  mopu  •  bynije. 


Pi]?  hpol'tan  pyl  majiubian  on  ptetpe  jobne  bjel  je- 
fpet  lipon  pele  bjiincan  jcenc  pnl/'  6pc  mapnbian  fpr?e 
pyl  on  huiiije  bo  hpon  bntejian  on  pele  .ill.  i'npeba 
o])]'e  .1111.  etan  on  iieaht  nej-tij  bepup  Icenc  pulne  nnb 
j'eajunc]*  ]'iup  iL'jipan  bpencej-. 

'  Read  J'oniU'  ]M^■  J'onc.  |        '  j-cenc  is  inaHC.     Kcad  jiilnc. 

^  A  stop  after  jica  in  MS. 

LEECH    r.OOK.    III.  ^13 

soats  milk;  it  will  bo  well  with  liim.     For  jowl  pain;     l'-',j'l^  !"• 

delve  up  waybruad  before  tlie  rising  ot    the  ,sini,   bind 

upon  the  mans  neck.     Again,  burn  a  swallow  to  dust, 

and  mingle  lum  with  field  bees  honey ;  give  the  man  Api»  iulvurum. 

that  to  eat  frequently. 


For  neck  pain  ;  boil  the  nether  ward  part  of  nettle 
in  fat  of  ox  and  in  butter,  then  for  the  hals  wark, 
smear  the  thighs ;  if  the  thighs  be  in  pain,  smear  the 
neck  with  the  salve.  Again,  boil  the  netherward  part 
of  nettle  in  vinegar,  add  ox  gall  to  the  vinegar  and 
remove  the  wort ;  smear  the  neck  therewith. 


For  cancer,  work  a  salve  ;  take  these  worts,  savine, 
and  marsh  mallow,  and  attorlothe,  and  withywind, 
and  cucumber,  and  clovewort,  or  ranwiicidas,  and 
turnsol,  hindhcal,  mugwort,  wild  chervil,  agrimou}^, 
crosswort,  lovage,  maythe,  githcorn,  woad,  fennel,  tufty 
thorn,  wildoat,  everthroat,  chickenmeat,  pellitory,  carot, 
leaves  of  the  nut  tree,  nepeta  cattaria,  yarrow,  hove, 
hollyhock,  alexanders,  vinca  pervinca,  or  'perivjlnkle, 
the  foul  wormwood,  the  great  bonewort,  oak  leaves, 
waybroad,  groundsel,  red  clover,  lettuce,  tufty  thistle, 
tar,  hedge  clivers,  cloiiing,  wild  parsnip,  *     *     *     * 


For  host  or  coufjh ;  boil  inarrubium  in  water,  a  good 
deal  of  it,  sweeten  a  little,  give  the  mail  to  drink  a 
cup  full.  Again,  boil  marrubium  strongly  in  honey, 
add  a  little  butter,  give  three  or  four  bits  for  tJic  man 
to  eat ;  at  night  fasting  let  him  sup  up  a  cup  full  of 
the  former  drink  warm  therewith. 

314  LzECE   BOC. 

V]]>  ]?on  ]7e  mon  blobe  lip?ece  -j  I'pipe  •  jentm  50b 
bejien  mela  •  *j  lipit:  yenlt  bo  on  peam  o])]>e  jobe  ylete 
hpep  on  blebe  o])  p  hi"  I'le  ];icce  fpa  ]7ynne  Ljup  pele 
fol.  ii4ii.  ecan  .Villi,  pnasba  .Villi,  mopjenaf  on'  nealic  nej-tij  • 
bo  }>a3p  melupej-  tpeiebe  -j  ];tep  pealtef  jjpibban  bsel  pyjic 
t)elce  bsege  mpne. 


Pi]?  feonbum  jeallan  ete  pa^bic  "j  pipo^  on  neaht 
neptij  •  -j  apylleb  Impteb  on  meolce  I'upe  mib  ~  bo  ]?up 
5elome  lnm  bi]?  j'ona  pel. 


Vi^  ]>se]\e  jeolpan  able  fio  cymS  op  feonbum  ;5eallan 
jenim  ])sey  j-ceappan  ];iMep  mopan  "j  betonican  •  -j  at- 
Copla]?an  hanb  fuUe  •  -j  ^yj^pipan  hanb  pulle  "j  .villi. 
fnaBba  niojjopeapbe  fej'cj^potan  op  jeot  mib  fcpanjan 
beope  •  o]7];e  mib  frpanjnm  ealaS  "j  bpmce  ^elome  pele 
him  etan  jepyptobne  henpugel  *j  jepobenne  capel  on 
jobum  bpoSe   bo   J^up  jelome   him  bij)  fona  pel. 

Pypc  5obne  bufc  bjienc  pi]>  |?8spe  jeolpan  able  .  mm 
mepcep  yi&b  •  -j  pmolep  yseb  •  bile  pseb  •  eopopf'potan 
V  fseb  .  pelbmopan  fseb  •  pjej^epian  j'seb  •  petojiyilian  pasb . 
alexanbpan  fseb  luf  efcicep  j'seb  •  betonican  fseb  •  caulep 
j'seb  .  cofrej*  pseb  •  cymenep  j'seb  •  -j  pipopep  ma3p'c 
]?apa  oSeppa  empela  jejmb  ealle  pel  to  bufte  mm  J^sep 
fol.  114  b.  buftej"  jobne  cuclep  pulne  bo  on  fcjianj  hluttop  eala 
bjunce  fcenc  }:ulne  on  neaht  nepcij  •  he  ij-  50b  pi]; 
selcpe  hraan  untpumuepfe  -j  pi]>  heapob   ece  -j  pij?  un- 

'  Unless  mojisonaf,  morrows,  can  be   taken  in   tlie  sense  of  successive 
days,  on  must  be  omitted.     Observe,  a  new  page  begins. 
-  In  margin  hepco. 

LEECH   BOOK.    II J.  315 

In  case  a  man  hreak  up  and  spew  blood ;  take  good 
barley  meal,  and  white  salt,  put  it  into  cream  or  good 
skimmings,  agitate  in  a  disb,  till  it  be  as  thick  as 
thin  brcwit,  give  the  man  to  eat,  nine  doses  for  nine 
mornings  after  his  nights  fast :  apply  of  the  meal  two 
parts  in  three,  and  of  the  salt  a  third  part ;  prepare 
it  every  day  new. 


For  bile  straining  out ;  let  the  patient  eat  radish 
and  pepper  at  night  fasting,  and  let  him  sup  besides 
linseed  boiled  in  milk ;  do  this  frequently ;  it  will 
soon  be  well  with  him. 


1.  For  the  yellow  disease,  jaundice,  which  cometh 
of  effusion  of  bile ;  take  roots  of  the  sharp  thistle,  and 
betony,  and  a  handful  of  attorlothe,  and  a  handful  of 
githrife,  and  nine  bits  of  the  netherward  part  of  ash- 
throat,  pour  them  over  with  strong  beer,  or  with 
strong  ale,  and  let  him  drink  this  frequently  :  give 
him  to  eat  a  pullet  dressed  with  herbs,  and  colewort 
sodden  in  good  broth ;  do  this  frequently,  soon  it  will 
be  well  with  him. 

2.  Work  thus  a  good  dust  drink  for  the  yellow 
disease.  Take  seed  of  marche,  and  seed  of  fennel,  seed 
of  dill,  seed  of  everthroat,  seed  of  fieldmore,  seed  of 
satureia,  savory,  seed  of  parsley,  seed  of  alexanders, 
seed  of  lovage,  seed  of  betony,  seed  of  colewort,  seed 
of  costmary,  seed  of  cummin,  and  of  pepper  most,  of 
the  others  equal  quantities ;  rub  all  well  to  dust,  take  a 
good  spoon  full  of  the  dust,  put  it  into  strong  clear 
ale,  let  the  man  drink  a  cup  full  at  night  fasting. 
This  drink  is  also  good  for  every  ailment  of  limb,  and 
for  head  ache,  and  for   want   of  memory,  and  for  eye 

Book  III. 
Ch.  X. 

316  LiECE    BOC. 

jeiiiynhc  --j  ]'ij>  Gajpjqice  "j  ]?i]»  uiigeliyjinej-ye  -j  bjieolc 
prejice  "j  liiiijen  able  "j  lenben  j'asjice  •  -j  pij;  lelcjie 
jjeonbej"  cofeun^a  gepyjic  ];e  bufc  jcnoli  on  lia?]i}:elte 
|?onne  ]m  |?a  pyjiui  liiubbe  nycta  j^onne  ]>e  j^eajij:  fie. 

•  Xlir. 

j)iL)  bjieof'cjnejice  mapubie'  iiejrte  •  ontjie  bilceop 
j'yjit  •  penpyjic  •  yy\  on  liunije  -j  butepan  bo  )7£e]- 
liunij^ef  tpiube  •  -j  ]?ti?]ic  biitejian  J^jiibban  ba^l  nytra 
ipa  ]>e  ]>capp  fie. 


Vip*  hj^ofran  -j  limjcii  able  •  jenim  fpejlef  ieppel  -j 
Ipepl  "j  pecelf  ealjia  cinpela  men^  ])i]^  j^caxe  leje  on 
liacne  lean  bjunc  ]mjili  liojiii  )7one  jiec  "j  ere  tefCep 
ealbep  I'picep  .ill.  fiucba  obSe  bucjum  "j  fu})e  inib 
}:letum  ;  pi]>  lunjen  able  •  jenim  beconicau  •  "j  majui- 
bian  •  ajjuinonian  •  jicpmob  •  jrel  tepjie  •  pube .  acpinb  • 
jajollaii  •  ]'yl  on  j'iecpe  •  be])yl  \yncy  jnetejief  ]'pibbaii 
b;ul«  bo  op  ]'a  I'yj^ce  bjuiice  on  raojijenne  peajimep 
fcenc  pulne  ere  ,IJI.  fnteba  mib  Jnvp  bjupep  ]'c  lieji 
iepceji  fejl;  :• 

Pyjic  b]U]'  pi]?  lunjeii  able  mm  beromean  •  ^j  niapu- 
bian  •  pepmob  •  liinblieolojmn  •  peupyjiC  nio]jO]>eajib  • 
elehrpe  •  elene  •  juebic  •  eopo-^j'pote  •  pelbmope  •  jecnua 
ealle  i]n\>(i  ])el  "j  j>yl  on  bucepan  -j  appmj  jnijih  claJS 
j-ccab  on  ])  yoy  bepen  mela  hjieji  on  blebe  buran  pyjie 
o]>  p  hit  fie  Ipa  ]ncce  fpa  bpip  ere  .  III.  fmuba  •  nnb 
]7y  bpence  peajimef 

6pc  pyl  on  liunijc  anum  majiubian  bo  hj'on  bepen 
mela    ro    eCe    on   ncalic    ncpri j  -j  p»onnc    j  u   liini  jelle 

LEF/'It   T.OnK.    TIT.  317 

WJirk,  and    for  dull   licarinii;',    and   for  broast  wavk,  and      I^imk  III. 
Inng  disease,    loin    wark,  and    for  every    tt'ni|)taiion   of 
tlie  fiend.     Work  thj'seli  dust  enough  in  harvest,  when 
thou  hast  the  worts,  nse  it  when  thou  hast  need. 


For  pain  of  breast ;  niarrubium,  nepeta,  ontre,  bisho])- 
wort,  wenwort,  l)oil  in  honey  and  butter;  piit  two 
parts  in  three  of  the  honey,  and  of  the  l)ntter  a  third 
])a.rt ;  nse  as  need  may  be. 


For  liost,  or  couf/Ji,  and  lung  disease  ;  take  swails 
apple,  and  brimstone,  and  frankincense,  of  all  eqnally 
much,  mingle  with  wax,  lay  on  a  hot  stone,  let  ilte 
imui  swallow  tlie  reek  through  a  horn,  and  afterwards 
eat  three  pieces  of  old  lard  or  of  butter,  and  sip  tJds 
with  cream.  For  lung  disease  ;  take  betony,  and  mar- 
rubium,  agrimony,  wormwood,  fel  terrse  or  centaury, 
rue,  oak  rind,  sweet  gale ;  boil  them  in  water,  lioil  off 
a  third  part  of  the  water,  remove  the  worts ;  let  the 
Tnan  drink  in  the  morning  of  this  warm  a  cup  fidl, 
let  him  eat  therewith  three  pieces  of  the  brewit  that 
is   here  afterwards  mentioned. 

2.  Work  thus  a  brewit  for  lung  disease  ;  take  betonj', 
and  marrubinm,  wormwood,  hind  heal,'  the  lower  part 
of  wen  wort,  lupin,  helenium,  radish,  everthroat,  field- 
more  ;  pound  all  thoroughly  well,  and  boil  in  butter, 
and  wring  through  a  cloth  ;  shed  on  the  decoction  barley 
meal,  shake  it  in  a  dish  without  fire  till  it  be  as  thick 
as  brewit ;  let  him  eat  three  pieces,  with  the  drink 
of  the  warm  liquor. 

3.  Again,  boil  in  honey  alone,  marrubinm,  add  a  little 
barley  meal,  let  the  man  eat  at  night  fixsting ;  and  when 

'  Eupatorium  cannabimim. 

318  LMCE  BOC. 

bpenc  obSe  bpip  j^ele  liim  liatiie  -j  Iset  jejiefcan  ]?one 
man  seftep  tibe '  bse^ef  on  ]?a  fpiSpan  fiban  *j  hapa  |>one 
eajim  a];eneb. 


V  pi]?  majan  psepce  pyl  pTc  on  cu  meolce  abo  f  pic 
op  pupe  ]ipon  peapm  pona  bi];  ]-el.  pi]?  a])unbeneppe  'j 
[jip]^    men    nelle    myltan    hip    mete    pyl    on    psefcepe 

V  poUeian  -j  leac  cepfan  pele  bpmcan  liim  bi]?  fona 


ViJ?  milte  pfiepce  cnua  jpene  pealhpmbe  feoS  on 
hunije  anum  j-ele  him  ecan  .ill.  fn?eba  on  neahc 

.  XVII. 

Dij;  lenben  poepce  mapubie .  nepte .  bojen  em  pela 
ealpa  bo  on  30b  ealu  pyjic  to  bjience  fpet  hpoD  pele 
bpmcan  licje  uppeajib  ?eptep  }?on  ii;obe  lipile. 


J  b.  Pi]?  pambe  prejice  -j  jiypel  ptejice  ]>se]\  ]>n  ^ei'eo  topb 

piyel  on  eopj^an  li})  peoppan  ymbpo  lime  mib  tpam 
hanbum  mib  hip  jepeoppe  pa}:a  mib  ]?inum  hanbnm 
fpi]?e  "j  cpeS  |;]upa  •  Remebium  pacio  ab  uentjii]-  bolopem. 
Peopp  ]?onne  opeji  bsec  Jpone  pipel  on  pejebehealb  ]5 
]ni  ne  locije  sejccep  •  ]7onne  monnef  pambe  psepce  o'SSe 
]iy]-le  ymbpoh  mib    ];inum   hanbum  J^a  pambe   liim   bi]? 

»  Thus  MS.  I    -  siy  not  in  MS. 



thou  givest  liim  drink  or  brewit,  give  it  him  liot ;  and  Book  III. 
make  the  man  rest  after  an  hour,  by  day,  on  the  right  ^ '"  ^^^'' 
side,  and  have  the  arm  extended. 


For  pain  in  the  maw  ;  boil  pitch  in  cow  milk,  re- 
move the  pitch,  let  him  sip  a  little  warm,  soon  the 
man  will  be  well.  For  distention,  and  if  a  mans 
meat  will  not  digest ;  boil  in  water  pulegium  and  leek 
cress, ^  give  this  to  the  man  to  drink,  soon  it  will  be 
well  with  him. 


For  milt  pain ;  pound  green  sallow  rind,  seethe  in 
honey  alone,  give  the  man  to  eat  three  pieces  at  night 


For  loin  wark ;  marrubium,  nepeta,  thyme,  of  all 
equal  quantities,  put  into  good  ale  ;  work  to  a  drink, 
sweeten  a  little,  give  to  the  man  to  drink  ;  let  him 
lie  with  face  up  afterwards  for  a  good  while. 


For  wamb  wark  and  pain  in  the  fatty  part  of  the 
belly ;  when  thou  seest  a  dung  beetle  -  in  the  earth 
throwing  up  nfiould,  catch  him  with  thy  two  hands 
along  with  his  casting  up,  wave  him  strongly  with 
thy  hands,  and  say  thrice,  "  Remedium  facio  ad  ventris 
"  dolorem  ; "  then  throw  the  beetle  over  thy  back  away  ; 
take  care  thou  look  not  after  it.  When  a  mans  wamb 
or   belly  fat   is   in   pain,  grasp   the   wamb  with    thine 

'  Erysimum  alliuria. 
-  Our  Saxon  must  have  had  Tal- 
pam,  or  'Ao-7roAa/ca  before  him  in 

this  sentence  ;    but   he  names  tlie 
Scarii/jaus  .shrcorarius. 

o20  L/ECE  BOO, 

j'ona  j-el  •  xii.    mona];    ]>u    mealir   fpa   bon    a^):t(']i  ])am 


\  \]>  h\ix^hhe\\  pa^jtce.  piulu  mejice  •  ■^  loaccejife  pyl 
fpij'p  on  eala'S   j'ole  bpnioaii   "j  eran  ,"^eb]ia^bne  fra^ji. 


Qi]:  man  ne  ma^je  jemijan  'j  linn  peaxan  fcanap  on 
^'  \>?e]xe   blfebjian  yy\  I'unbcojm   on  eala'5  'j  perejifilian  yele 

Inm  bpmcan. 


(tij:  men  fie  pe  urjanj  poppetren  pyl  peiniiob  on 
pnpnni  eala|>  -j  bo  bntejian  y<e\\  to  hnn  bi]'  fona  pel 
jTp  lie   lilt:  bjimc)'. 


yi])  urpilit;  able  •  v.  leapan  •  hleomoce  •  cnjimealle  • 
elelitpe.  jecnua  pa  pyjica  •  'j  ]'yl  on  meolce  pele  Inm 
fol.  iiGa.  hjnncan  peajiin  on  moji^cnne  -j  on  n?pen  ;  Pyj^c  bpip 
ro  ])on  ilcan  ])ubu  cunellan  •  Lleomoc  •  bepyl  Jjajia 
meolce  ];jiibban  btel  ]>iTejie  ]'y)ite  op  ];am  meolcnm  ^ 
j-ceab  lipa3ten  mela  jwp  on  *j  ete  ]?one  bjnp  cealbne  • 
•j  ]-npe  J>a  meoluc  linn  bi'5  ]-ona  pel  jlp  pe  bjiip  *j  fe 
bjienc  inne  jepnniae)  ]ni  niealit  ];one  man  3;elaonian 
jip  Inm  oppleo;z,ei5  him  bi'S  peljie  -p  ])u  Inne  na  ne 
v/  ibP^^'^  ^^"^^  ^*']^  ^'T  F^oph  abl  5eten;5e. 

.  XXIII. 

Qtp  j'yjima]-  beo]>  on  mannep  innoc5e  ]>j\  on  bntejian 
jpene  jiuban  bpmc~    on    neaht:   neptij    j-cenc    pnlne   In 

'  Read  as  before  bejiyl  on  meolce  o\>  )')iibban  fatcl  •    bo  )'a    i'3)i~a  oy 
pam  meolcum. 
-  Vowel  dropped. 

LEECH   BOOK.   III.  321 

liands,  it  will  soon  be  well  with  the  man ;  for  twelve      ^^^  m- 

months  after   the  beetle   thou   slialt  have  power  so  to 



For  bladder  pain ;  wood  marche  and  sauce  alone ; 
boil  them  strongly  in  ale  ;  administer  to  drink,  and  to 
eat  a  roasted  starling. 


If  a  man  cannot  mie,  and  stones  wax  in  the  bladder  ; 
boil  sundcorns  ^  in  ale,  and  parsley  ;  give  hirti  this  to 


If  a  mans  excrement  be  lodged ;  boil  wormwood 
in  sour  ale,  and  add  butter  thereto;  it  will  soon  be 
well  with  him,  if  he  drinketh  it. 


For  diarrhoea ;  cinqfoil,  brooklime,  churmel,  lupin ; 
pound  the  worts,  and  boil  them  in  milk ;  give  this  to 
the  man  to  drink  warm  in  the  morning  and  in  the 
evening.  Work  thus  a  brewit  for  the  same :  wild 
cunila,  brooklime  ;  boil  in  milk  to  a  third  part,  remove 
the  worts  from  the  milk,  shed  wheaten  meal  thereon, 
and  let  him  eat  the  brewit  cold,  and  let  him  sip  the 
milk,  it  will  soon  be  well  with  him.  If  the  brewit 
and  the  drink  remain  within  him,  thou  mayst  cure  the 
man ;  if  they  flow  away,  it  will  be  better  for  him,  that 
thou  should  not  meddle  with  him,  his  death  sickness 
is  upon  him. 


1.  If  worms  be  in  a  mans  inwards ;  boil  green  rue 
in  butter,  let   the  man   drink   at   night   fasting  a  cup 

'  Saxifragia  yranulata.     Prescribed  because  saxa  fraiigit. 
VOL.  II.  X 

fol.  116  b. 

322  L^CE   BOC. 

jepitaS    ealle    ape;^    mib    ]yy    ucjanje   "j    he    bi8    j'ona 
hal ; 

To  J>on  ilcan  jenim  cymene)'  bufc  menj  to  jate 
jeallan  -j  jreappej-  jnib  ]?one  napolan  mib  ealle  hi  jepita]; 
mjjep;  op  ];sem  meN. 

.  XXIIIl. 

Pi|?  liS  psepce  I'lnj  .  vim.  li]?um  j?ij-  jealbo-^  jjseji 
on  •  *j  ]?m  fparl  fpip  on  •  Oi^alijnup  oblijauit  •  anjelup 
cupauic-  bommu]'  Saluauit-  him  bi}>  pona  pel. 

To  J'on  ilcan  jenim  culppan  topb  •  -j  gate  topb  bjuje 
fjnSe  -j  jnib  Co  bufce  menj  pi]?  hunij  "j  pi]?  butrpan 
fmipe  mib  j^a  leo]7u. 

.  XXV. 

pi]?  peaptum  jenim  himbep  micjean  -j  mupe  blob 
menj  to  pomne  fmipe  mib  ]?a  peaptan  hi  jepita]?  fona 

Pi  J?  miclan  lice  ^enim  nio]?opeapbe  elenan  -j  ]?un5  • 
■j  oinpjian  ]>&,  J^e  fpimman  pile  ealpa  empela  •  -j  ^ecnua 
pel  •  -j  pyl  on  bucejian  bo  pel  j-ealtej'  on  -j  fmijie  mib. 
Pypc  bi8  ^  pi]>  }?am  miclan  lice  •  elene  •  {elf]?one  • 
mapubie  •  cupmealle  •  ellen  tanaf  •  *j  ac  tanap  pyl  fjnSe 
on  psetpe  -j  be]?e  on  fpi'Se  hatum  f  Kc.  pypc  bpeuc 
]n^  ]»am  miclan  lice  hinbhiolo}?an  •  cujimeallan  •  bo^en  • 
nepte-  a^jiimoma*  betomca*  pmul*  bile*  bo  on  30b 
ealo  pele  bjimcan  on  bseje  .111.  pcencaf  pulle.  Pyjic 
bpip  pi]?  ]?on  ilcan  •  jenim  nioj'opeapbe  elenan  •  -j  eopoji 
J^jiotan  •  pebic  •  -j  })a  jieaban  netlan  nio]>opeapbe  fceappa 
i'msele  -j  jecnua  pel  •  pyl  pi]?J)an  on  bucejian  bo  clsene 
ipij  tapan  }?8eji  on  jip  J?u  hsebbe  •  -j  hpon  bepenef  melpep 
bo  on  blebe   mib   ]?am   pyptum  -j  hpep  mib  fticcan  0]? 

>  That  is,  b8e«. 

LEECH   BOOK.    Til.  323 

full ;  they  wiU  all  depart  away  witli  the  evacuation,  aud     Book  ni. 
he  will  soon  be  well.  ^^*  ^^'"" 

2.  For  that  ilk.  Take  dust  of  cummin,  mingle,  it 
with  goats  and  bulls  gall,  rub  the  navel  with  them  all, 
the  worms  will  all  disappear  from  the  man  downwards. 


1.  For  joint  pain ;  sing  nine  times  this  incantation 
thereon,  and  spit  thy  spittle  on  the  joint :  "  Malignus 
"  obligavit;  angelus  curavit;  dominus  salvavit."  It 
will  soon  be  well  with  him. 

2.  For  that  ilk.  Take  doves  dung  and  a  goats  tord, 
dry  them  thoroughly  and  rub  to  dust,  mingle  with 
honey  and  with  butter,  smear  the  joints  therewith. 


For  warts  ;  take  hounds  mie,  and  a  mouses  blood, 
mingle  together,  smear  the  warts  therewith,  they  will 
soon  depart  away. 

For  elephantiasis,  take  the  netherward  part  of  hele- 
nium  and  aconite,  and  dock,  that  namely  which  will 
swim,  of  all  equal  quantities,  and  pound  well  and  boil 
in  butter,  add  a  good  spice  of  salt,  and  smear  there- 
with. Work  thus  a  bath  against  the  mickle  body 
brought  on  by  leprosy,  helenium,  enchanters  night- 
shade, marrubium,  churmel,  elder  twigs,  and  oak  twigs; 
boil  strongly  in  water,  and  bathe  the  body  in  it  very 
hot.  Work  thus  a  drink  against  the  mickle  body;  put 
hindheal,  churmel,  thyme,  nepeta,  agrimony,  betony, 
fennel,  dill,  into  good  ale ;  administer  to  be  drunk  in 
a  day  three  cups  full.  Work  a  brewit  for  that  ilk  ; 
take  the  netherward  part  of  helenium  and  everthroat, 
radish,  and  the  netherward  part  of  the  red  nettle,  scrape 
them  small,  and  pound  them  well.  Afterwards  boil 
them  in  butter;  add  ivy  tar  besides  if  thou  have  it, 
and  a  little  barley  meal ;  put  this  on  a  dish  with  the 

X  2 

324  L^CE   BOC. 

•j3  hit  col  fie  j'ele  etan  on  neaht  neytij  .III.  fnjeba 
jfele  jpone  bjiip  -j  ]?one  bpenc  sep  J>am  hadpe  ]>y  Isey  hit 
mylea  sejztep  ]?am  ba]?e. 

.  XXVII. 

Pi]?  pmjalum    J>ujifte  ^  untjiumjia  manna  •  Nim  pep- 
mob  "j  hmb  hiolo]7an  -j  3y]?pi}:an  pylle  on  ealaj?  jefpete 
fol.  117  a.        hpon   pele    him    bpmcan   hit    hsel}?   )7one    jjupfc^    pun- 


Pi]?  mnan  jioptoje  '^  i'msel  ]jeapma  ece  •  jenim  beto- 
nican  •  -j  pepmob  •  mepce  •  prebic  •  pmul  •  jecnua  ealle* 
•j  bo  on  eala  fete  ]?onne  -j  beppeoh  bjimc  on  neaht 
nej'tij  ycenc  pulne, 


Vi]?  bpyne  jip  mon  fie  mib  fype  ane  fopbsepneb 
mm  pubupofan  •  -j  hhan  •  -j  hleomoc  pyl  on  butejian 
•j  fmipe  mib.  xtp  mon  fie  mib  psetan  popbsepneb  nime 
elm  pmbe  •  "j  lilian  mojian  pyl  on  meolcum  fmipe  mib 
]?]iipa  on  bses-  pi}?  funbpyne  •  meppe  ipij  tpiju  pyl 
on  butpan  fmipe  mib. 


pypc  jobne  "Seop  bpenc  •  pepmob  •  bojen  •  japclipan' 
^  polleian  •  penpypt  •  J?a  fmalan  pel  tejipe  •  eajpyjit  • 
]?eoppypt  •  ceafcep  sej'cef  .  ii.  fnseba  •  elenan  .  ill.  com- 
mucef  3  III.  pubu  peax  an  jobne  b?el  •  cupmeallan  • 
jej-ceappa  }?af  pypta  on  job  hlutcop  eala  o]?]?e  pylifc 
ealu  Iset  ftanban  .ill.  nilit  beppijen  ]-ele  bpmcan 
j'cenc  fulne  tibe  sep  o}?pum  mete,  pi]?  J?eope  *j  pi]? 
fol.  117  b,        ]'ceotenbum  penne  •  mm  bojen  •  -j  jeappan  -j  pubu  peax 

'  bufr,  MS.  I       ^  Read  yojicogennerre  1- 

■'  )>|.f-,  MS. 

LEECH  BOOK.  HI.  ;j25 

worts,  and  stir  it  about  with  a  spoon    till  it  Ije  cool ;     ^^ook  ill. 

.  ,       .  .  .   .  Ch  xxvi. 

give  the  onan  to  eat  at  night  lasting  three  bits  of  it ; 
give  the  brewit  and  the  drink  before  the  bath;  let  it 
strike  inwards  after  the  bath. 


For  the  constant  thirst  of  ailing  men;  take  worm- 
wood, and  hind  heal,  and  githrife,  boil  in  ale,  sweeten 
a  little,  give  to  the  man  to  drink,  it  healeth  the  thirst 


For  inward  griping  and  small  guts  ache  ;  take  betony, 
and  wormwood,  marche,  radish,  fennel ;  pound  all  and 
put  into  ale,  then  set  it  down  and  wrap  it  up ;  drink 
at  night  fasting  a  cup  full. 


For  a  burn ;  if  a  man  be  burnt  with  fire  only,  take 
woodruff,  and  lily,  and  brooklime  ;  boil  in  butter,  and 
smear  therewith.  If  a  man  be  burnt  with  a  liquid, 
let  him  take  elm  rind  and  roots  of  lily;  boil  theui  in 
milk,  smear  therewith  thrice  a  day.  For  sunburn ; 
boil  in  butter  tender  ivy  twigs;  smear  therewith. 


Work  a  good  "  dry  "  drink  for  the  "  dry  "  disease  ; 
wormwood,  thyme,  agrimony,  pennyroyal,  wenwort, 
the  small  centaury,  eyewort,  inula  conyza,  two  pro- 
portions of  black  hellebore,  three  of  helenium,  eight  of 
cammock,  wood  wax,  a  good  deal  of  it,  churmel ;  scrape 
these  worts  into  good  clear  ale,  or  foreign  ale,  let  it 
stand  wrapt  up  for  three  nights,  give  the  man  a  cup 
full  to  drink  an  hour  before  other  meat.  Against  the 
"  dry  disease  "  and  against  a  shooting  wen ;  take  Ijothen, 
and  yarrow,  and  wood  wax,  and  ravens  foot,  put  into 

326  L^CE  BOC. 

"j  hjiepnejf  pot  bo  on  job  ealu  yele  bjimcan  on  bseje 
.  III.  pcencaf  fulle.  Tip  J^eoji  jepunije  on  anjie  fcope 
pypc  bejjinje  nnn  ]5  ipij  |7e  on  fcane  peaxe  •  "j  jeappan  • 
V  "j  pubu  bmbep  leap  *j  cuplyppan  jecnua  ealle  pel  leje 
sy  on  hatne  fcan  on  tjioje  jeot  hpon  psetepief  on  Iset; 
peocan  on  f  lie  }jte)i  J^sep  liim  Jpeapp  pie  ]7onne  pe  col 
fie  bo  ojpepne  hatne  on  he]>e  fpa  jelome  him  bij> 
fona  pel. 

.  XXXI. 

Pypc  jobe  penpealpe  mm  pubu  mepce-  "j  hpepnep 
pot  •  "j  pepmob  nio)?opeapbne  •  cii  plyppan  •  puban  • 
pubu  bmbep  leap-  ipij  leap  ]7e  on  eopj^an  yixp-  pa,  clu- 
pihtan*  penpypt*  jecnua  ealle-  pyl  on  pammep  fmeppe 
o]>]>e  on  buccan  bo  ])pibban  bsel  butepan  appmj  ]?uph 
claj?  bo  |7omie  ^obne  fcip  tapan  to  -j  hpeji  o]?  f  hit 
col  fie. 


Vy^ic  jobe  bolh  pealpe  mm  jeappan-  -j  pubu  popan 
mo]7opeapbe-  pelb  mopan  •  "j  mojjopeapbne  pijel  hpeop- 
pan  pyl  on  jobpe  butepan  appmj  J?uph  cla6  'j  Iset  je- 
fuanban  pel  selc  bolh  ]7U  meaht  lacman  mib. 


Ztp    mon  fie    upan    on   heapob   punb   -j    fie    ban  je- 

fol.  118  a.         bpocen  mm  pijel   hpeojipan  -    -j    hpite    clseppan    pifan - 

■j    pubupopan   bo   on   jobe   butpan    aj^eoh   puph    claS  "j 

lacna  pi]?]^an.  :• 

Tip  fio  eaxl  upfuije  mm  ^  J^a  j-ealpe  bo  hpon  peapme 
mib  pe}»epe  him  bi^  pona  pel.  Pypc  jobne  bolh  bpenc 
mm  ajpimoman  'j  pubu  popan  bo  on  50b  ealo  pele 
bpincan  jobne  j'cenc   pulne    on   neahc  neptij.     jip    je- 

'  ni  bo,  MS. 

LEECH   BOOK.    III.  '  327 

good  ale,  give  the  man  to  drink  three  cups  full  a  day  :  Book  III. 
if  the  "dry  disease"  remain  in  one  place,  work  a 
fomentation  thus ;  take  the  ivy,  which  groweth  on 
stone,  and  yarrow,  and  leaves  of  woodbind  and  cow- 
slip ;  pound  all  these  well,  lay  them  on  a  hot  stone  in 
a  trough,  pour  a  little  water  upon  them,  let  it  reek 
upon  the  body,  where  need  may  be  ;  when  the  stone  is 
cool,  put  another  hot  one  in,  foment  the  man  so  fre- 
quently.    It  will  soon  be  well  with  him. 


Work  a  good  wen  salve  thus;  take  wood  marche, 
and  ravens  foot,  and  the  netherward  part  of  worm- 
wood, cowslip,  rue,  leaves  of  woodbind,  ivy  leaves,  that 
ivy  which  groweth  on  the  earth,  the  cloved  wenwort; 
pound  thein  all,  boil  in  rams  grease,  or  in  bucks  grease, 
put  a  third  part  of  butter,  wring  through  a  cloth,  then 
add  good  ship  tar,  and  shake  till  it  be  cool. 


Work  a  good  wound  salve  thus;  take  yarrow,  and 
the  nether  part  of  woodruff,  fieldmore,  and  the  nether 
part  of  solwherf;  boil  in  good  butter,  wring  through 
a  cloth,  and  let  it  stand.  Pretty  well  every  wound 
thou  mayst  cure  therewith. 


1.  If  a  man  be  wounded  in  his  upper  quarter,  in 
his  head,  and  some  bone  be  broken ;  take  solwherf, 
and  white  clover  plants,  and  woodruff;  put  into  good 
butter,  strain  through  a  cloth,  and  so  treat  the  imtient. 

2.  If  the  shoulder  get  up  out  of  place,  take  the 
salve,  apply  a  little  warm  with  a  feather :  it  will  soon 
be  well  with  the  man.  Work  a  good  wound  drink 
thus;  take  agrimony,  and  woodruff,  put  them  into 
good  ale,  give   the  man  to   drink  a  good   cup  full,  at 

328  LMGE  BOCf. 

bjiocen  ban  fie  on  heaybe  -j  oj:  nelle  cnua  jpene  beto- 
nican  -j  leje  on  f  bolh  jelome  o]>  f  j?a  ban  op  lyn  "j 
^  bolh  jebatob. 

,  J)i]>  Imnbe]'  ylite  cnupa  pibban  leje  on  f  bolh  *j 
puban  pyl  on  butjian  lacna  mib  f  bolh.  Tip  fmpe  fyn 
popcoppene  mm  penpypmap  jecnupa  pel  lege  on  o]y  ^  hi 
hale  fynb.  jlp  pmpe  pien  jepcpuncene  nime  a3mettan 
inib  hiopa  bebjepibe  pyl  on  psetpe  "j  bej^e  mib  "j  pece 
])a,  )-inpe  jeopnlice. 


Vijj  jonjepippan  bite  mm  hemie  tej  jnib  on  ealu 
lipeap  "j  ]-ceaj)e]-  topb  nipe  fpa  he  nyte  pele  hi  in  bjiincan 
jobne  fcenc  pulne. 

.  XXXVI. 

Pi]?  cancpe  mm  jate  jeallan  -j  hum  5  menj  to 
fomne  ■  bejea  empela  bo  on  f  bolh.  To  J^on  ilcan  nipe 
hunbep  heapob  bsepn  to  ahpan  bo  on  bolh  •  jip  hit 
fol.  118  b.  nelle  j5  mm  monnef  bpojan  bpij  Ipi^e  jnib  to  bulte 
bo  on  jip  pu  mib  ]>yp  ne  meaht  jelacman  ne  meaht 
]m  him  ?eppe  nahte. 


n  Dip  )?on  jje  jnp  ne  mseje  beapn    acenuan  •   mm    pelb 

mopan  nio]7opeapbe  pyl  on  meolcum  -j  on  psetpe  bo 
bejea  empela  j'ele  etan  ]?a  mopan  'j  ]5  pop  fupan.  To 
]7on  ilcan  binb  on  ■^  pinfcpe  J?eoh  up  pi8  f  cennenbe 
Km  moJ?opeapbe  beolonan  oj^j^e  .  xii.  copn  cellenbpan 
psebep  "j  f  j-ceal  bon  cniht  o^8e  mseben  •  fpa  f  beapn 
)-ie  acenneb  bo  }ja  pyjita  aj^ej  ]>y  hey  ]5  mnelpe  utj-ije. 

LEECH   BOOK.    III.  329 

night  fasting.     If  there  be  a  broken  bone  in  the  head,      Rook  III. 
and  it  will  not   come  away,  pound   green   betony  and        '  ■^^''"'• 
lay  it  on  the   wound   frequently,  till   the   bones   come 
away  and  the  wound  is  mended, 

For  rending  of  hound  ;  pound  ribwort,  lay  it  on  the 
wound,  and  boil  rue  in  butter,  tend  the  wound  there- 
with. If  sinews  are  cut  through  ;  take  worms,  pound 
them  well,  lay  on  till  the  sinetvs  be  restored.  If  sinews 
be  shrunken ;  take  emmets  with  their  nest,  boil  them 
in  water,  and  beathe  therewith,  and  earnestly  reek  the 
sinews  vjith  the  vapour. 


Against  bite  of  gangway  weaving  spider ;  take  a 
hens  Qgg,  rub  it  up  raw  into  ale,  and  a  sheeps  tord 
new,  so  that  the  'patient  wit  it  not,  give  him  a  good 
cup  full  to  drink. 

XXX  vi. 

Against  cancer ;  take  goats  gall  and  honey,  mingle 
together  of  both  equal  quantities,  apply  to  the  wound. 
For  that  ilk ;  burn  a  fresh  hounds  head  to  ashes, 
apply  to  the  wound.  If  the  luound  will  not  give  way 
to  that,  take  a  mans  dung,  dry  it  thoroughly,  rub  to 
dust,  apply  it.  If  with  this  thou  art  not  able  to  cure 
him,  thou  mayst  never  do  it  by  any  means. 


In  case  that  a  woman  may  not  kindle  a  bairn  ; 
take  of  fieldraore  the  nether  part,  boil  it ,  in  milk  and 
in  water,  apply  of  both  equal  quantities,  give  the  roots 
to  her  to  eat  and  the  wash  to  sip.  For  that  ilk.  ^^xA^t^Jco^t.- 
Bind  on  her  left  thigh,  up  against  the  kindling  limb, 
the  netlierward  part  of  henbane,  or  twelve  grains  of 
coriander  seed,  and  that  shall  give  a  boy  a  or  maiden  : 
when  the  bairn  is  kindled,  remove  the  worts  away,  lest 

330  L^CE  BOC. 

Ttp  6]:  pipe  nelle  jan  ?eptep  J^am  beojij^pe  ^  jecynbelic 
fie  •  feoJ»e  ealb  fpic  on  psetpe  be]?e  mib  ]7one  cpi]?  oSSe 

v^  hleomoc  oJ?]?e  hoccej'  leap  pyl  on  ealo]?  j'ele  bpmcan 
lilt  hat.     Ttp  on  pipe  j-ie   beab  beapn  pyl  on  meolce  'j 

\  on  psetpe  hleomoc  *j  polleian  pele  bpmcan  on  bsej  tupa. 
Teopne  if  to  pypnanne  beapneacnum  pipe  f  hio  aht 
fealtep  ete  oS^e  fpetej-  oJ>J>e  beop  bpmce  •  ne  fpmef  plsepc 
ete  ne  naht  psetep  •  ne  bpuncen  jebpmce  ne  on  pej  ne 
pepe  •  ne  on  hoppe  to  fpi^e  pibe  j^y  Isef  f  beapn  op 
fol.  119  a.  hipe  fie  sep  piht  tibe.  jip  hio  ^  blebe  to  fpi]>e  septep 
]7am  beop|?]ie  nio]?opeapbe  clatan  pyl  on  meolce  pele 
etan  *j  fupan  ]5  poj\ 


pi];  ]?on  ]ye  pipum  fie  popfcanben  hipa  mona]?  jecynb 
pyl  on  eala^S  hleomoc  -j  tpa  cupmeallan  pele  bpmcan 
•j  be]7e  f  ptp  on  hatum  baj^e  "j  bjimce  |7one  bpenc  on 
)?am  ba]?e  hapa  ]?e  sep  jepopht  clam  op  beop  bpseptan 
•j  op  5penpe  mucjpypte  •j  mepce  •  -j  op  bepene  melpe 
menj  ealle  tofomne  jehjiep  on  pannan  clsem  on  f 
jecynbe  lim  -j  on  ]?one  cpi'S  nio]7opeapbne  ]7onne  hio 
op  )?am  babe  jse]?  'j  bpmce  pcenc  pulne  Jjsep  ilcan 
bpencef^  peapmep  ^j  beppeoh  f  pip  pel  -j  Iset  beon  fpa 
becl^meb  lanje  tibe  l^sep  bas^ef  bo  fpa  tupa  fpa  ]7pipa 
fpiB];ep  ]7U  I'cyle  •  j)u  pcealt  fimle  pam  pipe  bee]?  pyji- 
cean  -j  bpenc  pellan  on  ]?a  ilcan  tib  •  ]>e  hipe  fio  jecynb 
a3t  psepe  ahj-a  ]fsey  set  ];am  pipe. 

Ttp  pipe  to  fpi]?e  opplope  fio  mona5  jecynb  •  jemm 
nipe  hoppej-  topb    leje   on  hate  jleba  Iset  peocan  fpi]?e 

•  Ino  in   MS.  follows  Ipy  laef ;   the  scribe  having    copied    from  some 
older  writing  in   which  it  had  been  placed  out  of  the  line. 
2  fcencef,  MS 



the  matrix  prolapse.  If  what  is  natural  will  not  come 
away  from  a  woman  after  the  birth,  seethe  old  lard 
in  water,  bathe  the  vulva  therewith  ;  or  boil  in  ale 
brooklime  or  hollyhock,  administer  it  to  drink  hot.  If 
there  be  a  dead  bairn  in  a  woman,  boil  in  milk  and 
in  water  brooklime  and  pulegium,  give  it  her  to  drink 
twice  a  day.  Earnestly  must  a  pregnant  woman  be 
cautioned,  that  she  eat  naught  salt  or  sweet,  noi-  drink 
beer,  nor  eat  swines  flesh,  nor  aught  fat,  nor  drink  to 
drunkenness,  nor  fare  by  the  way,  nor  ride  too  much 
on  horse,  lest  the  bairn  come  from  her  before  the  right 
time.  If  she  bleed  too  much  after  the  birth,  boil  in 
milk  the  netherward  part  of  clote,  give  it  her  to  cat, 
and  the  ooze  to  sip. 

Book  III. 
Ch,  xxxvii. 


1 .  In  case  mulieribus  menstrua  suppressa  sunt ;  boil 
in  ale  brooklime,  and  the  two  centauries,  give  "Aer"^ 
this  to  drink,  and  beathe  "  the  woman "  in  a  hot  bath, 
and  let  her  drink  the  draught  in  the  bath ;  have  ready 
prepared  a  poultice  of  beer  dregs,  and  of  green  mug- 
wort,  and  marche,  and  of  barley  meal ;  mix  them  all 
together ;  shake  them  up  in  a  pan,  apply  to  the  natura, 
and  to  the  netherward  part  of  the  vulva,  when  she 
goeth.  off  the  bath,  and  let  her  drink  a  cup  full  of  the 
same  drink  warm,  and  wrap  up  the  woman  well,  and 
leave  her  so  poulticed  for  a  long  time  of  the  day,^  do 
so  twice  or  thrice,  whichever  thou  must.  Thou  shalt 
always  prepare  a  bath  and  give  the  potion  to  the 
woman  at  that  ilk  tide,  at  which  the  catamenia  were 
vipon  her ;   inquire  of  the  woman  about  that. 

2.  Si  muliebria  nimis  fluunt ;  take  a  fresh  horses 
tord,    lay    it    on   hot  gledes,    make    it   reek    strongly 

'  The    Saxon    text     varies    the 
numbers,  plural  and  singular. 
-  By  a  transposition  in  the  text, 

we  should  get  "  twice  or  thrice  a 
"  day." 

832  L^CE   BOC. 

becpeoli    ]n\    |?eoli    tip    unbeji    ];a3'c    lipsejl    f    ye    mon 
fptete  fpi]?e. 


fol.  119  b.  Vi'S    fmeapypme     fmipinj  •    mm    fpmep    jeallan    *j 

pipcep  jeallan*  -j  hpepnep  ^eallan-  -j  liapan  jeallan 
menj  to  pomne  fmipe  j^a  bolh  mib  blap  mib  hpeobe  on  ^ 
f  peap  on  f  bolh  cnua  ]70une  heopoc  bpembel  leap  leje 
on  |?a  bolh.  Pypc  bejjinje  to  J^on  ilcan  mm  sepp  pmbe  • 
"j  pi]i  pmbe  •  epic  pmbe  •  plah  ]7opn  pinbe  •  pippmbe  •  ^ 
V  bepc  pmbe-  cnua  ealle"^  ]7a  junba  pyl  on  cype  hpseje 
ppeah  mib  *j  be])e  f  Itm  ])e  pe  pypm  on  fie  •  'j  septep 
J)8epe  bej^mje  abpij  *j  fmipe  mib  j^sejie  pealpe  •  -j  blap 
]7a  pealpe  on  J>a  bolh  "j  leje  Sa  bpembel  leap  on  bo  fpa 
on  bseje  Spipa  on  fumepa  -j  on  jnntpa  tpipa. 

Pypc  ]?a  blacan  )'ealpe  31}:  J^e  J>eapp  fie  •  jepamna 
]7e  cu  ambpu  hpy]?pa  micjean  •  'j  ambep  pulne  holen 
jimba  •  -j  sepcpmba  •  -j  j^unjep  •  pylle  })onne  on  cetele 
o]>  ^  pe  pseta  fie  tpjebe  on  bep^^lleb  abo  op  ])a  pypta 
■j  ba  pmba  •  j'yl  ept  oj?  p  hi~  pie  fpa  ]?icce  fpa  molcen 
v/^  -j  fpa  fpeapt  fpa  col  fmijie  mib  pi]p];an  ]3  bolh  -j  hapa 
clam  jepopht  op  mealtej'  fmebman  'j  op  hpitmj  melpe- 
-j  elehtjian  clupa  cnua   -j   jnib  topomne  pypc  to  clame 

fol.  120  a.  jip  he  fie  to  bpije  bo  on  bpeopenbe  pypt  hpon  clseni 
on  ]?a  bolh  -j  utan  ymb  •  ]-i];]mn  hie  jefmypeb  fynb 
feo  j-ealp  ]>ile  sejiefc  ]?a  bolh  pyman  *j  f  beabe  plsepc 
opetan  -j  j^one  fpile  a|>psenan  -j  ]wne  pypm  ]?8e]i  on 
beabne  ^ebe]?  o]?]?e  cpicne  opbpipcS  -j  ]>a  bolh  jelacna'S.  :■ 

'  0  )>  rea)),  MS.  j       ^  die,  MS. 

2  ))i]i)nnbe  is  thus  repeated  in  MS.   I 

LEECH   BOOK.    TIT.  333 

between   the   tliighs,    up    under   the   raiment,    that  the     Book  III. 

,  1  Ch.  xxxviii. 

woman  may  sweat  much. 


1.  A  smearing  for  a  penetrating  worm;  take  swines 
gall,  and  fishes  gall,  and  crabs  gall,  and  hares  gall  ; 
mingle  them  together,  smear  the  wounds  thereAvith ; 
blow  with  a  reed  the  liquid  into  the  wound  ;  then 
pound  hart  bramble^  leaves,  lay  them  on  the  wounds. 
Work  up  a  fomentation  for  that  ilk  ;  take  aspen  rind, 
and  myrtle  rind,  quickbeam  rind,  sloethorn  rind,  birch 
rind ;  pound  all  the  rinds  together,  boil  them  in  cheese 
whey,  wash  therewith  and  foment  the  limb  on  which 
the  wound  is,  and  after  the  beathing  dry  and  smear 
with  the  salve,  and  blow  the  salve  into  the  wounds, 
and  lay  on  the  bramble  leaves ;  do  so  thrice  a  day  in 
summer,  and  in  winter  twice.  » 

2.  Work  up  the  black  salve,  if  need  be,  thus;  collect 
two  buckets  of  bullocks  mie,  and  a  bucket  full  of  holly 
rinds,  and  of  ash  rind,  and  of  aconite ;  then  boil  in 
a  kettle  till  the  liquor  be  boiled  to  two  thirds,  remove 
the  "  worts "  and  the  rinds  ;  boil  again  till  it  be  as 
thick  as  milk  porridge  and  as  swart  as  a  coal ;  after- 
wards smear  the  wound  therewith,  and  have  a  plaster 
ready  wrought  of  fine  smede  of  malt,  and  of  whiting 
meal,  and  lupins;  cleave,  pound,  and  rub  them  together, 
work  them  into  a  paste ;  if  it  be  too  dry,  add  brew- 
ing wort,  a  trifle  of  it;  dab  it  on  the  wounds  and 
round  about  them.  After  they  are  smeared,  the  salve 
will  first  enlarge  the  wounds,  and  eat  ofi"  the  dead 
flesh,  and  soften  the  swelling,  and  it  will  do  to 
death  the  worm  therein,  or  diive  him  away  alive, 
and  will  heal  the  wounds. 


334  L.ECE   BOO. 


yiy  Jpon  ];e  mon  fie  mona]^  j-eoc  mm  mepe  fpmejf  pel 
pyjic    to  fpipaii    fpmj    mib    pone  man   j-ona    bi^   j'el  • 



Vypc  -  jobne  bpenc  pij>  eallum  jreonbef  cofcunjum  • 
Nim  betonican  •  bifceop  pypt  •  elehtpan  •  jyjjpipan  • 
attoplajpan  •  pulpep  camb  •  jeappan  •  leje  unbep  peopob 
jefjnje  .villi,  msejjan  opep  jefceappa  ]?a  pypta  on 
lialij  psetep  pele  bpmcan  on  neaht  neptij  pcenc  pulne  • 
•j  bo  j5  lialij  psetep  on  ealne  ]?one  mete  J?e  pe  man 
,  I'lcje.     Pyjic  jobe  pealp e  pij?  peonbej-  cofcunja  •  bifceop 

pypt  .  elehtpe  •  hapan^  fppecel  •  fcpeapbepian  pipe  •  fio 
clupihte  penpypt  eopSpima  •  bpembel  seppel  •  polleian  • 
pepmob  .  jecnua  Jja  pypta  ealle  apylle  on  jobpe 
bntepan  ppmj  ])uph  cla^  fete  unbep  peopob  j'mje 
fol.  120  b.  .vim.  mseppan  opep  •  fmipe  ];one  man  mib  on  |?a  J7un- 
ponje  •  "j  bupan  )?am  eajum  -j  upan  f  heapob  •  -j  |?a 
bpeoft  -j  unbep  ]7am  eapmum  J)a  fiban.  beop  pealp 
ip  50b  pi}>  selcpe  peonbep  cofcunja  -j  selpfibenne  -j 
lencten  able.  jip  pu  pilt  lacnian  jepitfeocne  man 
jebo  bybene  pulle  cealbep  paetpep  bpyp  ]7pipa  on  ]?se]' 
bpencej'  •  bef'e  J?one  man  on  Jjam  pastpe  -j  ete  pe  man 
jehaljobne  lilap  •  ^  cype  •  *j  japleac  •  -j  epopleac  -j 
bpmce  ]?8ep  bpencep  pcenc  pulne  -j  ];onne  he  pie 
beba]?ob  fmipe  mib  ]78epe  j-ealpe  fpi]?e  •  -j  pi}>]?an  him 
pel  pie  pypc  him  |7onne  fpi^ne  bpenc  titypnenbum.^ 
Pypc  ]?U]'  )>one  bpenc  mm  lybcopnep  leap  •  -j  cele];o- 
nian  mopan  •  -j  jlsebenan  mopan  •  -j  hoccep  mopan  • 
■j  ellenep  pypttpuman  pmbe  pyl  on  ealaS  Iset  fcanban 
neahrejme  ahlyttjie  ]?onne  -j  gepypm   bo  butepan  to  *j 

'  amen  is  in  a  different  hand.  I       '  hajia,  MS. 

-  Vjic,  MS.  I       ^  Read  ucypnenbe,  for  -bne. 

LEECH   BOOK.   ITI.  335 

xl.  Book  III. 

Ch.  xl. 

In  case  a  man  be  lunatic  ;  take  skin  of  a  mereswine 
or  porpoise,  work  it  into  a  whip,  swinge  the  man 
therewith,  soon  he  will  be  well.     Amen. 


Work  thus  a  good  drink  against  all  temptations  of  the 
devil.  Take  betony,  bishopwort,  lupins,  githrife,  attor- 
lothe,  wolfscomb,  yarrow ;  lay  them  under  the  altar, 
sing  nine  masses  over  them,  scrape  the  worts  into  holy 
water,  give  the  man  to  drink  at  night  fasting  a  cup 
full,  and  put  the  holy  water  into  all  the  meat  which 
the  man  taketh.  Work  thus  a  good  salve  against 
temptations  of  the  fiend.  Bishopwort,  lupin,  vipers 
bugloss,  strawberry  plant,  the  cloved  wenwort,  earth 
rime,  blackberry,  pennyroyal,  wormwood ;  pound  all  the 
worts,  boil  them  in  good  butter,  wring  through  a  cloth, 
set  them  under  the  altar,  sing  nine  masses  over  them ; 
smear  the  man  therewith  on  the  temples,  and  above 
the  eyes,  and  above  the  head,  and  the  breast,  and  the 
sides  under  the  arms.  This  salve  is  good  for  every 
temptation  of  the  fiend,  and  for  a  man  full  of  elfin 
tricks,  and  for  typhus  fever.  If-  thou  wilt  cure  a  wit 
sick  man,  put  a  pail  full  of  cold  water,  drop  thrice  into  it 
some  of  the  drink  ;  bathe  the  man  in  the  water,  and  let 
the  man  eat  hallowed  bread,  and  cheese,  and  garlic,  and 
cropleek,  and  drink  a  cup  full  of  the  drink ;  and  when 
he  hath  been  bathed,  smear  with  the  salve  thoroughly  ; 
and  when  it  is  better  with  liim,  then  work  him  a 
strong  purgative  drink.  Work  the  drink  thus ;  take 
leaves  of  libcorn,  and  roots  of  celandine,  and  roots  of 
gladden,  and  root  of  hollyhock,  and  rind  of  root  of 
elder;  boil  in  ale,  let  it  stand  for  the  space  of  a  night, 
then  clarify,  and   warm  it,   add   butter   and   salt,   ad- 

336  LJECF,  BOC, 

j-ealc  yele  bjuncan.  Py]ie  fpipe  bpenc  uryjineiibne  nim 
feopejitij  lybcopna  bepenb  pel  -j  jejnib  on  niojjopeapbe 
celeJ?onian  -j  lioccep  mojian  -j  tpa  clupe  j^sepe  clupehtaii 
penpypte  -j  hpeplij^ette  nijjepeapbe  an  lytel  •  'j  ham- 
j'yjite  mojian  mebmicel  •  jebo  ealle  ]?a  pypta  fpij>e  pel 
clsene  "j  jecnua  bo  on  eala  beppeoli  Iset  fcanban  neah.- 
fol.  121  a.         tepne  yele  bpmcan  pcenc  pulne. 

Qip    fpiSbpenc    on    man   jepitte    -j    he    nelle    opjan 
mm     mj^epeapbe    cele}?onian  •     "j    lybcopuep    leap    o]>]>e 
apob  pyl  on  ealaS  bo  bute]\an  "j  pealr  to  yele  bpmcan 
peapmep  pcenc  pulne. 


J)}]>  attpep  bpmce  feo|?  henne  -j  hoccep  leap  on 
p?etpe  abo  ]?one  pujel  op  -j  ]?a  py]^ta  j-ele  fupan  -p 
bjioS  pel  jebutepob  fpa  he  hatofc  raseje  •  jip  he  seji 
hsepj)  attoji  jebpuncen  ne  bi]?  him  alite  j^e  pypp  pp 
he  f  bpo^  ]?onne  sep  fyp^  ne  meahc  |7U  him  |7y  bse^e 
atco^  jepellan ; 


Vijj  luj'um  pele  him  etan  jefobenne  capel  on  neaht 
neptij  jelome  he  bij;  luptim  bepepeb. 


Qip  pojxn  fcmje  man  on  p6r  dppe  hpeob  -j  nelle 
opjan  mme  mpe  joj-e  topb  •  -j  jpene  jeappan  cnupije 
fpi])e  topomne  clasm  on  -^  bolh  fona  bij»  pel ; 

LEFX'PI   BOOK.    III.  037 

minister  to  drink.  Work  iltvf!  a  purgative  spew  drink  ;  Book  in. 
take  forty  libcorns,  rend  tliem  Avell,  and  rnl)  them  ^'''- x'"- 
simall  upon  the  netlierward  part  of  celandine  and 
mallow  roots,  and  two  cloves  of  the  .cloved  wen^ 
wort,  and  a  little  of  the  netlierward  part  of  cucumber, 
and  a  moderate  quantity  of  the  root  of  homewort ; 
make  all  the  worts  thoroughly  well  clean,  and  pound 
them;  put  them  into  ale,  wrap  up,  let  it  stand  for  a 
nights  space,  give  the   man  a  cup  full  to  drink. 


If  a  strong  potion  lodge  in  a  man,  and  will  not 
come  away,  take  the  netlierward  part  of  celandine, 
and  leaves  of  libcorn  or  arod,'  boil  in  ale,  add  butter 
and  salt,  give  to  drink  a  cup  full  of  it  warm. 


For  drink  of  poison ;  seethe  a  hen  and  leaves  of 
mallow  in  water,  remove  the  fowl  and  the  worts, 
give  the  man  the  broth  to  sip,  well  buttered,  as  hot 
as  he  can  tal'e  it.  If  he  hath  drunken  j^oison  before, 
it  will  be  none  the  worse  with  him.  If  he  supneth  the 
broth  beforehand  thou  mayst  not  that  day  give  him 
poison  (effectually), 


Against  lice  ;  give  the  man  to  eat  sodden  colewort 
at  night  fasting,  frequently  :  he  will  be  guarded  against 


If  a  thorn  or  a  reed  prick  a  man  in  the  foot,  and 
will  not  be  gone  ;  let  him  take  a  fresh  goose  tord  and 
green  yarrow,  let  him  pound  them  thorousfhly  together, 
paste  them  on  the  wound,  soon  it  Avill  be  well. 

»  Aron  ? 
VOL.    II.  Y 

338  LMCE   EOC. 

J)\\>    {Bj-mselum  •    -j    pi]?    eallum    eajna    pnepce  •    ceo]' 
pulpep  comb    j'jimj  ])onne  ]>uph   hsepenne    claS  pyllenne 
on  |)a  eajaii  f  peap    on    nilit   J?onne  he  pepcan  pille  -j 
on  mojijen  bo  rejep  ]>  lipice  ])X]\  on. 

.  XLVII. 

^  Vi]?  lyp'^   able    jTp    )-e   muS   pie    poh  o]>];e  jwn  •  mm 

fol.  if^H),  eellenb]ian  jnib  on  pipej- meolce  bo  on  f  hale  eape  hira 
hi]?  pona  pel.  Gpt  mm  cellenbpan  abjnj  ^epypc  to 
bufce  jemenj  ]>  bufc  -pip  pipep  nieoluc  J?e  psepneb  pebe 
ajjpmj  ]7U]ih  hsepenne  claS  "j  fmipe  p  hale  ponj^e  mib 
-j  b]iype  on  ]5  eape  psejiliee.  Pypc  ]?onne  bej^mje  • 
jenim  bpembel  pmbe  -j  elm  jiinbe  •  £epc  pinbe  •  plah- 
]?opn  pmbe  apulboji  pmbe  •  ipij  pmbe  •  ealle  pap 
nio];opea]ibe  -j  hpephpetcan  •  fmejiu  pyj^t  •  eopoji  peajm  • 
elene  •  selpjjone  •  betomce  •  mapubie  •  pebic  •  aj;]!!- 
raonia  jefceappa  pa  pyjita  on  cetel  *j  pyl  fpi^e  •  ]?onne 
hit  fie  fpi]?e  jepylleb  bo  op  pam  pype  -j  pete  'j  ^epypc 
pam  men  petl  opep  pam  citele  -j  beppeop  "Sone  man 
mib  ^  pe  £e]?m  ne  masje  tic  nahpreji  butan  he  mreje 
jeepian  •  bepe  hme  mib  J?ippe  bepmje  ];a  hpile  pa  he 
maeje  apsepnan.  JDapa  him  ponne  opep  beep  jeapa  • 
;^enim  semet  beb  mib  ealle  •  papa  pe  hpilum  pleojaS 
beop  peabe  •  pyl  on  psetpe  bepe  hme  mib  •  onjemet- 
hatum.  Pypc  him  ponne  ]'ealpe  mm  felcep  pa]ia 
cynnep  ]>y)ita  pyl  on  butejian  fmipe  mib  ]?a  papan 
limu  Ine  cpiciap  j-ona.  Pypc  him  leaje  op  ellen  ahj-an 
ppeah  hip  lieapob  mib  colpe  him  bip  pona  bet  •  *j  pe 
man  Irete  him  blob  selce  monpe  on  .v.  mhta  ealbne 
monan  'j  on  piptyne  -j  on  .xx. 

LEECH   BOOK.    III.  339 

xlvi.  Book  11  r. 

lor  immmutions/  and  for  all  pain  of  the  eyes;  chew 
wolfscomb,  then  wring  the  ooze  through  a  purple  cloth 
upon  the  eyes,  at  night,  when  the  man  has  a  mind  to 
rest,  and  in  the  morning  apply  the  white  of  an  egg. 


For  palsy,  if  the  mouth  be  awry  or  livid,  rub  cori- 
ander in  v/omans  milk,  put  it  into  the  sound  ear,  it 
will  soon  be  well  with  the  inan.  Again,  take  coriander, 
dry  it,  work  it  to  dust,  mingle  the  dust  with  milk  of 
a  woman,  who  brought  forth  a  male,  wring  through  a 
purple  cloth,  and  smear  the  sound  cheek  therewith,  and 
drip  it  on  the  ear  warily.  Then  work  a  fomentation ; 
take  bramble  rind,  and  elm  rind,  ash  rind,  sloethorn 
rind,  appletree  rind,  ivy  rind,  all  these  from  the  nether 
part  of  the  trees,  and  cucumber,  smearwort,  everfern, 
helenium,  enchanters  nightshade,  betony,  marrubium, 
radish,  agrimony ;  scrape  the  worts  into  a  kettle,  and 
boil  strongly.  When  it  hath  been  strongly  boiled,  re- 
move it  off  the  fire  and  set  it  do^un,  and  get  the  man 
a  seat  over  the  kettle,  and  wrap  the  man  up,  that  the 
vapour  may  get  out  nowhere,  except  only  so  that  the 
man  may  breathe  ;  beathe  him  with  this  fomentation  as 
long  as  he  can  bear  it.  Then  liave  another  bath  ready 
fo]'  him,  take  an  emmet  bed,  all  at  once,  a  bed  of  those 
male  eniiinets  which  at  whiles  fly,  they  are  red  ones,  boil 
them  in  water,  beathe  him  with  it  immoderately  hot. 
Then  make  him  a  salve ;  take  worts  of  each  kind  of 
those  above  tnentioned,  boil  them  in  butter,  smear  the 
sore  limbs  therewith,  they  will  soon  quicken.  Make 
him  a  ley  of  elder  ashes,  wash  his  head  with  this 
cold ;  it  will  soon  be  well  with  him  :  and  let  the  man 
get  bled  every  month,  when  the  moon  is  five,  and 
fifteen,  and  twenty  nights  old. 

'  Contraction  of  the  pupil. 

Y   2 

.340  L^CE   EOC, 

fol.  122  a.  .XLVIII. 

Djienc    yi]}    pc    able     mm    bulut  •     -j    eoyojij^potan 
nio]?opeapbe  •    ^     pubu    pillan  •     "j     jeacej*     yupan  •     -j 
fppeppan   jej'ceapjra    ]:>a)'  pyp'co    coSomne    bo    on    pellet: 
mnan    Iset    franban    iieahtepne    a^p    ]ni    hme     bjiince. 
\/  PyP*^    belnnje    mm    -p    peabe    jiybeii    bo    on    rju;^    lia^t: 

ponne  franap  f]n|?e  hate  leje  on  p  rjnj  innan  -j  he 
yitce  on  frole  opeji  jnejie  bejjinje  p  liio  lime  m?e;5e 
rela  jepeocan  J^onne  peallaS  ]>a  pc  pypmap  on  J>a 
bejwnje  liini  bi]j  j'ona  pel  •  bjnnce  ]?one  bjienc  ve\\ 
Jvsepe  bej^mje  •  jip  he  ]?onne  J?a  bejjmje  jnijihteon  ne 
mpeje  bpmce  ]>one  bpenc  felce  ba^je  o]?  p  him  pel  fie. 


Vi|>  pciilbop  pa?jice  "j  eajima  •  j'yl  betonican  on  ealo6 
peie  bpinean  jelome  -j  pimle  linipe  hine  rer  pype  mib 

^ly  cneop  j'aji  yie  cnna   beolenan  ■-]  heinlic  bepe  mib 
-J  lei^e  on. 


Gip  pe  por  pa]\  pie  ellen  leap  •  'j  jjejbjiseban  -j 
mncjpyjit   jeenua  'j  leje  on  'j  ^ebinb   hat  pa3]i  on.     :• 

.LI  I. 

Qip    ]>u    ne    msBje    blob    bolh    po]ip]n]?au    mm    uipe 
fol.  122  b.         hoji]-e]-    topb    abpij    on    fimnan    jej^nib  to    bufte    fpi|;e 
pel  leje    p    bnfc    I'pipe    piece    on    linenne   clap    pjup  mib 
py  p  bolli. 

^"Tp  meoluc  fie    apyjib  biub  toSomne    pejbpa^ban  •  'j 
gipjupm  •  "j  cepfan  leje  on    pone  pilbcumb  ^j  ne  fete  p 
jisec  nijep  on  eojipan  feopon  uihtum. 

LEECH    BOOK.    IH.  341 

A  drink  lor  the  "lig"  disease;  take  bulut,  and  the 
netherward  part  of  everthroat,  and  wild  cliervil,  and 
cuckoosoiir,  and  iefcrth;  scrape  these  worts  togetlier,  put 
them  into  a  basin,  let  it  stand  for  the  space  of  a  night, 
ere  thou  drink  it.  Work  a  fomentation  thus  ;  take  the 
red  ryden,  put  it  in  a  trough,  then  heat  stones  very  hot, 
lay  them  within  the  trough,  and  let  tlcG  man  sit  on 
a  stool  over  the  fomentation,  that  it  may  reek  him 
well,  then  the  "  tig  "  worms  will  fall  on  the  beathing, 
and  it  will  soon  be  well  with  him.  Let  him  drink 
the  drink  before  the  beathing;  if  then  he  cannot  pull 
through  the  beathing,  let  him  drink  the  drink  every 
day  till  it  be  all  right  with  him. 

Against  pain  of  shoulders  and  arms ;  Ijoil  l:)etouy  in 
ale,  give  It  the  man  to  drink   frequently,  and  always 
smear  him  at  the  lire  with  wenwort. 

If  a  knee    be    sore,    pound    henbane    and    hemlock, 
foment  therewith  and  lay  on. 


If  the  foot  be  sore,  pound  and  lay  on  elder  leaves, 
and  waybroad,  and  mugwort  ;  and  bind  hot  upon  the 

If  thou  be  not  able  to  stanch  a  bloodletting  incision, 
take  a  new   horses   tord,    dry  it  in  the  sun,  rub  it  to 
dust    thoroughly   well,   lay   the   dust   very  thick   on  a 
linen  cloth ;  wrap  up  the  wound  with  that. 

If  milk  be  spoilt ;  bind  together  waybroad,  and  gitii- 
rife,  and  cress,  lay  them  on  the  milk  pail,  and  set  not 
the  vessel  down  on  the  earth  for  seven  niiihts. 

Book  iir. 

Cli.  xlviii. 

842  LiECE    EOC. 

Pypc    j'ealpe     pi^     nihtjengan  •     pyl    on     butepan 
elehcjian  •    hejepifan  •    bifceop   pypt:  •    peabe    majj^aii  • 
cpopleac  •  peak  fmijie  mib  liim  bi5  pona  pel. 

.  LV. 
Zip  men  I'lo  heapob  panne   beo  jehlenceb  aleje  ]7one 
man    tippeapb    bpip  .11.    fcacan    yet    j^am    eaxlum    lege 
|?onne  bjieb  Jppeopep  opeji    );a   pet  pleali  ]7onne  ]>pipa  on 
^  mib  pleje  bytle  hio  ^se]>  on  juht  Sona. 

Gtp  men  nelle    mylran    hip  mete   nij^epeapb  elate  'j 
mepce  -j  fimbcopnep  leap  pyl  on   eala]?  fele  bpincan. 

.  LVII. 
Vi]?  ptp  jemseblan  jebepje  on  neaht   neptij  psEjbicej" 
mopan  ]?y  bseje  ne  msej  ]>e  pe  jemgebla  pce]?J?an. 

J)i]>  peonbep  cofcunje  pub  molin'  hatte  pypt  peaxe]? 
be  ypnenbum  psetpe  •  jip  ]?u  J^a   on  J?e  liapaft  "j  unbep 
Jjmum  heapob  bolfcpe  •  -j  opep  Jjinep  huj'ep  bupum  •    ne 
fol.  120  a.         niceg  J^e  beopol  pce]?]?an  Inne  ne  ute. 

.  LVil[n]. 

Pi]>  l^eojt  penile  jip  he  lie  men  on  clieope  o]>])e  on 
ojjjum  lime  pyjic  clam  op  puppe  pijenpe  5put  oS5e 
baje  jebo  aejef  hpit  to  "j  bjioc  cepfan  leje  on  f  Km 
o]f  f  ye  clam  hatije  bo  op  ]?one  lege  o]?ejine  |?8ep  on. 

Read  molin. 

l.EEUll    J.OOK.    III.  OlS 

liv.  Book  III. 

.  Ch.  liv. 

Work  Ji  salve  against  nocturnal  goblin  visitors  ;  boil 
in  butter  lupins,  hedgeriie,  bishop  wort,  led  may  the, 
cropleek,  salt;  smear  the  rami  therev/ith,  it  will  soon 
be  well  with  him. 


If  a  mans  head-pan,  or  skull,  be  seemingly  iron- 
bound  lay  the  man  with  face  upward,  drive  two 
stakes  into  the  groimcl  at  the  armpits,  then  lay  a  plank 
across  over  his  feet,  then  strike  on  it  thrice  with  a 
sledge  beetle,  the  skull  will  come  right  soon. 


If  a  mans  meat  will  not  digest,  boil  in  ale  the 
nether  ward  part  of  clote,  and  marche,  and  leaves  of 
saxifrage,  give  Idm  that  to  drink. 


Against  a  womans  chatter ;  taste  at  night  fasting 
a  root  of  radish,  that  day  the  chatter  cannot  harm 


Against  temptation  of  the  fiend,  a  wort  hight  red 
niolin,  red  stalk,  it  waxeth  by  running  water  :  if  thou 
hast  it  on  thee,  and  imder  thy  head  bolster,  and  over 
thy  house  doors,  the  devil  may  not  scathe  thee,  within 
nor  without. 


For  a  "  dry  "  wen ;  if  it  be  on  a  man's  knee,  or  on 
another  limb,  work  a  paste  of  sour  rye  groats  or  dough, 
add  the  Avliite  of  an  egg  and  brook  cresses,  lay  on  the 
limb  till  the  paste  gets  hot,  remove  it  then  and  lay 
another  on. 

344?  LJECE   BOC. 


A^ypc  johe  eap]"eal}:e  hiiiibey  timje  nij^cpeapb  'j  i'ln- 
2;)iene  -j  linjiulle  •  timhojre  nio]?opea]ib  •  celej^onian  lea]:* 
japleac  •  qxopleac  bo  on  pin  ob«5e  on  eceb  pjunj  Jmjili 
hsepenne  dab  on  •]>  eajie  lust;  I'ranban  .ill.  nilir;  leji  ]'ii 
lime  on  bo.  Bpr  mm  c-jiopleac  "j  I'inpullan  jecnua ' 
h]'on  pinep  to  -j  j^jimj  on  f  eajie  him   bi]>  yona  I'el      :• 


Pyjic  pealpe  ]n]>  yelpc^'nne  'j  nihtjenjaii  -j  J^am 
manniim  J7C  beojjol  mib  ha^mS  •  7;enim  eopohnmelan  • 
pejnnob  bij-ccoppyjit;  •  clelitjie  •  ;cpc}i)iote  •  beolone  • 
liajie  j^yjit;  •  liajian  lp]iecel  •  ha^]?  bejijean  jnyan  •  cjio])- 
leac  •  jajileac  •  liejejiijran  copn  •  syj'pife  •  pinul.  bo 
f'ap  py]i'^a  on  an  pet  lete  nnbeji  peopob  pmg  opep 
.Vim.  niteppan  apyl  on  burejum  -j  on  pceapep  Imejipe 
bo  lialijep  j-ealrey  pela  on  apeoli  ]>uph  clab  •  peopp  j'a 
pypta  on  ypnenbe  pseteji.  jip  men  hpilc  ypel  coptunj 
peo]i]?e  o}>]7e  relp  o]>]w  mho  jenjaii  •  rmijie  hij'  -jplitan 
mib  J'lj'pe  pealpe  -j  on  hip  eajaii  bo  -j  j'ceji  him  pe 
lichoma  pap  lie  •  -j  pecella  lime  "j  fena  gelome  hij- 
J^inj  bi|?  poua  pelpe. 


V lb  iclpablo  mm  bipeeop  pyjit;  •  piiiul  •  elehtpe  • 
<e]p]7onaii  nioj'opeajibe  •  "j  5eha];t,ober  cpiirep  maslel" 
jia^^ii  •  -j  Iroji  bo  a^lcjic  hanb  piille  •  bebinb  ealle  }?a 
j'ypta    on    cla]  e    bebyp    on    pont;    pit'tjie     jehaljobuin 

'  bo  is  to  be  added. 

LEPXH    BOOK.    III.  345 

Work  a  good  ear  salve  thini  ;  the  netherward  part 
ol"  hoiuid.s  tong'uu,  and  siiigreeii,  and  sedum,  the  ne- 
tlierward  part  of  garden  liove,  leaves  of  celandine,  garlic, 
cropleek ;  put  tlumi  into  wine  or  vinegar,  "wi'ing  them 
through  a  coloured  cloth  into  the  ear;  let  tJtc  liquor 
stand  for  three  nights  Ijelbre  thou  ap[)ly  it.  Again, 
take  cropleek  and  sedum,  pound  them,  add  a  little 
wine,  and  wring  into  the  ear,  it  will  soon  be  well 
with  it. 


Work  thus  a  salve  against  the  elfin  race  and  noc- 
turnal gohliii  visitors,  and  for  the  women  with  whom  the 
devil  liath  carnal  conunerce ;  take  the  ewe  hop  plant, 
probably  the  female  hop  plant,  wormwood,  bishopwort, 
lupin,  ashthroat,  henbane,  liarewort,  vipers  bugloss, 
heathberry  plants,  cropleek,  garlic,  grains  of  hedgerife, 
githrife,  fennel  ;  put  these  worts  into  a  vessel,  set 
tkeini  under  the  altar,  sing  over  them  nine  masses, 
boil  tliG'in  in  butter  and  sheeps  grease,  add  much  holy 
salt,  strain  through  a  clotli,  throw  the  worts  into  run- 
ning water.  If  any  ill  tempting  occur  to  a  man,  or 
an  elf  or  goblin  night  visitors  come,  smear  his  forehead 
with  this  salve,  and  put  it  on  liis  eyes,  and  where  his 
body  is  sore,  and  cense  him  with  incense,  and  sign 
him  frequently  with  the  sign  of  the  cross ;  his  con- 
dition Avill  soon  be  better. 


Against  elf  disease  ;  take  bishoj)wort,  fennel,  lupin, 
the  lower  part  of  enchanters  nightshade,  and  moss  or 
lichen  from  the  hallowed  sign  of  Christ,  and  incense, 
uf  each  a  hand  full ;  bind  all  the  worts  in  a  cloth,  dip 
it    thrice   in    hallowed     font    water,    have   sung    over 

Book  III. 

346  L/KCE   BOO. 

jjpijpii  •  liGt  I'm^aii  ofcji  .III.  iiuej'fan  •  ane  oiiinibus 
Sci]'  •  o]?pe  contjia  tjiibulacjonem  •  ]?ribban  pjio  in- 
pijimiS  •  bo  ];onrLe  jleba  an  jlebpset  -j  leje  ]>&  pypta 
on  •  jejiec  ]?one  man   niib  Jjam   j^yjicum    sep    unbepn  "j 

V  on  niht  'j  pmj  letania  -j  cpeban  -j  patep  noycep  "j 
ppit  hnn  cpifcejr  msel  on  selcum  lime  -j  mm  lytle  hanb 
fulle  ]%ep  ilcan  cynnep  ]?ypta  jelice  jelialjobe  *-)  pyl  on 
meolce  bpyp  |7pipa  jehaljobep  pietpep  on  *j  lupe  sep 
hif  mete  him  loip  pona  pel.  pi]?  ]7on  ilcan  •  janj  on 
jjunpep  jepen  J^onne  funne  on  j-etle  fie  y^^]^  J?u  pite 
elenan  franban  pmj  ]?onne  benebicite  •  "j  pacep  noptep  • 

^         -j  letanian  •  -j  fcmj  J>m  j-eax  on   }?a  pypte  Iset  fcician 

J?a3p  on  janj  ]?e  apej  ^anj  ept  to  ]?onne  bsej  -j  niht  puji- 

]7um  pcabe  on  ];am  ilcan  uhte   ^anj  sepelt   to  ci]iicean 

•j    ]?e   jej'ena   'j    gobe   ]7e   bebeob  jaiij  ];onne    Ipijenbe 

ibl.  121  a.         "j  ]7eah  ]?e  hpset  bpeja  ejeflicef  onjean  cume  o]>pe  man 

ne  epe]?   ]?u   him    semj    pojib  to   teji    ]>u  cume  to  ];8epe 

pypte    ])e  pu    on    sepen  sep   jemeapcobeft    finj   j^onne 

/  benebicite  •  -j    patep  noptep  •  -j  letania    abelp  ]>a,   ]>y\\^ 

V  last   fcician  f  peax    ]?sep    on  •   janj  ept   fpa  ]7U   jiajjofc 

msese  to  cipicean  -j  leje  unbep  peop ob  mib  J)am  peaxe 

Itet  licjean  o]>  f  fimne  iippe  fie  •    apsepc  fi]?];an  bo  to 

bpence  •    -j   bipceop   pypt   -j   cjiiftep    meelef  paju    apyl 

]?pipa  on  ineolcum  jeot  ];pi])a   halij  pgetep   on    linj  on 

patep  noptep  •  -j  cpeban  •  -j  jlopia    m   excelpip   beo  •  -j 

fmj  on  hme  letania  •  -j  lime  eac  ymb  ppic  mib  ipeojibe 

V  on  .iiii.  healpa  on  cpuce  •  -j  bpmce  Jjone  bpenc  fi]?|?an 
him  bij?  pona  pel.  6pt  pi]?  ]7on  leje  unbep  peopob  |?ap 
pyjite  hec  jefmjan  opep  .villi.  niEej'pan  •  pecelp  • 
hahj    j-ealt    .in.    heapob     cpopleacep    ielpponan    nioj7e- 

LEECH   BOOK.   Til.  347 

it    three    masses,    one    "  Omnibus    Sanctis," '    another      ^*{^^^"^' 

" Contra  tribulationem,"  ^  a  third  "Pro  inlirmis."^     Then 

put  glecles  in  a  glede  pan,  and  lay  the  worts  on :  reek 

the  man  with  the  worts   before   nine'' in   the   morning, 

and  at  night,   and   sing  a  litany,    and   the   credo,   and 

the  Pater  noster,    and  write  Christs   mark    on  each  of 

his  limbs,  and  take  a  little  hand  full   of  worts  of  the 

same  kind  similarly  hallowed,  and   boil   in   milk,  drop 

thrice  some  hallowed  water  into  it,  and  let  him  sip  of  it 

before  his  meat;  it  will  soon   be  well  with  him.     For 

that  ilk.     Go    on   Thursday  evening,  when  the   sun  is 

set,  where   thou   knowest   that    helenium    stands,  then 

sing  the  "  Benedicite,"  and  "  Pater  noster,"  and  a  litany, 

and    stick    thy    knife   into   the    wort,    make    it    stick 

fast,  and  go  away :  go  again,  when  day  and  night  just 

divide  f  at  the   same    period   go   first   to   church   and 

cross  thyself,  and  commend  thyself  to  God  ;  then  go  in 

silence,  and  though  anything  soever  of  an  awful  sort  or 

man  a  meet  thee,  say  not  thou  to  him  any  word,  ere 

thou  come  to  the    wort,    which   on  the  evening  before 

thou  markedst ;  then  sing  the  Benedicite,  and  the  Pater 

noster,  and  a  litany,  delve  up  the  wort,  let  the  knife 

stick  in   it ;   go    again    as    quick  as  thou   art   able   to 

church,  and  lay  it  under  the  altar  with  the  knife ;  let 

it    lie    till    the    sun    be   up,   wash   it    afterwards,    and 

make  into  a  drink,  and   bishopwort,  and    lichen  off  a 

crucifix ;   boil   in  milk  thrice,  thrice   pour   holy  water 

upon  it,  and  sing  over   it   the   Paternoster,  the  Credo, 

and  the  Gloria  in  excelsis  deo  f   and   sing   upon   it   a 

litany,  and  score  with  a  sword  round  about  it  on  three 

sides  a  cross,    and  then   after   that   let  the  man  drink 

the  wort;  soon  will  it  be  well   with   him.     Again   for 

that ;  lay  these  worts  under  the  altar,  have  nine  masses 

sung    over    them,    incense,    holy   salt,    three    heads    ot 

cropleek,  the  netherward  part  of  enchanters  nightshade, 

'  la  the  missal.  [       ^  In  early  mominc 

-  The  same  as  "  I'ro  quacunque   j       *  Luke  ii.  14. 
ueccssitate  "  ?  1 

;)48  L/ECE   BOC. 

peajibe  •  elenan  •  mm  on  mopjen  fcenc  fiulne  meoliice 
bjiyp  ]?pipa  halige]-  j^yetejiel"  on  I'upe  fpa  he  hatolb 
mteje  •  ete  mib  .iii.  Ihieba  selpj^onan  "j  j^onne  he  pel- 
tan  pille  htebbe  jleba  ];8B]v  nine    leje    Iboji  'j  telpj^onan 

fol.  1  -24:  b.  on  ]ni  jleba  •  -j  jiec  hme  mib  f  he  fpiB'ce  •  -j  f  hup 
jeonb  pec  -j  ^eopne  ];one  man  jej-ena  •  -j  ];onne  he 
on  pelre  janje  eCe  .iii.  luseba  eolenan  •  *j  .ill.  cpop- 
leacep  •  -j  .iii.  pealtep  •  "j  haebbe  hmi  fcenc  puhie 
ealaS  -j  bpyj^e  ])]iipa  hahj  pfetep  on  •  bel'upe  selce 
Ihieb  •  jepefre  hme  pi]?]7an-  bo  jnp  .villi,  mojijenal'*  -j 
.Villi,  niht  hnn  bi]>  pona  pel.  Jip  hnn  bi)>  lelplbjol'a 
him  beo]:»  }?a  eajan  jeolj^e  ]nep  hi  jieabe  beon  I'ceolbon. 
V  Jip  |ni  ]'0ue  mon  lacnian  pille  j^iienc  hil"  jebtepa  -j 
pite  hpilcef  habef  he  lie  •  jip  hit  bi]j  ptopneb  man 
--j  locaS  tip  ]7onne  ];u  lime  nepefc  j'ceapalb  -j  pe  -jplita 
"'  bi);  ^eolj^e  blac  •  ]7one  mon  ])u.  meaht  jelacman  ?eltseplice 

jip  lie  ne  bi]?  j^sep  on  to  lanje  •  jip  hit  bi]?  ptp  *j  locaS 
ni)7e]i  ]7onne  ])u  hit  jejieft  pceapalb  •  "j  hipe  -jplita  bi]? 
peabe  pan  f  ]m  iniht  eac  jelacnian  •  jip  hit  biS  bsej- 
Jjejme  leii^  on  ]>onne  ,  xii.  mona]?  -j  I'lo  onfyii  bijj 
pyplicu  J'oniie  mealit  ])u  hme  betaii  co  lijnle  •  -j  ne 
meaht  hpsej^ejie  leltreplice  jelacnian.  P]nt  Jnp  jepjiit  • 
Scjiiptum  eSc  pex  jiejum  et  bomiimp  bommantjum  • 
byjinice  •  bepomce  •  luplupe  •  lehe  •  aiup  •  aiuj*  •  aiup  • 
Scj'  •  Sep  .  Sc)'  •  bommu]"  beup  Sabaoth  •  amen  •  alleluiah. 
Siii;i;  ]'ip  opeji   ])am    bpence    -j    ]>am    jepjute  •    6eu]'  om- 

fol.  l-2b  a.  mpoteiii"  p)ate]i  bommi  noptjvi  lesu  cjnpti  •  peji  Inpofi- 
tjonem  hmnf  pcpiptiijia  expelle  a  painulo  tuo  N-'  Om- 
nem  Impecuin'-  calbalibum  ^'^  be  eapitc  •  be  capillif  •  be 

'  mmcn.  i       =•  Castalides,  hun  t'ljen,  Gl.  iSomn. 

-■  impiTuii,  MS.  I   p.  79  b.     Elves  of  the  duwna. 

LEECH   BOOK.    ITT.  349 

lielenium  ;   take   in   the   mornino-   a  cun   full   of  milk,      Book  III. 

r"v    1  -  ■  ■ 
drop  thrice  some  holy  water  into  it,  let  tJie  Ttiaoi  sup 

it  up  as  hot  as  he  can  :    let  him   eat   therewith   throe 

bits  of  enchanters    nightshade,    and    when    he    hath  a 

mind  to  rest,  let  him  have  in  his    chamber  gledes,  let 

him  lay  on  the  gledes  crrupa^  and   elfthone,    and   reek 

him  therewith   till   he   sweat,    and   reek  the   house  all 

through ;  eai'nestly  also  sign  the  man  with  the  sign  of 

tlie  cross,  and   when   he  is  going    to    bed,  let  him  eat 

tln-ee  bits  of  helenium,  and  three  of  cropleek,  and  three 

of  salt,  and  let  him  have  a  cup  full  of  ale,  and  thrice 

drop  holy  water  into  it;  let  him  sup  up  each  bit,  and 

afterwards   rest   himself.      Let    him    do    this    for   nine 

mornings   and   nine   nights,  it  will  soon  be  well  with 

him.     If  a  man  hath  elf  hicket,  his  eyes  are   yellow, 

where    they  should    be    red.     If   thou    have  a  will    to 

cure  the  man,  observe  his  gestures,  and  consider  of  what 

sex  he  be  ;  if  it  be  a  man  and  looketh  up,  when  thou 

first  seest  him,  and  the  countenance  be  yellowish  black, 

thou  mayst  cure  the  man  thoroughly  if  he  is  not  too 

long   in   the    disease  ;    if  it  is  a   woman    and    looketh 

down,  when  thou    first  seest  her,  and  her  countenance 

is  livid  red,  thou  mayst  also  cure  that ;   if  it  has  been 

upon  the  man  longer  than  a  twelvemonth  and  a  day, 

and  the  aspect  be  such  as  this,  then  mayst  thou  amend 

it  for  a  while,  and  notwithstanding  mayst  not  entirely 

ciu-e  it.     Write  this  writing,  "Scriptum  est,  rex  regum 

"  et  dominus  dominantium  Veronica,'  Veronica,  ,  .  .  iao,- 

"  uyto;,    ocyioc,    uyiog,    sanctus,    sanctus,    sanctus,  domi- 

"  nus,  dens  sabaoth,  amen,  alleluicih."     Sing   this  over 

tlie  drink   and    the  writing,  "Deus    omnipotens,    pater 

"  domini   nostri   lesu    Christi,  per   impositionem  huius 

"  scripturse  expelle  a  famulo  tuo,  here  insert  the  name, 

"  omnem  impetum  castalidum  de  capite,  de  capillis,  de 

'  The  miraculous  portrait  on  the   i       -  nirT" 
kerchief  of  St.  Verouica. 

-550  L^CE  Eor. 

cepebjio  •  be  j: ponte  •  be  Imjua  •  be  publmjua  •  be  juctojie  • 
be  jraucibuf  •  be  bentibup  •  be  oculif  •  be  najtibus .  be 
aujiibus  •  be  manibus  •  be  coUo  •  be  bjiaclinf  •  be  copbe  • 
be  amma  •  be  jenibiis  •  be  coxif  •  be  pebibiis  •  be  com- 
pa^mibus-  omnmm  raembjiojium  mcuf  ec  }:opif  •  amen. 
Pyjie  Jjonne  bjienc  jront  pseteji  •  jiuban  •  Saluian  •  cafpue  • 
v  bjiaconzan  •  J^a  fme|7an  pejbpfieban  nif'epeapbe  pejrep 
fupan*  biley  cjiop-  japleacef  .ill.  clujze-  pmul-  pepmob- 
lupefeice  •  elehtpe  •  ealpa  empela  •  j^pit  ,  iii.  cpiicem  inib 
oleum  mpipmojium  "j  cpeS  •  pas  Cibi  •  Nim  ponne  ]> 
jeppit  ppit  cpucem  mib  opeji  J?am  bpmce  ^  fmj  ]ny  ptep 
opep.  beup  omnipotenf  pateji  bommi  •  noptjii  •  lesu 
cpipti  peji  Inpofitjonem  liump  fcpiptupjB^  et  pep  jufcum 
huiuS  expelle  biabolum  a  pamulo  cuo  •  ]S  •  -  'j  epebo  • 
•j  patep  •  noptep  •  pset  f  ^eppit  on  ]?am  bpenee  -j  ppic 
cpucem  mib  him  on  selcuni  lime  -j  cpeS  fijnum  cpueiS 
xpi  eonpepuate  In  uitam  euepnam  •  amen,  jip  ])e  ne 
V  lyfce  hat  hme  pelpne  o]>pe  fpa  jepubne  fpa  he  gefibbofc 
hsebbe  -j  fenije  fpa  he  pelofc  cunne  •  J?ep  cpsefc  msej 
pi]>  selcpe  peonbef  cofcunje. 


^ip  mon  bi]?  on  pastep  selpable  ]7onne  beo]?  him  ]?a 
lianb  ncejlaf  ])onne  -j  ];a  eajan  ceapije  'j  pile  locian 
fol.  12 J  b.  nij^ep  •  bo  him  ]?ip  co  Isecebome  •  eopojij^poce  •  capfuc  • 
pone  nio]>opeapb  •  eopbepje  •  elehtpe  •  eolone  •  mepfc- 
mealpan  cpop  •  pen  niinte  •  bile  •  lilie  •  atcopla]?e  • 
V  polleie  .  mapubie  •  bocce  •  ellen  •  pel  teppe  •  pepmob  • 
i'rpeapbeji^ean  leap  •  conpolbe  •  opjeoC  mib  ealaj>  •  bo 
halij  psetep  to  finj  |>ip  jealboji  opep  ]?pipa  •  Jo  bmne 
a])pat°  beteft   beabo    ppteba   fpa   benne   ne    bupnon  ne 

-pa,  MS.  I      ^  Fi'om  I'jn^au  rather  than  ppiran. 

■  nomen. 


"  cerebro,  defronte,  de  lingua,  de  sublingua,  de  gutture,  de     Book  III. 
"  faucibus,  de  dentibus,  de  oculis,  de  naribus,  de  auribus,  '^'"- 

' '  de  manibus,  de  collo,  de  bracliiis,  de  corde,  de  anima, 
•  de  genibus,  de  coxis,  de  pedibus,  de  compaginibus 
"  omnium  membromm  intus  et  foris.  Amen."  Then 
work  up  a  drink  thus ;  font  Avater,  rue,  sage,  cassuck, 
dragons,  the  netherward  part  of  the  smooth  waybroad, 
feverfue,  a  head  of  dill,  tliree  cloves  of  garlic,  fennel, 
wormwood,  lovage,  lupin,  of  all  equal  quantities  ;  write 
a  cross  three  times  with  the  oil  of  unction,  and  say, 
"Pax  tibi."  Then  take  the  writing,  describe  a  cross 
with  it  over  the  drink,  and  sing  this  over  it,  •'  Dominus 
"  omnipotens,  pater  domini  nostri  lesu  Christi,  per  im- 
"  positionem  huius  scripturse  et  per  gustum  huius  expelle 
"  diabolum  a  famulo  tuo;"  here  insert  the  name,  and  the 
Credo,  and  Paternoster.  Wet  the  wi'iting  in  the  drink, 
and  AVi'ite  a  cross  with  it  on  every  limb,  and  say, 
"  Signum  crucis  Christi  conservet  te  in  vitam  feter- 
'•  nam.  Amen."  If  it  listeth  thee  not  to  take  this 
trouble,  bid  the  man  himself,  or  whomsoever  he  rany 
have  nearest  sib  to  him,  to  do  it,  and  let  him  cross 
him  as  well  as  he  can.  This  craft  is  powerful  against 
every  temptation  of  the  fiend. 


If  a  man  is  in  the  water  elf  disease,  then  are 
the  nails  of  his  hand  livid,  and  the  eyes  tearful,  and 
he  will  look  downwards.  Give  him  this  for  a  leech - 
dom ;  everthroat,  cassuck,  the  netherward  part  of  fane, 
a  yew  berry,  lupin,  helenium,  a  head  of  marsh  mallow, 
fen  mint,  dill,  lily,  attorlothe,  pulegium,  marrubium, 
dock,  elder,  fel  terrse,  or  lesser  centaury,  wormwood, 
strawberry  leaves,  consolida  ;  pour  them  over  with  ale, 
add  holy  water,    sing  this  charm  over  them  thrice  : — 

I  have  wi^eathed  round  the  wonnds 
the  best  of  healing  wreaths, 

.352  LMCE  Bor. 

bujifcon  ne  }:iinhian  ne  ]:eolo5an  •  ne  lioppetan  ne 
jmiib  pfico  •  ne  bolli  biopian  •  ac  lum  yelp  liealbe 
hale  pa^je  •  ne  ace  ]'e  ]>on  nia  ];e  eo]i])an  on  eape  ace  • 
Smj  ]>iY  mancj^um  yijuim  •  eo]ij?e  ])e  on  bejie  eallura 
liijie  mihcum  -j  nirejenum  •  J'aj'  i;albop  mon  mrej  fmjan 
on  pnnbe. 


yi])    beofle    h]>e    bpenc    "j    unjemynbe    bo    on    ealu 
caj-puc  •  elehcpan  mojian  •  jnnnl  ontpe  •  betonice  •  liinb 
lieolo]?e  •  mejice  pnbe  •  pepmob.  nepce  •   elene*  pelp]jone  • 
V  pnlpep  comb  •  jefmj  .  xii.  mgeppan  opep  ]>am    bpence  -j 

bjiince  Inm  l)i]^  pona  pel.  5penc  pip  beoplep  cofcunja  • 
}?epan  jjojm  cpopleac  •  elecjie  •  ontpe  •  bifceop  pypt  • 
pmul  •  caj'puc  •  beromce  •  jehalja  ]>ap  py]ita  bo  on  ealu 
ful.  120  a,  balij  pietep  •  -j  fie  pe  bpenc  }>?ep  mne  J>?pp  pe  feoca  man 
inne  fie  •  "j  fiinle  a^p  ]on  ];e  he  bpmce  fmj  )>pipa 
opeji  |;am  bpence  •  beup  In  nomine  tuo  pakium 
me  pac. 


^•ip  man  fie  jejymeb  ^j  ]m  lime  jelacnian  pcyle  • 
jefeoli  p  be  fie  topeapb  jjonue  j)u  mjanje  J^onne  msej 
be  libban  •  gip  be  |;e  fie  pjiampeajib  ne  jjiet  ]m  bine 
abte  •   jip  be  bbban  miei^e  pyl  on   bntejuin  betonican  ■ 



that  tlie  ])aueful  sores  may 

neitlier  burn  nor  burst, 

nor  find  their  way  further, 

nor  turn  foul  and  ftillow, 

nor  thump  and  throb  on, 

nor  be  wicked  wounds, 

nor  dig  deeply  down  ; 

but  he  himself  may  liold 

in  a  way  to  health. 

Let  it  ache  thee  no  more, 

than  ear  in  earth  ^  acheth. 
Sing   also    this   many    times,    ^ "  May   earth    bear   on 
"  thee  with  all  her  might  and  main."     These  cliarms 
a  man  may  sing  over  a  wound. 


A  lithe  drink  against  a  devil  and  dementedness. 
Put  into  ale  cassuck,  roots  of  lupin,  fennel,  ontre, 
betony,  hindheal,  marche,  rue,  wormwood,  nepeta,  hele- 
nium,  elfthone,  wolfs  comb  ;  sing  twelve  masses  over 
the  drink,  and  let  the  man  drink,  it  will  soon  be  weU 
with  him.  A  drink  against  temptations  of  the  devil ; 
tuftythorn,  cropleek,  lupin,  ontre,  bishopwort,  fennel, 
cassuck,  betony  ;  hallow  these  worts,^  put  into  some  ale 
some  holy  water,  and  let  the  drink  be  in  the  same 
chamber  as  the  sick  man,  and  constantly  before  he 
drinketh  sing  thrice  over  the  drink,  "  Deus !  In 
"  nomine  tuo  salvum  me  fac." 

Book  Iir. 
Ch.  Ixiii. 


If  a  man  be  overlooked,  and  thou  must  cure  him, 
see  that  his  face  be  turned  to  thee  when  thou  goest 
in,  then  he  may  live ;  if  his  face  be  turned  from  thee, 
have  thou  nothing  to  do  with  him.      If  he  may  live, 

1  In  the  grave. 

*  This  seems  intended  to  quell  the 


By  a  fonnula  of  henediction. 

VOL.    II. 

354  L^CE   BOC. 

jyjjpipan  •  ^eajipan  •  polleian  •  bolbjiunan  •  apjimj  ]?u]ih, 
claj?  Iset  fcanban  •  jehset  fcenc  yxAne  cu  peapmpe  meolce 
bo  )?fe]ie  ]-ealpe  .V.  fnseba  ]7sep  on  fupe  on  neaht  nepti5 
*j  ete  pepfc  plaepc  ]?8ep  J^seji  hit  psetofc  fie  •  -j  picje  on 
nilit  ])a  yealf  e  -j  f  bolh  pec  mib  ealban  fpice  o]>J»e  mib  p 
pepfcpe  butepan  J^onne  hit  fie  clsene  -j  pel  peab  •  lacna 
mib  ]>&  ilcan  pealpa  •  "j  ne  Iset  coSomne  ^ip  hio  fie 
clgene  •  Iset  pi]?j7an  toSomne.  jtp  hic  nelle  pop  )?ifum 
Isecebome  batian  •  pyl  on  meolcum  J^a  peaban  jeappan 
^  pmul  •  hnpypt  •  ealpa  jehce  Iset  apeallan  ,v.  )'ij)nm 
appin5  ]7uph  claS  jebpip  pel  fpi)?ne  bpip  ]>sd]i  on  mib 
hpsete  melpe  -j  jepeeap  ^obep  peaxep  ane  fnsebe  psep 
on  -j  hpep  tofomne  laet  jecolian  •  jenim  hapan  pulle 
lytle  fnsebe  .  ill.  bepmb  mib  ]>y  bpipe  uCan  f  he  mseje 
fol.  126  b.        popfpeljan  -j  befupe  mib  cu  peapmum.^ 

.  LXVT. 

Dpenc  pp  J'eop  pie  on  men  mm  |;ap  pypte  nio])e- 
peapbe  •  pmol  bifceop  pypt  sepcj'potan  ealpa  empela 
l^ipj-a  cpeja  maej't  •  upepeapbe  puban  •  -j  betomcan  6p- 
jeor  mib  hluttpum  eala}>  -j  jefmje  .  III.  msej'pan  opep 
•j  bpmce  ymb  .  ii.  mht  ]?a3p  j^e  he  opjoten  fie  sep 
hif  inete  "j  ?eptep. 

.  LXVII. 

ViJ)  beopol  feoce  bo  on  halij  paetep  'j  on  eala  bifceop 
pypte  hmbhiolo]?an  •  ajpimonian  •  alexanbpian  •  ^y]?- 
jiipan  pele  him  bpmcan.  6pc  caj-puc  •  j^epan  j^ojin  •  fran 
cpop  •  elehtpe  •  pmul  •  eopop]?pote  cpopleac  opjeot 
jelice.     6p-  fpipe  bpeiic   piS   beople  •    mm    micle  hanb 

'  Supply  aieolcum. 

LEECH  BOOK.   III.  355 

boil  in  butter  betony,  gitlirife,  yarrow,  pulegiimi,  pel-     Book  III. 

litory ;  wring   through  a    cloth,    let    it    stand,    heat   a 

cup  full  in  milk  warm  from  the   cow,  put  five  pieces 

of  the    salve   into   it ;   let    the   man   sup   up   that   at 

night  fasting,  and  let  him  eat  fresh   flesh  in  the  part 

where  it  is  fattest :    and  at  night   take  the  salve  and 

comfort  the  wound  with  old  lard  or  with  fresh  butter ; 

when  it  is  clean,  and  a  good  red,  leech  with  the  same 

salve,  and  let  it  not  unite,  if  it  be  clean ;  make  it  unite 

afterwards.     If  it  will  not  for  this  leechdom  get  better, 

boil  in  milk  the  red  yarrow,  and  fennel,  and  flaxwort, 

of  all  equal  quantities,  let  them  boil  five  times,  wring 

through   a   cloth.      Brew   up   a   pretty   strong  brewit 

upon   this,   with   wheat  meal,    shave   a   piece    of   good 

wax  into  it,  and  shake  up  together ;   let   it   cool,  take 

three   little    bits   of  hares   wool,    wind   them   on   the 

outside  about  with  the  brewit,  that   he    may  swallow 

them,  and  let  him  sup   it   up   with   milk  warm   from 

the  cow. 


A  drink,  if  the  ''  dry  "  disease  be  on  a  man ;  take 
the  netherward  part  of  these  worts,  fennel,  bishopwort, 
ashthroat,  of  all  equal  quantities ;  of  these  two  folloiu- 
ing  more  than  of  the  others,  the  upward  part  of  rue, 
and  betony ;  pour  them  over  with  clear  ale,  and  sing 
three  masses  over  them,  and  let  the  man  drink  about 
two  days  from  the  time  when  it  was  poured  over, 
before  his  meat  and  after. 


For  one  devil  sick ;  put  into  holy  water  and  into 
ale,  bishopwort,  hind  heal,  agrimony,  alexanders,  gitli- 
rife ;  give  to  the  man  to  drink.  Again,  cassuck,  tufty 
thorn,  stonecrop,  lupin,  fennel,  everthroat,  cropleek ; 
pour  over  them  similarly.  Again,  a  spew  drink  against 
the  devil ;  take  a  mickle  hand  full  of  sedge,  and  gladden, 

z  2 

35 G  LMCE  BOC. 

pulle  fecje]'  •  -j  jlcTebenan  bo  on  pannan  •  jeoc  inicelne 
bollan  }:iilne  ealap  on  bepyl  heal}:  jejuib .  XX.  lyb- 
cojina  bo  on  ■]>  ]>i]'   i)-   i;ob  bjienc  pi]:*  beo]:le. 


Leoht:  b]\enc  pij>  peben  lieojite  elehtjie  •  bij'ceop  pyjic 
ibIj: J?one  •  elene  •  cjiopleac  •  Innb  hioloj^e  •  ontpe  •  elate  • 
Nim  ]>a,y  pyjita  Jjonne  bsej  "j  nihc  fcabe  •  fmj  fejiefc 
on  cijucean  letania  •  ^  cpeban  •  -j  pateji  noj-tep  •  ^anj 
mib  ]>j  fanje  co  ]?am  pyptum  ymbja  hie  ])]\iya,  sep  ]m 
Ine  nnne  •  'j  3a  ept  to  cipicean  jefnij  .  xii.  inpej-j-au 
opep  ])am  pyptum  ]7onne  jm  hie  opjoten  hfeblDe. 


T^y.  men  fie  maja  afupob  "j  po]i];unben  •  jenim  holen 
leapa  micle  tpa  hanb  pulla  jepceajipa  fpipe  fmale  pyl  on 
meolcum  o]>  ■f  hie  fyn  pel  meajmpe  pupla  fnteb  mgelum 
ete  ]?onne  .VI.  fnseba  •  on  mop^en  .  iii.  -j  on  sepen  .111. 
-j  reptep  hip  mete  •  bo  ]nip  .VIITI.  niht  lenj  jip  him 
];eapp  fie.  :• 

Tip  mon  bi}>  aj'unben  ete  puban  -j  bjiince  he  bi); 
hal.  :• 

Pi];  majan  psepce  jmban  fseb  'j  epic  feolpoji  -j  eceb 
bepjen  on  neahc  neptij.  Gpt  jnib  on  eceb  -j  on  psetep 
polleian  j-ele  b]iincan  fona  ^  paji  cojlit. 


v^  Vi]>   pambe    prepce  opjeot   polleian  -j  bjiince  -j  jnime 

bmbe  to  ]?am  napolan  •  'j  pite  jeo^iie  f  fio  pyjit  apej 
ne  ajlibe  ponn  bi|>  pel. 

LEECH   BOOK.    III.  357 

put    them  into  a  pan,   pour  a  niicklc  }jowl  lull  ol"  ale     J^ook  III. 
upon  them ;  boil   half,    rub  fine   twenty   libcorns,    put 
them  into  it ;  this  is  a  good  drink  against  the  devil. 


A  light  drink  tor  the  wood  heart ;  lupin,  bishop- 
wort,  enchanters  nightshade,  helenium,  cropleek,  hind- 
heal,  ontre,  elote.  Take  these  worts  when  day  and 
night  divide ;  sing  first  in  church  a  litany,  and  a 
Credo,  and  a  Pater  noster,  with  the  song  go  to  the 
worts,  go  thrice  around  them,  before  thou  touch  them  ; 
and  go  again  to  church,  sing  twelve  masses  over  the 
worts  when  thou  hast  poured  — ^  over  them. 


1.  If  a  mans  stomach  be  soured  and  swollen ;  take 
holly  leaves,  two  mickle  Iiands  full,  scrape  them  very 
small,  boil  them  in  milk  till  they  be  pretty  tender,  pick 
them  out  by  a  bit  at  a  time ;  then  let  the  man  eat  six 
bits,  in  a  morning  three,  and  in  evening  three,  and  after 
his  meat.     Thus  do  for  nine  days,  longer  if  need  be. 

2.  If  a  man  be  swollen,  let  him  cat  rue  and  drink 
it ;  he  will  be  well. 

3.  For  pain  of  maw ;  let  the  man  taste  at  night 
fasting,  seed  of  rue,  and  quicksilver,  and  vinegar. 
Agaui,  rub  pulegium  into  vinegar  and  into  water,  give 
the  man  to  drink,  soon  the  soreness  glideth  away. 


1.  For  wamb  wark  ;   drench  in pulegium,  and 

let  him  drink  it  and  bind  some  to  his  navel,  and  let 
him  earnestly  beware  that  the  wort  do  not  glide 
away.     Soon   he  will  be  well. 

'  Not  mentioned  ;  to  be  supplied  1       *  The  liquid  is  not  mentioned, 
from  above. 

358  L/ECE   BOC. 

Pi]7  majaii  psepce  piibu  ];iirley  )?one  jpenan  ^  meaph 
Ipe  bi|)  on  ]>am.  henybe  jfele  him  etan  mib  hatan  ele. 

Vi]>  pambe  heapbnepj'e  jeclsenfa  jijjcojin  jnib  on 
cealb  ysQte]!  pele  hnn  bpmcan. 

.  LXXI. 

Pi];  fpjimje  jnib  paluian  ]n]>  liiinij  linijie  mib  Sona 
h\]y  pel.  6pt  pyjvc  pealpe  mm  hanb  pulle  fppmj 
pypte  •  "j  hanb  pulle  pejbjiseban  •  'j  hanb  pulle  majj^an  • 
fol.  127  b.  "J  hanb  pulle  ni'Sepeapibe  boccan  ]?a3pe  ]?e  fpimman 
piUe  on  butpan  alilyttpe  f  pealt;  op  *j  ]3  pam  bo  hpon 
hunije]^  to  enjlij-cej-  •  bo  opep  pyji  apyl  •  ]?onne  hiu 
pealle-  finj  .  ill.  pareji  nopcep  opeji  bo  ept  op  fmj 
]?onne  .villi.  fi]7um  patep  noj^tep  on  -j  ]?]npa  apyl  -j 
fpa  jelome  op  abo  -j  lacna  mib  pi|7];an. 

.  LXXIT. 

Vi]?  J^sepe  jeolpan  able  opjeot  ];ap  pypte  mib  fpij^e 
beope  •  pibban  hanb  pulle  •  cptc  pmba  hanb  pulle  .  vim. 
fnseba  mj^epeapbpe  iBpcj^potan  •  -j  .  Villi.  ni|?epeapbpe 

6pc  bile  •  celenbjie  •  Salman  msept  pyl  on  fpi)>um 
beope  f  hit  fie  ]7icce  •  -j  jpene  •  mm  nijjepeapbe  eolenan 
jefm]?  on  hunij  ete  fpa  manije  fnseba  fpa  he  mseje 
^ebpmce  ]?iep  bpencep  pcenc  pulne  septep  -j  eal  f  jiddc 
ete  pceapen  plsepc  'j  nan  oj'ep. 


^ip  men  fie  mnelpe  ute  jecnua  jalluc  appinj  )7uph 
claS  on  cu  peapme  meolce  •  pset  ]?ine  hanba  )7aep  on  'j 
jebo  f  mnelpe  on  l;one  man  jefeope  mib  feolce  pyl  him 
|7onne  jalluc  .villi,  mopjnaf  butan  him  lenj  |7eapp 
lie  peb  hme  mib    pepfce  hpenne    plsej'c         *         *         * 

The  MS.  has  a  stop  after  sjaenan. 

LEECH   BOOK,    HI.  359 

2.  For  maw  pain;   give   tho  'man   to   eat  the  green      BooklH. 
marrow  which  is  in  the  head  of  a  wood  thistle,  with  '  ^^* 

hot  oil. 

S.  For  hardness  of  wamb  ;  cleanse  githcorns,  rub 
them  Jine  into  cold  water,  give  to  the  man  to  drink. 


Against  carbuncle ;  rub  sage  with  honey,  smear  there- 
with, soon  he  will  be  well.  Agam,  work  a  salve,  take 
a  hand  full  of  spring  wort,  and  a  hand  full  of  way 
broad  and  a  hand  full  of  maythe,  and  a  hand  full  of 
the  netherward  part  of  dock,  that  namely  which  will 
swim ;  boil  in  butter,  clear  off  the  salt  and  the  foam, 
add  a  little  English  honey,  put  over  a  fire,  boil  it; 
when  it  boileth  sing  three  Pater  nosters  over  it,  remove 
it  again,  then  sing  nine  Pater  nosters,  and  boil  it  thrice, 
and  so  frequently ;  remove  it,  and  after  that  cure 
with  it. 


1,  For  the  yellow  disease  ;  souse  these  worts  in  strong 
beer,  of  ribwort  a  hand  full,  of  quickbeam  rind  a  hand 
full,  nine  bits  of  the  netherward  part  of  ashthroat,  and 
nine  of  the  lower  part  of  helenium. 

2.  Again,  boil  dill,  coriander,  most  of  sage,  in  strong 
beer,  that  it  may  be  thick  and  green ;  take  the  nether- 
ward part  of  helenium,  cut  it  up  into  honey,  let  the 
patient  eat  as  many  bits  as  he  can ;  let  him  drink  after 
it  a  cup  full  of  the  drink,  as  above ;  and  all  the  time 
let  him  eat  sheep  flesh  and  none  other. 

If  a  mans  bowel  be  out,  pound  galluc,  wring  through 
a  cloth  into  milk  warm  from  the  cow,  wet  thy  hands 
therein,  and  put  hack  the  bowel  into  the  man,  sew  up 
with  silk,  then  boil  him  for  nine  mornings  galluc,  that  is, 
comfrey,  except  need  be  for  a  longer  time,  feed  him  with 
fresh  hens  flesh. 

360  LEECH    BOOK.    Ill, 

Perhaps  one  folio  is  mlsslnrj. 

There  is  some  writing  along  the  margin  of  the  last 
page,  the  few  readable  syllables  of  which  are  unin- 

bila   b]ia    bmb  ]:> yob    J;i A   Byji 

m  i]i  bjien. 



The  following  glossary  relies  almost  entirely  npoii 
original  authorities ;  upon  a  collation  of  the  manu- 
script ancient  extant  glossaries  with  their  printed 
editions,  which  have  been  falsified  by  ignorant  con- 
jectures ;  and  upon  a  careful  examination  of  many 
Saxon  volumes  never  yet  published.  No  reliance  has 
been  placed  on  modern  productions,  in  the  way  of 
dictionaries  ;  they  will  be  found  full  of  errors.^  Every 
article  either  supplies  a  deficiency  or  corrects  an  error ; 
but  our  limits  will  not  admit  of  the  insertion  of  every 
correction  prepared  for  the  press.  Corrections  wei/e,  of 
course,  to  be  accompanied  by  their  proofs,  and  this  adds 
to  the  length  of  the  various  articles.  Some  refer  to 
genders  or  declensions  or  terminations,  for  an  exact 
knowledge  of  our  Oldest  English  is  impossible,  as  long 
as  students  are  deceived  on  these  elementary  points. 
The  most  important  printed  texts  of  Saxon  works  have 
been  collated  from  beginning  to  end,  letter  by  letter, 
with  the  original  manuscripts.  The  modern  editions  in 
particular  are,  sometimes,  very  faulty. 

In  the  names  of  plants  the  reader  will  observe  that 
a  name,  liowever  wrong,  is  within  its  own  bounds,  still 

'  See  Shrine  (Williams  and  Norgate). 


a  name.  Mistakes  often  thrive,  and  even  ovei'power  a 
true  old  tradition.  Many  decided  spirits  would  have 
all  error  thrown  over,  but  to  do  so,  would  render  our 
collection  less  complete. 

The  order  of    the  letters  is  so  arranged  that  K  goes 
with  C,  Y  with  I,  and  Jwrn  is  last  of  all. 




""  M.G. 


°      Bw. 

•    C»d. 


°    C.E. 

°      Ch. 
^    DD. 



"    G«. 
<=    Hb. 

^Ifrics  Grammar,  ed.  Somner, 
quoted  by  pages  and  lines. 

Adrian  and  Ritlieus,  ed.  Kem- 
ble,  by  pages. 

^.Ifreds  Will,  reprint  1828,  by 

Beowulf,  ed.  Grandtvig,  col- 
lated -with  MS.,  by  lines. 

Caidmou,  if  Csedmon,  by  the 
pages  and  lines  of  the  ori- 
ginal MS. 

Codex  Diplomaticus,  by  num- 

Codex  Exoniensis,  by  pages, 
ed.  Thorpe. 

Channs,  Leechdoms,  Vol.  I. 

(Dooms)  Laws  and  Institutes, 
ed.  1840,  by  pages. 

Glossarium  Diefenbaehii. 

Durham  Ritual,  by  pages. 

Fight  at  Finnesburg,  ed. 

Goodwins  Andrew  and  Vero- 

Goodwins  Gu'Slac. 

Herbarium,  Leechdoms,  Vol.1., 
by  articles. 

Horn.  ..iElfrics  Homilies,  ed.  Thorpe. 
^  Lb.  Leechbook,    Leechdoms,   Vol. 
n.,  by  chapters. 
M.  Mones  Glossaries    in   Quellcn 
und  Forschungen,  von  F.  J. 
Mone,  1830. 
M.Sp.  Mannings  Supplement  to  Lye, 
paged     for      the     purpose, 
from  Testamentum  Elfhelmi, 
page  1. 
N.  Narratiunculse,  1861.   (Russell 
"  O  clerice,  in  preface  to  Leech- 
doms, Vol.  L  p.  Iviii. 
"   O.T.  Orosius,  ed.  Thorpe,  by  pages 

and  lines. 
°Quad.  Medicina    de    Quadrupedibus, 

Leechdoms,  Vol.  L 
'  Runl.  The     Runlio'S,     or     Runelay, 
quoted  by  articles. 
SH.  Shrine,     where    some     Saxon 

pieces  are  printed. 
S.S.  Solomon  and  Saturn,  ed.  Kem- 

SSpp.  Spoon   and   Sparrow,  for  ety- 



Qenerally  cited  by  folios. 

xii.Ab.  De  xii.  Abusivis.    MS.  C.C.C. 
BL.  Blooms,  or  Elores  Soliloquio- 

D.G.  Dialogues   of  Gregorius,   MS. 
'   Ai5a|.  The  treatise  irepl  SiSd^ecov,  in 
Leeehdoms,  Vol.  III. 
F.D.  De  Falsis  Dis.    MS.  C.C.C. 
»     F.L.  Fourth  Leeehdoms,   for    pub- 
lication in  Leeehdoms,  Vol. 
G.D.  Dialogues   of  Gregorius,  MS- 

HID,  Liber  de  Hida. 

Lacn.  Lacnunga,     in    Vol.    IIL    of 

Leeehdoms,  by  articles. 
M.H.  Minster    Homilies   of  JElfvic, 
except     Sigewulfi      respou- 
siones,  de  xii.  Abusivis,  and 
de  Falsis  Dis. 
P.A.  The  Liber  Pastoralis  of  King 

Alfred,  MS.  Hatt. 
E.M.  Rule  of  Mynchens. 
Sc.  Liber  Scintillamm. 
SMD,  Somnionim  Diversitas. 


Gl.  Brax.  A  Brussels  Glossary,  printed 
by  Mone,  p.  314,  by  Thorpe, 
unpublished,  p.  30,  by 
"Wright,  p.  62. 

Gl.  C.  An  early  Glossary  in  MS. 
0!.  Dun.  An  old  Glossary  in  the  library 
of  the  cathedral  at  Durham. 
The  compiler  had  used  the 
Saxon  Herbarium,  as  in 
Lactuca  leporina. 

Gl.  E.  Glossaries  pi'inted  by  Eckhart, 
in  Commentarii  de  rebus 
FrancijE  Orientali.3,  Wirce- 
burgi,  fol.,  1729,  2  vols. 
Gl.Hoffm.  Althochdeutsche  Glossen,  von 
A.  H.  Hoffmann,  1826. 

Gl.  M.  A  manuscript  on  vellum,  the 
property  of  Rev.  W.  D. 

Gl.  M.M.  Glossarj-  of   Moyen    Moutier, 
printed,  but  unpublished. 
Mone.  Glossaries  printed  by  Mone,  in 
Quellen   und    Forschungen, 
Aachen   und  Leipsig,   8vo., 
1830.      The    herb    glossary 
fetches  from.  Hb.    Used  MS. 
N.  Bakers  Northamptonshire  Gl. 
Gl.  Prud.  Glossary  on  Prudentius,  printed 
but  unpublished. 
Gl.  R.  Junius  transcript  of  the  Rubens 
MS.  Glossary,  MS. 
Gl.  Somn.  The     Glossaries     printed     by 
Somner,     in     Dictionarium 
Saxonico  -  Latino- Anglicum. 
Oxonii,   fol.,   1059,    printed 
■with  errors  from  Gl.  R. 
Other    manuscript    Glossaries  numbering 
about  fifteen. 



A,  as  prefix,  is  a  shorter  form  of— 1.  And, 
as  in  abidan,  for  andbidan. 

2.  On,  as  in  among,  for  onmang,  and 
aweg,  for  onweg,  both  of  which  are  oc- 
casionally parallel  MS.  readings.  See 
MH.  115  a,  with  var.  lect. 

3.  Un,  as  in  atynan,  open,  for  untynan. 

4.  Of,  as  in  acalan  for  ofcalan.  Horn. 
n.  248. 

5.  Embe,  as  in  ymbutan,  abutan,  and 
by  apokope  buton. 

6.  Ge,  as  in  alefed,  for  gelefed, 
Acumba,  -an,   masc?  oakum,  stupa.     Cf. 

"  Coarse  fibres  among  wool  are  kemps," 
Gl.  N.  Putamina,  acuman,  secumba,  Gl. 
Mone,  p.  398  a,  p.  407  a,  as  consisting 
of  coarse  fibres.  Nct^Sa  is  an  approxi- 
mation only,  explained  in  SH.  p.  10. 
Similarly  "Napta,  genus  fomenti,  i.e. 
"  tyndir,"  Gl.  M.M.  p.  159  b.  Acumba 
in  ashes  seems  administered  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  "Z-nooiov.  Lib.  I.  i.  1 5  ;  xxxiii. 
i  ;  xlvii.  3. 

M,  as  a  prefix,  is  commonly  a  shorter  form 
of^f,  which  answers  to  the  Latin  Ob, 
in  the  sense  of  annoyance,  as  in  Officere 
and  the  like.  Thus  ^bylgan,  ^cyrf 
Bed.  552, 1.  13  ;  JEmod. 

iEc,  Ac,  gen.  -e,  fem.,  oak,  quercus  rohur. 
Sume  ac  astah,  Hom.  II.  150,  got  vp 
into  an  oak.  Of  t'sere  aec,  CD.  570, 
p.  78.     J^eo)-  ac,  M.G.  7,  48.    Gen.  Ace, 


Lb.  I.  xxxviii.  11.  "Vowels  dropped, 
CD.  588,  624,  etc.  Gen.  pi.  Acana, 
CD.  126. 

2.  As  a  letter  of  the  alphabet  the  same 
word  is  masc,  gen.  -es.  Acaj-  cpegen 
hasselap  ]-pa  pome,  C.E.  429,  two  As 
and  two  Hs  along  with  them. 

JEcelma,  gen.  an,  masc?  a  chilblain, miila. 
Gl.  Mone,  p.  359  b.  "  Mula  est  quaedam 
"  infirmitas  in  homine  quae  uocatur 
"  gybehos,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388,  that  is,  kihe 
of  heel.  In  Italian,  "  mule,  kibes,  chil- 
"  blanes  "  (Florio).  In  Trench,  "  mule, 
"  a  kibe  "  (Cotgrave).  Palagra,  secilma, 
Gl.  Cleop.,  where  understand  podagra 
ani.  footsore.  The  word  is  compounded 
of  M  for  My,  signifying  annoyance, 
eel,  chill,  and  the  participial  man. 
SSpp.,  art.  943. 

iEdre,  vein,  vena,  gen.  both  -e,  and  -an, 
fem.,  Lb.  L  i.  13;  II.  xviii.;  II.  xxxii., 
etc.  Hb.  iv.  4.  On  o>rum  monJ>e  J>a 
aidron  beo'S  geworden,  N.  p.  49,  in  the 
second  month  the  veins  are  formed.  S.S. 
148, 192. 

2.  pi.  kidneys,  renes.  ll.M.  69,  a. 
Hb.  ixxxvi.  3;  cxix.  3.  Paris  Ps. 
cxxxviii.  11. 

3.  In  the  sense  of  water  spring  found 
neut.  Jjset  wseterfeddre,  perhaps  by  at- 
traction. Hom.  n.  144.  Ealle  eor^an 
ffiddre  onsprungon  ongean  J>am  heofon- 

.  lican  flode.    MS.  CC.C  419,  p.  42. 
iEfer'Se,  gen.  -an,  fem.?  an  herb  unknown. 
Lb.  I.  xxxiii.  2,  etc 



vEgwyrt,  gen.  -e,  fern.,  eggwort,  dande- 
lion, leontodon  taraxacum  ;  like  Germ. 
Eyerblume,  from  the  round  form  of  the 
pappus.     Lacn.  40. 

^Ifsibenne,  from  cclf,  eJf,  and  sido,  masc, 
manners,  asBoet.  p.  45,1.  21,  p.  131, 1.  10, 
often  taken  in  a  good  sense  as  morals. 
Lb.  I.  Ixiv.  The  termination  -en,  like 
-ivos,  -inus,  does  not  always  relate  to 
metals  and  materials,  but  as  in  fyrlen, 
distant, myrteu,mortuari/,is  more  general. 
We  may  therefore  take  this  word  as  the 
accusative  of  an  adjective.  It  is,  how- 
ever, possible  that  it  may  be  a  substan- 
tive.    Lacn.  11. 

^IfsogcSa.     See  Sogo^a.     Lb.  III.  Ixii. 

iElfSone,  gen.  -an  ;  fem.  ?  probably  cir- 
c(ea  httetiana,  enchanters  nigJdshade, 
which  in  old  Dutch  is  Alfrancke.  Lb. 
I.  xxxii.  4;  II.  liii. 

./Epenms,  masc,  gen.  -e)%  a  medlar,  fruit  of 
viespdus  germanica.  Lb.  II.  ii.  2.  See 
the  passage  and  the  glossarial  openaep)-, 

^ppel,  gen.  -pies,  masc.  in  sing,  pi,  -pla, 
apple,  malum.  Numb.  xi.  5.  P. A.  19  b. 
Also  a  soft  fruit,  as  fruit  of  the  bramble. 
Lb.  I.  Ixiv. ;  III.  xli.  Fingersepla,  dates, 
M.H.  131  b.  A  translation  of  AaicrvXot. 
t'oji'Sseppel,  Numb.  xi.  3,  a  cucumber. 
Fic  »ppel,  a  fig  (Lye),  pi.  pcffippla, 
Matth.  vii.  16  ;  Luke  vi,  44.  PalmjEpla, 
Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  66  d.  Gl.  Mone,  p.  409  b. 
Lb.  II.  i.  ;  n.  xxxvi.     SSpp.  .543. 

2.  A  dumpling.     Hb.  cxxxiv.  2. 

3.  The  ball  of  the  eye,  with  pi.  masc. 
On  ^sej-  ppenlsean  eajum  beo'S  "Sa 
jepplaj-  hale.  Ac  ^a  bpsepa)'  j^peacigea'S, 
P. A.  15,  a.  hi  the  eyes  of  the  bleareyed 
the  balls  are  healthy,  but  the  lids  .swollen. 
Se  o'Scp  SDppel  j)ae)-  SeeraciSoh,  M.H. 
98  b,  the  ball  of  one  eye  u-as  emptied 
of  its  crystalline,  aqueous,  and  vitreous 
humours.  Applied  less  exactly  as  a 
translation  of  pup  ilia,  Boet.  p.  132,  1.  25. 

^pse,  gen.  -an,  fem.?  the  aspen,  populus 
tremula.  Lb.  I.  xxxvi.  SH.  25.  The 
last  syllable  in  the  modern  name  repre- 
sents the  case  endings.     JE\>r.  occurs  in 

^pse — cont. 
the  glossaries,  and  Lb.  III.  xxxix ;  it  is 
regarded  by  JElfric  in  Gr.  as  Abies. 

JEsc,  gen.  -es,  masc.  C.D.  461,  the  ash, 
fraxi?ius  excelsior.  Se  cojihta  sesc.  C.E. 

Ceaster  a;sc,  Helleborvs  niger,  black 
hellebore,  which  has  leaves  like  those  of 
the  ash.  "  Eliforus  (read  Helleborus), 
"  j)ebe  bejige  (jnad  berry')  vel  ceafcc]i 
"  fe)-c."  Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  36  b.    Lacn.  39. 

JEsce,  gen.  -an,  fem.,  ash,  cinis.  Lb.  I. 
xxxviii.  4.  Quad.  iii.  4.  Axe  \>\x  ea]ic 
T  on  axan  leoya.  Cinis  es  et  in  cinere 
uiue.  Sell, a.  iE.G.  11,47.  C.E.  213, 
line  27.      Cf.  Aska,  fem.,  old  Dansk. 

.^scl'jiotu,  gen.  -an,  fem.  1.  Verbena 
officinalis,  Hb.  iv.,  with  the  drawing. 
Verbenaca,  in  MS.  Bodley  130,  is  drawn 
and  glossed  Verbena,  vervain.  Also 
Veruyn  in  ]\IS.  T.  Verbenaca  in 
Dodoens  is  Vervain.  "  Verveyne, 
"  Veruena  vocatur  grece  ierobotanum 
"  vel  peristerion  et  dicitur  verbena 
"  quia  virtutibus  plena,"  MS.  Douce, 
290.  MS.  G.  has  a  gl.  "  Taubencropf," 
which,  as  I  learn  from  Adeluug,  is 
Verbena.  "  Hiera  quam  Latini  Ber- 
"  benam  uocant  ideo  a  grecis  hoc 
"  nomen  accepit  quod  sacerdotes  earn 
"  purificationibus  adhibere  consueve- 
"  runt."  MS.  Harl.  5264,  fol.  56,  b. 
''  Verbena,  sescwert,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  442  a. 
"  Berbenaces,  eascvyrt,"  Gl.  Dun.  Lb. 
IIL  72. 

2.  Annuosa,  which  is  found  in  a  few 
glossaries,  is  a  mere  blunder  for  anchusa, 
translated  in  Hb.  ci.  3,  by  ashthroat. 

3.  Goutweed,  eegopodium  podagraria. 
Ashweed  is  this  in  Mylnes  Indigenous 
Botany.  This  plant  I  take  to  be  meant 
by  the  Ferula  of  Gl.  M.M.,  Gl.  Dun., 
Somner  Lex.,  Gl.  Brux.  The  Ferula 
communis,  or  fennel  giant,  is  not  a 
native  of  England,  and  under  t.U  cir- 
cumstances, would  cither  not  have  an 
English  name  or  one  extended  to  plants 
of  a  similar  aspect,  even  if  smaller. 
This  segopodium  is  often  called  Angelica, 



JEscl'iiorii — cont. 

even  down  to  Kay,  and  the  angelicas 
are  also  large  and  hollow.  Throat  seems 
to  imply  hollowness,  and  Ash  either  size 
or  similar  leaves. 

The  fennel  giant  is,  however,  men- 
tioned in  the  life  of  St.  Godric  as 
affording  walking  staves  for  pilgrims, 
(A.D.  lir)9),  p.  163. 

-Ssmaelum,  dat.  pi.,  a  disease  of  the  eye, 
contraction  of  the  pupil,  oculorum  immi- 
nutio.  "  Evenit  etiam  ut  oculi,  vel  ambo 
"  vel  singuli,  minores  fiant  quam  esse 
"  naturaliter  debeant."  Celsus,  VI.  vi. 
14.  "  Pupillaj  malum  est,  quum  an- 
"  gustior  ac  obscurior  rugosiorque  effi- 
"  citur,"  Actuarius,  184,  c.  Lb.  I.  2, 
and  contents.  A  comp.  of  M,  for  iEf, 
implying  mischief,  and  Smsel. 

JEJ^elj-eji^rngjiypt,  fern.,  gen.  -e,  stichwort, 
stellaria  holostea,  with  s.  graminea. 
iEt'elj-ep'^Smcjiypt  in  Hb.  Ixiii.  7,  trans- 
lates "  agrimoniam,"  and  Ixxviii.  1, 
"  argeraonitis."  See  Plinius,  xxvi.  59. 
"  Agrimonia  alpha,  eathelferthing  vyrt 
"  vel  glofvyrt,"  Gl.  Dun.  "  Alfa,  ffi'Sel- 
"  jepbmgjiypc,"  Gl.  Somn.,  p.  64  b,  7. 
Some  supposed  agrimonia  to  be  stich- 
wort, though  as  the  translator  of  the  Her- 
barium had  called  it  japchfe,  a  very 
appropriate  name,  we  should  not  have 
expected  this  uncertainty  from  him. 
"  Agrimonia,  jticpypc,"  Gl.  Somn.  p. 
64  a,  65.  In  Lacn.  29,  sel'dyep'Sms- 
pypc  is  glossed  "  auis  lingua."  "  Lingua 
"  avis .  i .  pigle,  stichwort,"  Gl.  M.  "  Lin- 
"  gua  auis .  i .  pigle,"  Gl.  Rawl.  C.  607. 
*'  Lingua  auis,  stichewort,"  Gl.  Sloane,  5. 
The  name  describes  the  leaves. 

Afreo'San,  to  froth.     Lb.  I.  xlvii.  2. 

Ahwsenan,  preet.  ede,  p.p.  ed,  to  trouble, 
contristare.  lib.  xx.  7,  where  Lat.  con- 
tristatus.  "Ilerof  J>e  lauedies  to  me 
menej>.  An  wel  sore  me  ahweneK  Wei 
neh  min  heorte  wule  tochine,  Hwon  ich 
beholde  hire  pine.  Owl  and  Nightingale, 
1562.  Of  this  the  ladies  tome  rrioan,  and 
pretty  sorely  distress  me;  well  niyh  my 
VOL.    XL 

Ahwfcnan — cont. 

heart  will  break  (tocman),  when  I  behold 
their  pain.  Vtan  ypej-pian  ahpajnebe  T 
hyptan  opmobe,  MS.  C.C.C.  419,  p.  246. 
Let  us  comfort  the  distressed  and  encou- 
rage the  despairing.     Cf  DD.  139,  xlvii. 

AleJ'jian,  to  lather.  Lb.  I.  liv.  See  Lea'Sor. 
It  is  for  Gelet>]ian. 

Alor,  Air,  gen.  -es,  masc,  the  alder,  alnus 
glutinosa.  Lb.  I.  ii.  14  ;  aires.  Lb.  II.  li. 
3  ;  masc.  CD.  376. 

Ananbeam,  gen.  — es,  masc,  the  spindle 
tree,  euonymus  Europceus.  Lb.  I.  xxxii. 
4.  Germ,  anisbaum.  "  |7anabeam,  fusa- 
"  num,  spindle  tree,  prichtimber."  Som- 
ner  Lex.  "  Fusarius,  uuananbeam,"  Gl. 

Anapypm,  Ons  worm,  masc.  Lb  I.  xlvi.  1. 
In  the  Ynglinga  Saga,  Anasott  is  said  to 
have  taken  its  name  from  On,  a  king  of 
Sweden,  who  prolonged  his  own  life  by 
sacrificing  from  time  to  time  one  of  his 
sons  to  Woden.  Si'San  andaj'Sist  en 
konungr,  ok  er  hann  heyg'Sr  at  Uppse- 
lum.  pat  er  si'San  kellut  Anasott  er 
ma'Sr  deyr  verklaus  af  elli.  Heims- 
kringla,  Ynglinga  S.  xxix.  Then  ex- 
pired king  On,  and  icas  buried  at  Upsal. 
It  was  afterwards  called  On-sickness, 
when  a  man  dies  from  old  age,  without 
agony.  That  the  former  element  in 
Anajiypm,  Anasott,  is  the  same  cannot 
be  doubtful. 

Anj'pilbe,  unique  (^unicus,  singularis'). 
Lb.  I.  ii.  9.  Cf.  Zwispild,  geminus, 
biformis.    (Graff.) 

Autre.     See  Ontre.    Lb.  II.  U. 

Arendan.     Lb.  II.  Hi. 

Argesweorf,  gen.  -es,  brass  filings.  Lb.  I. 
xxxiv.  1.     See  Gesweorf. 

Arod,  an  herb,  probably  arum,  "Apov,  Lb. 
III.  xlii.  Lacn.  2.  Thus  Cymed  for 

A]\  6m,  copperas.  The  reading  of  the 
MS.  in  Lb.  II.  xv.  is  sap  6m,  translating 
/xfTO  xaAKdi'0011  \eiov  (koI  yUf'AiTi  oKijca 
avaXafiMv).  XaAKavOos  is  green  vitriol. 
But  it  is  also  brass  rust,  cerugo,  and  the 
A  A 


Ap  6m — conf. 

true  reading  may  be  ap  6m.  The  -word 
copperas  is  commonly  used  for  either  the 
green  rust  of  copper,  or  the  green  vitriol 
•with  which  the  kitchenmaid  cleans  brass 
pans;  from  its  ambiguity  it  was  con- 
Yenient.  Aei'ou  points  to  the  levigated 

Asaru,  asarabacca,  asarum  Europceum. 
Lb.  II.  xiv.  Foles  foot  is  Tussilago  far- 

Asiftan,  to  sift.     Lb.  I.  ii.  20. 

Aslawen,  stnick,  stricken,  from  a)-lean,  for 
f  aj-lagan,  a  collateral  form.  Contents, 
Lb.  I.  Ivi.  =a)-lasen  in  text.  So  cnucan 
becomes  cnujmn,  cnuan. 

Asprindlad,  ripped  tip  and  spanned  open 
with  tenter  hooks.  Lb.  II.  xxiv.  From 
sprindel,  tenticum,  Gl.  C,  a  tenter  hook. 
Cf.  Spreisseln,  Schmeller,  Bayerisches 
Worterbuch,  IV.  p.  593. 

Atpum,  a  Latin  word,  Smyrnium  olusa- 
trum.     Lb.  I.  ii.  20,  etc. 

Atcopla>e,  gen.  -an  ;  "  venom-loather," 
panicum  cms  galli.  In  Hb.  xlv.  arcop- 
lajpe  is  galli  crus,  and  were  there  doubt, 
it  seems  removed  by  MSS.  G.  T.  A., 
which  draw  the  p.  sanyuinale,  Linn.,  now 
called  digitaria  sanguinalis.  These  two 
grasses  are  included  together  in  the 
"  cocksleg,"  hahnenbein  of  the  Germans. 
The  corresponding  article  in  MS.  Bod- 
ley,  130,  gives  the  name  sanguinaria,  and 
the  old  gloss  is  Blobwrt,  with  a  later  of 
the  14th  century,  "Blodwerte."  San- 
guinaria is  often  glossed  as  shepherds 
purse,  thlaspi  or  capsella  bursa  pastoris, 
or  as  tormeutilla,  these  being  esteemed 
stanchers  of  blood,  or  as  polygonum  ; 
but  in  this  instance  it  must  be  as  above, 
d.  sanguinalis.  With  these  testimonies 
it  is  vain  to  consider  how  such  virtue 
was  attributed  to  a  grass.  Did  they 
confuse  panicum  with  panacea  ?  The 
glossaries  give  no  real  help.  "Atrilla, 
"  attorlathe,"  Gl.  Dun.,  where  atrilla 
seems  to  be  afctoplaj^e  with  a  Latin  ter- 
mination.    "Astrilla,"  Gl.  Sloane,  146. 

Arcoplat>e — con  t. 

"  Cyclaminos,  attorlathe,"  id.,  but  cycla- 
men is  in  Herbarium  "  slite."  "  Galli 
"  crus,  attorlathe,"  id.,  a  quotation  from 
our  book.  "Fenifiiga,  attorlathe,"  id.,  un- 
derstand venenifuga,  a  translation  of  the 
Saxon  word.  "Venenifuga,  arcepla^e," 
Gl.  Somner,  p.  66  [63]  b.  27.  "  Morella, 
"  atterloh-e,''  Gl.  Harl.  978,  but  morella 
is  atropa  belladonna,  and  poisonous  itself. 
Atejila^e,  betonica,  Lye,  from  a  Gl.  ; 
but  betony  and  attorlothe  are  separately 
named  in  Lb.  I.  i.  15.  The  claims  of 
asclepias  vincetoxicum  are  set  aside  by 
its  being  a  foreign  plant.  The  heal  all 
of  the  old  Dansk,  Laukr,  has  no  support 
from  our  authorities.  Lye  prints,  by 
some  error,  sattorla^e  also.  The  small 
attorlothe  occurs  in  Lb.  I.  xlv.  6. 

Aurugo  is  interpreted  by  Du  Cange  la 
jaunisse,  the  jaundice.  This  rendering  is 
supported  by  the  etymon  aurum,  goJd, 
and  by  authority  ;  aurugo,  color  in  auro, 
sicut  in  pedibus  accipitris,  i .  gelesouch, 
Gl.  E.  vol.  ii.  p.  992  a,  the  colour  one 
sees  in  gold,  as  in  a  hawks  feet,  the 
yellow  sickness.  Gelisuhtiger,  ictericus, 
auruginosus,  Graff,  vol.  vi.  col.  142. 
Our  text,  however,  interprets  aurugo,  as 
a  tugging  or  drawing  of  the  sinews,  Hb. 
Perhaps  this  may  be  explained  by  ob- 
serving that  auriglnosus  is  glossed  ar- 
cuatus,  Du  Cange  ;  auruginosus,  ar- 
cuatus,  Gl.  Isid.  Not  very  differently 
from  our  text ;  "  Artuatus,  j-ybmyole 
"  abl,"  Gl.  K.  p.  11,  ult.,  read  arcuatus 
and  it  may  be,  geole,  or  muscle ; 
whence  it  might  well  be  supposed 
that  o-KLirddTovos  was  meant,  a  term  ap- 
plied to  bows,  bent  back  the  opposite 
way  to  their  natural  curvature,  especially 
true  of  horn  bows,  Gortynia  cornua,  and 
to  persons  suffering  under  that  extreme 
form  of  tetanus,  in  which  the  feet  and 
head  are  drawn  back  till  they  touch. 
Aurigo  is  also,  in  Apul.  Ixxxvii.,  morbus 
regius,  which  was  another  mediajval 
name  for  the  jaundice  ;  Graff,  vol.  vi.. 



Aurugo — cont. 

141.  Graffs  mark  of  interrogation  at 
the  -word  Gelbsucht,  would  be  removed 
by  the  publication  of  our  texts. 

Aj'fepan,  f  -)>jieap,  -^ujien,  turn,  coagu- 
late.    See  ppepan.     Lb.  I.  xlv.  5. 

Ahyn,  press.  Lb.  I.  viii.  2.  His  eyes  aep 
jiaepon  uta'Sybe  oy  >am  eahbpinsum, 
MH.  98  b,  were  before  thrust  out  of  their 
sockets.     See  pyn. 


Ban — 1.  A  bone. 

2.  A  leg,  neut.,  pi.  ban.  Lb.  Li.  15  ; 
L  xxvi.  ;  IL  li.,  -where  it  is  leg,  so 
Csedm.  ?  Daniel,  MS.  p.  195,  5.  f  seudo 
Caedm.  H.H.  MS.  p.  223,  20,  their  legs 
failed  them.  "  Tibialis,  banjiyjr,"  Gl. 

Banpypc,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e.  1.  banewort, 
viola,  not  blue  voilet,  but  viola  lactea, 
while  violet,  and  v.  lutea,  Heartsease. 
In  Hb.  clii.  1,  bone-wort  is  in  the 
Latin  version  of  Dioskoridcs,  (not  ex- 
isting in  the  Hellenic)  "  viola  alba  : "  in 
Hb.  clxv.  it  is  also  distinguished  from 
viola  purpurea  in  art.  clxvi.  Lb.  I.  i.  15. 

2.  Bellis  perennis,  daisy,  bsegef  eage  ; 
but  at  a  period  later  than  our  text ;  and 

'  perhaps  by  error.  "  Consolida  minor, 
"  daysey,  ven-wort,  idem  bone-wort,"  GI. 
Harl.  3388.  "  Consolida  minor  .  i .  bon- 
"  -wert,"  GI.  M.  "  Consolida  minor,  days- 
"  y^e,"  Gl.  Bodley,  178.  "Consolida 
"  minor.  Daysei  is  an  herbe  hat  sum 
"  men  callet  hembris-worte  oK'r  bone- 
"  wort,"  Gl.  Douce,  290.  "  Consolida 
"  minor .  i .  petit  comferi .  anglice  dayis- 
"  hege  .  habet  florem  album,"  Gl.  Raw- 
linson,  c.  607.  Benwort,  daisy,  (Dick- 
insons Cumberland  Gl.  in  add.) 

3.  Eryttircea  centaureum,  if  we  trust 
"  centaurea  minor,  banpy^ic,"  Gl.  Somn,, 
p.  64  b,  18.  The  wort  is  said  to  have 
cpoppan,    bunches,    either    racemes     or 

Banj'vpt — cont. 

umbels  or  cimes,  which  applies  better 
to  this  lesser  centaury  than  to  heartsease 
or  to  daisy.     Lb.  IF.  li.  2. 

4.  "  Filia  aurea,  banpyjir."  Gl.  Cleop. 
Fila  aurea,  Solidago  virgaurea,  Bat., 
sometimes  called  consolida  Saracenica. 
Ba'Sian,  to  bathe,  is  to  be  distinguished 
from  Be^ian,  to  beathe  or  warm.  In  the 
Lb.  MS.  fol.  92  a,  the  penman  first  had 
written  e,  but  this  he  erased  to  put  a.  But 
as  the  old  idea  of  a  bath  did  not  include 
cold  water,  the  words  are  nearly  allied. 
Belene,  beolene,  gen.  -an,  fem.  ?  henbane, 
hyoscyamus  niger.  Hb.  v.  Lb.  I.  ii.  22  ; 
I.  iii.  3.  Another  name  is  henne  belle, 
from  its  bell  shaped  capsules,  which  are 
dra-wn  in  MS.  V.,  and  from  them  the 
name  belene,  seems  derived  ;  belle,  a 
bell;  hellen,  furnished  with  bells ;  and  the 
final  e  is  the  usual  final  distinctive  form 
of  names  of  worts.  The  modern  name 
henbane  is  independent,  and  derived  from 
its  poisonous  qualities;  another  is  henne- 
pol,  with  the  same  sense. 
Beopc,  bark,  latratus.     Hb.  Ixvii.  2.      Ge- 

beopc,  Sc.  55  b.    JE.G.  2,  44. 
Beor^or,  byr'Sor,  gen.  -res.     1.  the  embryo, 
fa-tus.     Quad.    iv.    4;    Bed.    493,    40. 
"  FcEtu,   rubpe  vel   mib  beopj^jie,"  Gl. 
Cleop.  40  b.     N.  50. 

2.  Childbirth,  partus.  Quad.  iv.  6. 
Beop'Sopcpelmaj-,  abortivi,  Lye.  Lb.  HI. 
xxxvii.  Cf.  Mone,  p.  411  a. 
Beopj^pt,  fem.,  beewort,  sweet  flag,  acorus 
calamus.  Hb.  vii.  "  Marubium,  hune 
"  vel  beopypc,"  Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  61  a, 
wrong.  In  Hb.  vii.  a  synonym  in  the 
Latin  is  Veneria,  and  the  mediaeval  mar- 
ginal annotations  on  Dioskorides  give 
on  "AKopov  (not  Acorns),  ol  5e,  x'^P'^^y 
'A(ppoSi(rlas,  'Pwfia'oi  /Sej/f'peo,  ol  Se,  vavriKO. 
paSi|,  TdWoi  TTfirepaKiovn;  that  is,  Aco- 
rum  is  called  in  Latin  Veneria,  and  by 
the  Gauls  peper  apium  (for  apum),  bees 
pepper :  (for  the  Celtic  use  of  kappa  in- 
stead of  pi,  see  SSpp.  art.  20).  What 
our  text  says  about  bees,  is  to  be  under- 
A   A  2 



Beoj'vpt — cont. 

stood,  as  that  the  -wort  will  induce  an 
unsettled  swarm  of  bees  to  i-econcile 
themselves  to  an  offered  hive  ;  hence  it 
•was  reasonably  called  beewort  :  and  so 
Dioskorides,  of  Acorum  says,  that  the 
roots  are  not  in  smell  unpleasant  ;  rfj 
6a/xfj  ovK  a-nSels.  In  MS.  V.  the  root 
chiefly  is  drawn,  and  the  figure  corre- 
sponds minutely  with  the  description  in 
Dioskorides,  that  they,for  he  uses  a  plural, 
are  not  straight  grown,  but  oblique  and 
superficial,  divided  by  knots  ;  ovk  els  eieh 
iretpvKvias  aAAa  irKaytas  Kol  e'l  tVnroArjs, 
ySvacri  SieiArj^.ueVas.  That  he  adds 
viroXevKov^,  whitish,  while  the  English 
drawing  has  a  strong  red,  may  be  set 
down  to  the  artistic  tastes  of  the  painter. 
The  di-awing  in  MS.  A.  is  very  similar. 
Somners  Gl.  p.  63  a,  line  59,  translates 
apiago  by  beowyrt.  In  MS.  Bodley, 
130,  veneria  is  drawn  as  acorum,  with  a 
large  creeping  root,  and  glossed  "lemre" 
for  the  English  name.  Dorsten  calls  the 
roots  of  acorus  "  rubicundas,"  as  co- 
loured in  MS.  v.,  and  on  this  ground 
several  glossaries  make  acorus  =  madder. 
The  x^po^  of  the  mai'gin  of  Dioskorides 
is  another  form  of  acoros,  and'AcppoSicrlas 
has  the  same  sense  as  veneria.  MS.  G. 
figures  a  crow  foot,  with  gl.  "honefus." 
2.  Acanthe.  Hb.  cliv.  figured  as  sld- 
laria  hulostea. 

Besengian,  to  singe.   Lb.  I.  li.    See  Sengian. 

Besoreadan,  to  empurple.  Lb.  I.  xlvii.  1 ; 
from  baso,  jjurple,  and  read,  red. 

Byben,  gen.  -e,  fern.,  a  bucket:  used  in 
Lb.  I.  xxxii.  2,  with  a  perforated  stool, 
and  thus  evidently  the  modern  bidet. 

Binj-pypc,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e,  a  rush,  a  iuncus 
or  carex  or  butomus  umbellatus,  as  in 

Bypisbepge,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  -ean,  a  mul- 
berry. Lb.  II.  XXX.  2.  Moros,  mulberry 
trees,  Ps.  Ixxvii.  52,  is  translated  by 
typ'S  and  by  mapbeamaf.  Spelm. 
Bepij;bpenc,  diamoron,  Gl.  in  Lye,  a 
drink  made  from  mulberries  with  honey. 

Bypla,  masc,  gen.  -an,  the  barrel,  in  the 
horse  keepers  sense  ;  Lb.  I.  Ixxxviii.  3, 
from  the  context  and  the  modern  word. 
As,  however,  there  is  but  this  known 
example,  it  may  be  perineum,  like  bcere, 
in  Molbech.  Cf.  "  Burlings,  the  tails 
"  and  other  parts,  which  are  taken  from 
"  lambs  when  sheared.  Burl,  to  take  such 
"  wool  from  lambs  as  is  dirtied,  or  liable 
"  to  additional  deterioration  from  their 
"  laxity  of  body."     Salopia  antiqua  Gl. 

Bi)"ceoppy]ir,  fem.  gen.  in  -e,  bishopswort, 
ammi  mains.  (Skinner,  Nemnich,Florio, 
Cotgrave,  Lovell,  Culpeper.)  This  is 
medicinal,  but  foreign,  and  must  be 
taken  as  cultivated  by  our  "  herborists," 
as  Lyte  says  of  it.  Bishops  weed=ammi. 
Skinner.  So  we  read  "  the  southern  " 
bishopwort.  Lb.  II,  liv. 

2.  Verbena  officinalis?  if  we  trust  Gl. 
Somn.  p.  64  a,  1,  with  p.  66  [63]  b,  32. 

3.  "Hibiscus?" //-eernaZ/ow.  Gl.  Cleop. 
Gl.  M.M.  Vitex  '^  Agnus  castus,"  Gl. 
Arund.  42,  fol.  92.  "  Puleium  mon- 
"  tanum,"  Gl.  Arund.  42. 

Bij-ceopjiypC  yeo  Iscj-j-e,  the  lesser 
bishopswort,  betonica  officinalis.  "Beto- 
"  nica,"Gl.  Somn.p.  64a,49  ;  Gl.  Arund. 
42;  Gl.  Dun.  ;  Gl.  Mone,  p.  320  b  ;  Gl. 
Faust ;  Hb.  i.  ;  but  Skinner  says  "  be- 
"  tonica  aquatica,"  which  is  scrophularia 
aquatica.  Bat.  ;  and  Culpeper  says, 
"  water  betony,  in  Yorkshire  bishops 
"  leaves." 

Bite,  gen.  -ej-,  masc.  1.  a  bite.  2.  a 
cancer.  1.  pi.  hitay,  Quadr.  xiii.  7;  Isl. 
bit,  a  bite,  is  neuter  (B.H.).  Biz,  ohg., 
hiss  in  Germ.,  are  masc.  The  word  is 
followed  by  heo,  Quadr.  xi.  7,  but  that 
will  be  an  error.  Slire  also  and  others 
have  final  e.     Lb.  I.  xliv.  1. 

Blffic,  gen.  -ey?  a  blotch.  Lb.  Contents, 
I.  xxxii.,  with  article  pam.  "Vitiligo, 
"  blec,"  Gl.  M.M.  p.  154  b,  39,  where 
is  added  J^jiuj^'el,  leprosy,  the  same  as 
Goth.  J^rutsfill,  Xfwpa.  Similarly  id.  p. 
164  b,  3,  but  blectb. 

2.  Ink,  encaustum,  DD.  395. 


Blopan,  prset.  f  bleo)',  pp.  blojien,  to  Uow, 
bloom,  blossom,  Jlorere.  Tjieopa  he  be)' 
jse)ilice  bloj'an,  M.Sp.  p.  16,  Trees 
lie  shall  cause  suddenly  to  bloom.  Mid 
blowendum  wyrtum,  Horn.  II.  352, 
with  blooming  worts.  OS  ^  hi  becomou 
to  j-umuni  pcinenbura  jelba  jffiSjie 
Sebloiien,  M.II.  99  b,  Till  they  came 
to  a  shining  plain,  fair  and  blooming 
("  fairly  blown  ").    C.E.  199,  200,  etc. 

Bogen.  See  Bo'Sen,  convertible,  Lb.  p. 
310,  note.  Lb.  III.  iv.  xxvi.  xxx.  Ixii.  1. 

Box,  neut,  ?  Lb.  II.  lix.  14.  tobjiocenuin 
pealyboxe,  Mark  xiv.  3.  Buxus,  box 
tjieop.  Buxum,  j-opcajiuen  box,  ^G. 
5,  Tilt.  It  is  therefore  direct  from  the 
late  Latin,  and  seems  to  follow  its  gender. 

Bo'Sen,  gen.  -ej- ;  probably  wild  thyme,  thy- 
mus serpyllum.  Bot)enej*,  Lb.  III.  iv.  In 
Hb.  Ixxxi.  boSen  is  rosemary,  which  is 
a  native  of  the  south  of  Europe.  In 
Hb.  cxlix.  it  is  employed  to  translate 
thyme,  and  this  is  native  to  England. 
"  Lolium,  bo^en,"  Gl.  Somn.,  p.  77  a, 
but  darnel  is  not  to  the  unskilled  eye 
at  all  like  thyme  and  rosemary ;  it 
seems  however  to  be  considered  only 
as  a  mean  herb  by  the  glossator. 
The  drawing  in  MS.  V.,  fol.  39  d, 
has  not  simple  leaves  as  for  either  rose- 
mary or  thyme  it  should  have  (H.),  but 
it  may  be  the  artists  view  of  either. 
"  Rosmarinus,  sundeav  vel  bothen  vel 
"  feld  medere,"  Gl. Dun.  "Rosmarinus, 
"  sundeaw,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  322  b.  ;  this 
is  a  failure  to  translate  ros  marinus  as 
sea  dew  ;  our  sundew  or  drosera  is  wholly 
different.  In  MS.  Bodley,  130,  there  is 
no  drawing  of  rosmariuus,  but  a  hand  of 
the  14th  century  has  glossed  the  article 
"  feld  modere;"  this  seems  to  come  of 
very  careless  observation.  "Rosmari- 
"  num,  feld  maidere,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  322  a. 
White  bothen  is  great  daisie,  says 

Bpea'5,  brittle.     Hb.  cxl.  1.     evOpavaros. 

Bpecan,  verb  reflexive,  bjiecan  hme, 
make  an  effort  to  spew.     Lb.  II.  Hi.    1. 

Bjiecan — ro7it. 

"Brakyn  or  castyn  or  spewe,  vomo 
"  evomo,"  Prompt.  Parv.  "  Brakynge  or 
"  parbrakynge,  vomitus,  cvomitus,"  id. 

Bjiebe?  a  particolour  ed  cloth;  nub  bpebe. 
Lb.  IIL  ii.  1.  Cf.  Bjiaebelf,  stragulum, 
Gl.  in  Lye.  Cf.  Bp/jb,  C.E.  218,  line  9. 
Brcgben,  C.E.  219,  line  13. 

Bjiegban,  prcet.  bpseb,  p.  part,  bjiogben,  to 
do  anything  with  a  sudden  jerk  or  start. 
Lb.  IL  li.  3.  etc. 

Bjiyj-ejjyjic,  fern.,  gen.  -e,  pimpernel,  ana- 
gallis.  "  Anagallis,  brisewort,"  Gl.  Raw- 
linson,  c.  506.  Gl.  Harl.  3388.  Leech- 
doms,  vol.  I.  p.  374. 

2.  Bellis peren7iis,MSi.Ija\id.  553,  fol. 9. 
Plainly  for  Hembriswyrt.  See  Ban- 
pypc,  2. 

Bjnjian,  to  brcic,  pra;t.  bpeop,  p.  part, 
bpopen.  Lb.  I.  xlvii.  3,  make  a  brewit, 
a  lomentum,  dress.  Lb.  I.  xxxvi.  Bpip 
his  mere  ]n>  ele.  Lb.  ILli.  1,3.  O.T. 
254,  9.     Horn.  L  352. 

B]iyJ)en,  neut.,  what  has  been  brewed.  Lb. 
I.  Ixvii.  2.  C.E.  p.  1G1,4  =  MS.  fol.  47  a, 
8,  where  the  use  of  barm  is  mentioned. 
He  jeann  ...  an  bjiy^en  mealces  ;  one 
brewing  of  malt;  malt  for  one  brewing. 
Wulfgeats  Will,  unpublished. 

Bjiocmince,  -an,  fem.,  mentha  hirsuta, 
Bot.  Hb.  cvi.  ''  Sisymbrium,  an  herbe, 
"  wherof  bee  two  kyndes,  the  one  is 
"  called  Sisymbrium  alone,  whiche  is  also 
"  called  Thymbrea,  in  englishe  water 
"  mynte."  Elyots  Diet,  by  T.  Cooper. 
See  the  synonyms  from  mediaeval  sources 
in  the  Flora  Britannica,  with  the  words 
"  In  aquosis  vulgaris." 

Bjiom,  gen.  -ef,  masc.  ?  broom,  cytisus 
scoparius,  (Hooker).     Lb.  I.  ii.  14. 

BpoJ^ejipyjir,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  penny  royal, 
rneutha  pulegium,  Gl.  Brux. 

Bjiune^an,  a  dative  :  Lb.  I.  iv.  6,  a  dis- 
ease, brunella ;  as  I  conclude  from  the 
following  ;  "  oris  vitium  cum  linguaj 
"  tumore,  exasperatione,  siccitate  et 
"  nigredine  ;  unde  et  nomen  teutonice 
"  habet,    vulgo   brunella."      Kilian    in 



IJjiuneK'vn — cont. 

brujne.  Album  Grtecum,  prescribed  in 
Lb.  for  this  disease,  is  said  by  Salmon 
(Engl.  Ph)'s.  p.  753)  to  cure  "Diseases 
"  of  the  Throat  and  Quinsies  :  for  a  sore 
"  throat  called  Pruna,  you  may  use  it." 

Bpunjiypr,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e,  broivn  wort, 
scrqfalaria  aquatica,  water  betony. 
(Skinner,  Lyte,  Nemnich,  Culpeper.)  So 
braun^vurtz  in  Dodoens.  I  suppose  "  the 
"  broad  leaved  brownwort  which  waxeth 
"  in  woods,"  Lb.  I.  xxxviii.  4,  to  be 
scrofula ria  nodosa. 

2.  Hb.  art.  Ivii.  makes  bjiunpyjic  the 
fern  called  splenium  or  asplenium,  and 
Gl.  Dun.  copies  that.  Ceterach  officina- 
rum  is  meant.  It  has  a  brown  under 
surface,  but  the  drawing  in  MS.  V.  is 
not  a  fern  at  all.  Spimon  vel  reverion, 
Gl.  Erux.,  where  spimon  is  a  misreading 
of  splenion. 

3.  Also  the  vaccinium  or  bilberry 
shrub,  Gl.  Somn.  p.  66  [63]  b,  12,  where 
bpanjiypc  is  printed.     Gl.  Dun. 

4.  Prunella  vulgaris,  where  prun  is 
brown.  So  the  MECstricht  Gl.  in  Mone, 
p.  285  a.  Nemnich.  See  also  Bruyne 
in  Kilian. 

Bulentr]-e,  a  wort.     Lb.  I.  xlvii.  2.     There 

must  have  been  more  than  one  of  the 
-    name,  as  the  passage  mentions  the  small 

Bulot,  Lb.   I.   Iviii.  2  ;    Bulut,  Lb.   IIL 

xlviii.  ;   the  root  of  lychnis  flos  cuculi? 

^ee  Pliniusxxi.  97=26.     Ballota,  BaA- 

AcuTrj,  nigra  ?     Boletus  ? 


Csepen,  neut.  ?  a  Latin  word,  carenum, 
wine  boiled  down  one  third  and  sweetened. 
"  Cypen,  i.e.  ajnlleb  pm  .  dulcisapa,"  Gl. 
in  Lye.  Mib  )>am  cejienum  J^ajpe  gob- 
j-pellican  )-j't'tnyj-)-e,  St.Gn'Slac,  cap.  xvii. 
=  p.  72,  1.  7.     Gen.  -ey.     Lb.  L  i.  17. 

Caepfe,  gen.  -an,  fem.  ?  cress,  water  cress, 
nasturtium  officinale.  The  drawings  in 
V.  A.  have  opposite  leaves  and  a  stout 
tripartite  terminal  fruit  or  inflorescence, 
so  that  they  are  "  most  like  caper  spurge, 
"  euphorbia  lathyris,"  (H.)  But  the  op- 
posite leaves  with  a  racemose  arrange- 
ment of  the  flowers,  which  latter  may  be 
seen  in  MS.  T.,  is  sufficient  for  us,  with 
the  synonym  in  Hb.  xxi.  "  Nasturtium." 
In  MS.  G.  is  a  gloss,  "  Cart  chresse," 
where  the  former  word  may  stand  for 
KdpSafxoy,  cress.  Thu  drawing  in  MS.  G. 
is  a  good  deal  like  the  herb,  and  that  in 
MS.  T.  is  meant  for  it.  "  Cardamon, 
"  cearse,"  Gi.  Dun.  Tun  caepj-e,  garden 
cress,  lepidium  sativum;  Dutch,  Tuinkers. 

Camecon,  cammock  ?  which  see.  Lb.  I. 
xlvii.  3.     Cf.  Hleomoc,  Hleomocan. 

Cammoc,  Commuc,  gen.  -ej-.  1.  Sulfur 
wort,  harestrang,  peucedanum  officinale, 
Hb.  art.  xcvi.,  and  so  drawn  MS.  V.  fol. 
45  a.  Peucedanum,  gl.  dogge  fenell, 
MS.  Bodley,  130,  adding  "  or  balde-  y 
"  monie,"  which  is  gentian.  "Peuce- 
"  danum,  cammok,"  Gl.  M.  ;  Gl.  Dun., 
dog  fenell  (Grete  Herbal).  The  fine 
linear  leaves  are  meant  in  a  bad  drawing 
in  MS.  Harl.  5294,  where  is  gl.  hand 
fenell.  Peucedanum  is  harstrang  in 
Hollands  Plinius  (index,  vol.  ii.),  and 
in  Dutch  and  German,  and  in  Cotgrave. 
Harestrong  is  peucedanum  officinale  in 
Mylnes  Indigenous  Botany,  1793.  Peu- 
kedanum  was  also  rightly  read  as  hogs 
fennel,  in  a  Welsh  Gl.  of  the  13th  cen- 
tury (Meddygon  Myddfai,  p.  291).  The 
name  fennel  is  derived  fi'om  its  linear 
leaves.     The  genitive.    Lb.  III.  xxx. 

2.  Anonis,  rest  harrow,  Gl.  Harl.  3388. 
Gl.  Arundel,  42.  Gerarde.  Gl.  Sloane, 
405.  Gl.  Dorsetshire,  Culpeper.  ^ee 
Cammoc  whin,  which  is  the  correct  word. 

3.  Hypericum, also  pulica7-ia  dysenterica, 
also  senecio  [acobaa ;  Gl.  New  Porest. 

Cammoc  whin,  rest  harrow,  anonis,  MS. 
Laud.  553,  fol.  18.  The  leaves  are  ter- 
nate  like  those  of  the  true  cammock. 



Cayyac,  gen.  in  -ey,  masc,  hassock,  aira 
caspitosa.  Lb.  III.  Ixii.,  Ixiii.,  Ixiv. 
Hassuc,  masc,  CD.  655.  Cf.  Nemnich. 
A  confirmation  in  Lacn.  79. 

Caulic,  gen.  -ny,  a  medicine  of  which  two 
or  three  drops  are  prescribed,  Lb.  II. 
Hi.  3,  perhaps  kco\ik6v,  koKikov. 

Cajiel,  masc,  coleivort,  brassica  oleracca, 
Lb.  III.  xii.,  xliv. 

Ceac,  gen.  -es,  masc,  a  jug,  urna:  pi.  cea- 
cai-.  Bed.  p.  520,  L  6,  with  Smiths  note, 
p.  97.     Lb.  L  ii.  11.     liom.  L  428. 

2.  Laver  of  the  temple   of  Solomon  ; 
Inter,  XovTi]p,     P. A.  21b. 

Cealpe,  ceolpe,  ceolbpe,  ace.  -e,  nom.  pi. 
—as,  masc,  pressed  curds,  curds  crumbled 
and  pressed  into  a  cake.  "  Calmaria, 
"  cealjie ;  Caluiale,  cealepbjiip,"  Gl. 
Cleop.  "  Muluctra,  ceolbpe,"  Gl.  C.  The 
dat.  occurs,  Lb.  I.  xxxix.,  ace  I.  xliv.  1. 
Lacn.  57,  pi.  Ai5o|.  51.  Compare  Germ. 
Gallerte,  fem.,jelli/. 

Ceaj-tep  sej-c.     See  JEyc. 

CeajTep  pypc,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  black  helle- 
bore, helleborus  niger.     Lb.  I.  xxxix.  2. 

Cebelc,  Mercurialis  perennis.  Hb.  Ixxxiv. 
from  the  text  and  drawings.  "  Mercuri- 
"  alis,  cedelc  vel  merce,"  Gl.  Dun.,  where 
the  insertion  of  marche  or  celery  arose 
from  its  similarity  to  the  first  syllable 
in  mercurialis.  "Mercurialis,  cebelc. 
"  cyphc,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  320  b  ;  but  the 
tradition  of  our  people  forbids  us  to  be- 
lieve that  mercury  is  charlock. 

Celenbpe,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  coi'iander,corian- 
drum  salivum.  Lb.  I.  iii.  9.  Also  celen- 
beji.  Lb.  I.  iv.  2,  probably  after  the  Latin 
and  neuter  ;  dat.  -bpe,  Lb.  I.  xxxv. 

Celet>enie,  celejjonie,  cylel^enie,  fem.,  gen. 
-an,  celandine,  chelidonium  mains,  by 
English  tradition.  But  Glaucium  luteum 
is  the  x*^'^'^''""'  A^e7«  of  Dioskorides, 
according  to  Sprengel.  The  drawing 
in  MS.  V.  fol.  38  a,  is  meant  perhaps  for 
chelidonium  maius  (II.)  Hb.  Ixxv.  Lb. 
I.  ii.  2,  and  often. 
CejiyiUe,  cypplle,  fem.,  gen.  -an  ;  garden 
chervil,  antltriscus  cereJvUum,Bot. 

Cejijille — cunt. 

I'ubucejijille,  wild  chervil,  anthriscus 
silvestris,  Lb.  II.  Ii.  4.     Lacn.  62. 

8eo  peabe  pubu  pile,  Lacn.  G8.  J^ubu 
ceppUe,  Hb.  Ixxxvi.,  is  in  both  places 
sparagia  agrestis,  wild  asparagus,  or  as- 
paragus acutifolius,  Linn.  Asparagus 
agrestis,  becomes  eoji^najrola,  Hb.  cxxvi. 
2,  by  neglecting  agrestis.  Sparagia  gres- 
tis,  vude  cearfille.  Sparago,  nefle,  Gl. 

Cicel,  masc,  a  cake.  Germ.  Kuchen,  masc, 
a  cake.  Quadr.  ix.  17.  Lb.  I.  xlvi.  2. 
"  Buccella,"  Gl.  in  Lye  ;  masc.  Lacn. 
44.  A(5a|.  63,  21.  A  word  still  in  use  ; 
Moores  Suffolk  words,  Bakers  Northants 
Gl.  Kersey.  "  A  flat  triangular  cake." 

Cicena  mete,  masc.  gen.  -ey,  chickenmeat, 
chickweed,  stellaria  media,  formerly  called 
alsine  media,  Linn.  Hippia  minor,  etc. 
"  Ispia  minor,  [read  Hippia'],  chyken- 
"  mete,"  Gl.  Kawl.  c  607.  "  Ipia  minor, 
"  chykynmete  album  florem  [habet]." 
Gl.  Harl.  3388.  Similarly,  Gl.  M.,  Gl. 
SI.,  1571.  "  Modera,"  Gl.  Dun.  Muronis, 
Gl.  Brux. 

Cymeb  for  Cymen  ?  n  and  r>  being  kindred 
dentals.  Lb.  I.  xxxix.  2.  Lye  con- 
jectured for  chamadrys,  germander. 

Cymen,  neut.  (as  Lb.  II,  xliv.),  cummin, 
KvfjLivov,  cuminum  cyndnum,  a  foreign 

Kmcean,  Lb.  I.  xvi.  1.  I  find  "  Kinnock, 
"  the  artichoke,  cynara  scolymos," 
(Nemnich).  "  Cariscus,  kinhbeam,"  Gl. 
Sloane,  146.  "Cariscus,  cjucbeam,"  Gl. 
Somner,  p.  64  b,  54,  all  agree  that  the 
quickbeam  is  the  (sorbus  or)  pirus  au- 
cuparia.  The  reader  wiU  suspect  I 
should  have  read  kuihbeam,  but  the  MS. 
marks  the  i.  "  Virecta,  cincae,"  GL 
M.M.  In  these  times  virecta  are  green 
shoots,  as  in  Vita  Godrici,  p.  43,  line  1, 
applying  well  to  the  paits  of  the  arti- 
choke that  are  eaten.  Kinphen,  grem- 
sich,  Gl.  Mone,  p.  289  a,  and  Grensing, 



Kmcean — cont. 

nymphcEct,  Graff.  Gl.  ^lone,  p.  290  b,  6, 

The  spelling  qmce  in  Lacn.  4,  makes 
us  suspect  quince. 
Cypnel,  masc,  gen.  -ef,  heniel  of  a   nut. 
"  Nucli,  cypnlar,"  Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  CG  a, 
read  nuclei. 
Cypnel,  neut.,   pi.    cyjinelu,   kernel,    liai'd 
glandular     swelling,     churnel,     grumus. 
Hb.  iv.  2,  3  ;   xiv.  2  ;  Ixxv.  5. 
Cyplybb,    neuter  ?    rennet,   Quad.   iv.    1 4. 
See  Lib.    Rennet  is  the  substance  which 
turns   milk  to   cui'd,  for  which  purpose 
is  often   used  a   calfs   stomach ;  hapan 
cyj-lyb    implies   that  the  stomach  of  a 
hare  or  leveret  would   have   the   same 
effect.      Otherwise     cyj^epunn,     Collo- 
quium, p.  28  ;    not   caseus,    nor    yet  a 
cheese,  but  rennet.     Unlibban  is  other- 
wise declined,  Horn.  IL  504 ;    lyb  is  in 
Gl.  C.C.C.    Cf.  Lacn.  18. 
Claenie,  gen.  -an,  fern.  ?  clover,  trifolium 
pratense.  Lb.  I.  xxi.    Amid  a  wilderness 
of  confusion,  the  ternate  leaves  of  the 
figure  in  MS.  Bodley,  130,  at  Hb.  Ixx. ; 
the  close  relationship  between  hares  foot 
and  clover  in  the  old  herbals,  as  Lytcs, 
the  similarity  of  the  drawings  in  MS.  V. 
at  art.  Ixx.  and  art.  Ixii.  ;  a  comparison 
of  the  drawings  of  clover,  art.  Ixx.,  and 
hart  clover,  art.  xxv.,  have  convinced  me 
that  I  have  rightly  determined  the  worts 
meant  byl>apan  hije  and  Claeyjie.  Kipcnov 
to  which  claejpe  is  equivalent,  Hb.  Ixx., 
was   in   Dioskorides    a    pappose    plant, 
carduus  parvijlorus  (Sprengel).  Lindley 
makes    cirsium    a    cynaraceous    genus. 
The  trifolium  pratense  or  purple  clover  is 
in  Gennan  Kleber,  Klever,  Kleve,  and 
-klee,  Rothe-,  Gemeiner-  and  Brauner- 
Wiesen-klee  ;   in  Dutch  Roode  klaver, 
etc.  ;    in    Dansk   Rod-klever,  etc.  ;    in 
Swedish  Klof^er,  etc.     The  drawing  in 
MS.  V.  Hb.  Ixx.  by  itself  "'  won  t  do  for 
"  Trifolium  ;    corresponds  as  far  as  it 
"  goes   with  Thymus  serpyllum,"  (H.) 
J.  Grimm  makes  claenie  clover. 

Clare,  fem,,  gen.  -an  ;  1.  The  greater,  the 
burdock,  arctium  lappa.  "  Blitum  vel 
"  lappa,  clace,"  Gl.  Somn.  p.  6G  [63]  b, 
30.  "  Bardane  la  grande,  the  burrdock, 
"  slote  \_rcad  clote]  burr,  great  burr," 
Cotgrave.  "  Bardona  .i .  cletes .  vel  burres 
"  secundum  aliquos,"  Gl.  Rawl.  c.  607. 
"  Elixis .  i .  lappa  bardana  .  i .  clote,"  GL 
Harl.  3388.  "  Lappa  maior .  i .  bardana, 
clote,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388. 

2.  The  lesser ;  clivers,  goosegrass, 
catchweed,  little  bur,  galium  aparine. 
"Amorfolia,  clace,"  Gl.  Somn.  p.  66  [63] 
b,  44,  that  is,  love  leaves,  from  cleaving 
to  passengers  ;  so  Gl.  Dun.  Hb.  clxxiv. 
MS.  O.  The  drawing,  MS.  V.  fol.  64, 
is  "  a  very  neat  representation  of  aspe- 
"  rula  odorata,"  (H.),  but  the  aspernla 
is  not  a  burr  plant,  and  the  nearly  akin 
G.  Aparine  must  have  been  in  the 
draughtsmans  intention.  It  is  called  ^lA.- 
dvdpwnos,  as  sticking  to  men  and  women. 
"  Philantropium,  lappa,  clace,"  GL  R.  41. 
Lappa,  the  catcher,  from  Aafii(xQat,  lay 
hold  of,  is  applied  like  clote  to  both 
these  herbs,  in  other  particulars  unlike. 
Clote  itself  must  have  the  same  sense, 
and  with  exceptional  vocalisation  is  a  de- 
rivative of  cleopan,  and  for  f  cleojte,  as 
slice  for  f  flihce,  is  from  slean,  f  )-lej;an. 

Cliye,  fem.,  gen.  -an  ;  clivers.  The  greater 
is  burdock,  arctium  lappa.  The  lesser  is 
galium  aparine.  Lb.  I.  1.  '2.  The  same  as 
chjiiyjic.    "  Apparine,  cliuc."    Gl.  Dun. 

Clij-pyjir,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e,  burdock,  arc- 
tium lappa.  Assuming  the  syllable  cli): 
to  signify  cleaving,  the  Xanthium  struma- 
rium  and  the  Asperugo  procumbcns  are 
too  rare  ;  the  Galiums  or  the  Arctium 
lappa  are  common  ;  the  equivalent  yoxej* 
cliye  (Lacn.  112),  seems  to  suit  better 
the  burdock,  which  will  grow  in  the  wet 
shore  of  a  river,  and  so  be  eapyjic. 
"  Blitum  vel  lappa,  clace  vel  cliypypc," 
Gl.  Somn.  p.  66  [63]  b,  30.  Lb.  L  xv,  3. 
2.  Galium  aparine,  written  cli'Sjjypc, 
Lacn.  69,  where  occurs  a  gloss,  Rubea 



Clujre  ?  fern.,  pi.  in  -e,  a  clove,  the  bulb  or 
tuber  of  a  plant.     Lb.  IIL  xli.,  etc. 

Cluplir,  cluyehc,  cloved,  having  a  clove, 
bulbed,  tuberous.     Lb.  IIL  xli.,  etc. 

CluyJ^ung,  cluil'uuse,  fern.,  gen.  in  -e,  also 
—an,  doffing,  ranunculus  sceleratus, 
Hb.  ix.  In  MS.  G.  the  true  herb  is 
drawn  ;  in  MS.  A.  the  flowers  are  at 
least  yellow,  with  five  petals  ;  but  in 
MS.  V.  fol.  21  a,  all  likeness  is  lost, 
punj  is  poison,  cluy-  is  clove,  the  tuberous 

■  root  ;  as  of  some  of  this  tribe.  Clup 
J'ungan,  Hb.  ex.  3,  where  the  Latin 
again  makes  the  wort  a  ranunculus. 
"  Mortali  yeneno,  mid  cEttrigere  cluf- 
"  >unse,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  349  b,  an  erro- 

.  neous  version ;  but  an  example  of  the 
feminine.  "  Scelerata  herba  vel  apium 
"  risus,  anglice  cloftong,"  Gl.  Sloane, 
405.  "  Scelerata,  gl.  cloftunge,"  MS. 
Bodley,  130.  "As  yellow  as  a  claut,"  that 
is,  marsh  ranunculus  (Wilts.).  "  Batra- 
"  chium,"  Gl.  Erux. 

"  Cicuta,  cloftunke,"  Gl.  Ilarl.  3388, 
an  error,  cicuta  is  hemlock  ;  the  poi- 
sonous quality  misled  the  writer. 
"  Cloffing,  the  plant  hellebore."  Halli- 
well  and  the  English  Macer,  MS.  in 
Prompt.  Parv.,  vol.  i.  p.  198  ;  a  similar 
error  occurs,  Lb.  I.  i.  7. 

Clu}"]'y]ir,  clovewort,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  ranun- 
culus acris.  In  MS.  G.  the  figure  is  that 
of  ranunculus  as  in  "  scelerata,"  but  here 
the  root  is  tuberous,  so  MS.  T.,  but  less 
well ;  MS.  A.  preserves  a  resemblance, 
which  is  almost  lost  in  MS.  V.  Hb.  x. 
"  Batrocum,"  Gl.  Dun.,  that  is  ^arpa-xi-ov. 

Cneopholen,  masc,  knee  holly,  knee  holm, 
-holn,  -hulver,  butchers  broom,  Ruscus 
aculeatus,  Hb.  lix.  The  gender  is  de- 
termined by  C.E.  p.  437,  19,  where  the 
translation  "  alder,"  is  an  im fortunate 
blot.  Two  kinds  are  mentioned,  Lb.  I. 
xlvii.,  but  one  only  is  native  to  England. 
.  The  second  may  be  presumed  to  be  R. 
Alexandrina  of  the  middle  ages,  which 
included  li.  hi/poglossum,  E.  Injpofyllum, 
H.  racemosus,  of  the  Eot. 

Cop;,  gen.  -es,  costmary,  alecost,  tanacetuni 

balsamita.     Lb.  II.  Iv.  1,  etc. 
Crawleac.     See  Leac. 
Cpimman,  prait.  cpam,  p.  part,  cpumen,  to 
reduce  to  crumbs,  to  crumble.  Cjiim.    Lb. 
L  Ixi.  1. 
Cropleac.     See  Leac 
Cjiuc,  masc,  a  cross.     Lb.  II.  Ivi.  4. 
Cu,  gen.  cue,  fem.,  cow,  vacca.     The  de- 
clension is  often  contracted  ;  gen.  Lb. 
I.  xxxviii.  11,  by  conti-.  cu  ;    Saec   an 
beoyol  on  l^repe  cu  hpycje,  M.H.  194  a, 
There  sat  a  devil  on  the  cows  back.    Dat. 
cy.    Fepbe  oj:  ^BSjie  cy,  ibid.,  the  devil 
went  off  from  the  cow ;    gen.  pi.  cuna  ; 
]:eo}ie]i-is  cuna.  Gen.  xxxii.  15  ;  dat.  pi. 
cum ;    unbep  yolcimi,  Par.  Ps.  Ixvii.  27, 
for  yolc  cum,  as  Grein  suggests  ;  ace. 
pi.  cy  ;  ic  hsebbe  .  .  .  gecelye  cy,  Gen, 
xxxiii.  13,  where  ge  is  con  ;  SSpp.  261, 
cows  with  their  calves. 
Culmillan,  for  cujimellan  ?     Lb.  I.  xvi.  1, 
Cumb,  masc,  gen.  -ej-,  a  vessel,  '•'  dolium," 
MS.St.Joh.Oxon.  154  ;  SSpp.  art.  1026. 
Lacn.  37.    Cf.plbcumb.    Lb.III.liii. 
Cumulu,  pL,  glandular  swellings,  translates^ 

ffKippiifxaTa.  Hb.  clvii. 
Cunelle,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  a  Latin  word, 
cunila,  a  thymiaceous  plant,  say  Thymus 
vulgaris,  a  garden  herb,  but  it  is  not 
rue,  as  the  glossator  of  the  Liudisfarne 
Gospels,  Luke  xi.  42,  says,  nor  chervil, 
as  another  Gl.  says. 

I^ubu  cunelle,  thymus  serpyllum,  wild 
thyme.  Lb,  III.  xxii. 
Cupmelle  ]-eo  mape,  Chlora  perfoliata, 
Bot. ;  Cujimelle  j-eo  IcSfj-e,  Erytltraa  cen- 
taureum,  Bot.  Hb.  xxxv.  xxxvi.  All 
the  MSS.,  v..  A.,  G.,  T.  figure  in  both 
these  articles,  the  same  wort,  and  in  all 
they  are  the  Erythraea  centaureum.  The 
mediffival  glossaries  make  no  difficulty  of 
the  lesser,  but  they  had  lost  the  clue  to 
the  greater.  The  tradition  is  from 
Plinius,  XXV.  30,  31.  Though  some  of 
the  continental  botanists  make  no  hesi- 
tation in  identifying  the  greater  centau- 
rion  of  Plinius,  with  centaiirea,  yet  his 

«>/  o 


Cujimelle — con  t. 

expression,  "  caules  geniculati,"  seems 
iiTeconcileable  with  the  genus.  The  in- 
terpreter of  our  MS.,  however,  and  the 
draughtsman  did  not  know  what  plant  to 
name  for  the  greater,  nor  did  Fuchsius, 
the  botanic  reformer.  Of  the  less,  Plini- 
us  says,  "  Hoc  (minus)  centaurion  nostri 
*'  fel  terrse  vocant  propter  amaritudinem 
^'  summam."  "  The  whole  plant  is  ex- 
"  tremely  bitter,  and  when  dried  is  used 
"  in  country  places  as  a  substitute  for 
"  gentian  root,"  (Lindley).  Lyte  (p.  375) 
describes  Ery  th.  c,  and  mentions  (p.  436) 
its  bitterness,  calling  it  "  the  small  cen- 
"  torie."  "  Centaurea  minor,  horse  galle," 
Gl.  Sloane,  5,  where  "  horse  "  means 
luild.  "  C.  maior,  cristes  ladder,"  Gl. 
•Sloane,  5,  but  minor,  Gl.  Sloane,  13.5; 
Christs  ladder  cannot  be  polemonium 
cseruleum,  which  is  nowise  to  the  pur- 
pose. "  C.  J^e  more  is  not  well  knowen," 
Gl.  Sloane,  5,  fol.  18  b.  "  Centaurea 
*'  maior,  anglice  more  centori  or  yrthe 
*'  galle,  it  hathe  leuys  like  lasse  centori 
"  whytt,  with  on  \_one\  stalk  and  yolow 
*'  flowrys  and  he  flowryth  nott  in  )pe 
"  topp,"  Gl.  Sloane,  135;  and  so  Harl. 
3840,  this  is  chlora  perfoliata.  Centaurea 
maior  coniungit  folia  iuxta  stipitem, 
florem  habet  croceum,  MS.  T.,  fol.  63  a. 
"  Centaurea  minor,  anglice  lasse  centori, 
"  with  lasse  leuys  and  grener  J^en  J>e  more 
*'  centori,  and  hath  mony  branches  com- 
"  yng  out  of  on,  with  flowre  some  dele 
"  redde,"  Gl.  Sloane,  135,  plainly  eryth- 
rcea  c.  The  [H]ortus  Sanitatis  figures 
for  centaurea,  the  erythraum  c.  Sibthorp 
in  the  Flora  Graca  sustains  the  assertion. 
Centaurea,  erthegalle,  is  drawn  in  Grete 
Herbal  as  C  cyanus.  Dorsten  says  the 
greater  centaury  is  unknown,  yet  draws 
it  as  C.  cyanus. 

Cuj-lyppan,  obi.  case,  cowslip, primula  veris ; 
fem.  ?  is  a  compound  of  cu,  perhaps  in 
the  genitive,  and  slyppan.  See  Oxanj-lyp- 
pan.  Lb.  IH.  xxx.  Slyppan  is  probably 
the  sloppy  dropping  of  a  cow. 

Cpseb,  neut.,  du)ig.  Lb.  T.  1.  2  ;  II.  xlviii. 
jjynne  is  also  neuter. 

Cpelbehc,  full  of  evil  matter,  of  pestilence. 
Lb.  I.  liv.  The  termination  as  in  cseji- 
phc,  cressy ;  cluphc,  cloved ;  cneoehc, 
kneed;  hEejiihc,  hairy;  hBclJiht,  heathy; 
hpeodiht,  reedy ;  helmihc,  leafy  ;  staen- 
ihc,  stony  ;  Ijopniht,  thorny.  For  cpylb, 
see  Lye. 

Cwicbeam,  gen.  -es,  masc.  1.  By  tradition 
the  roivan  tree,  Pirus  aucuparia. 

2.  luniperus  communis,  many  glos- 

3.  Furze,  or  gorse,  Vlex  Europxtis, 
Lb.  I.  xxxi.  3.  Prompt.  Parvul.  See 
Hb.  cxlil. 

4.  The  aspen,  Populus  tremida,  Pref. 
vol.  I.  p.  Ixxxvi. 

Cpi^,  gen.  in  -ey,  masc,  the  matrix,  uterus, 
vulva.     Lb.  III.  xxxvii.  xxxviii. 

Cpi'S,  Lb.  I.  xlvii.  3,  Matricaria  ?  Read 
cpice  ? 


Dsel,  gen.  -es,  neut.  a  dale,  vallis,  "barath- 
"  rum. "  C.E.  p.  93,  1.  26,  p.  94,  1.  18. 
Cffidm.  if  Caedm.,  p.  16,  line  11,  p.  22, 
1.  10. 

Dael,  gen.  -es,  mostly  masc,  sometimes 
neut.,  like  Germ.  Th.ei\,  part,  pars.  The 
masc.  occ.  everywhere.  Exx.  of  neut. 
AiSa|.  52,  unless  nominatival  apposition 
is  there  used  ;  as  is  perhaps  the  case  in 
Lb.  II.  xxx.  Heo  nsenig  bsel  leohcej* 
j-ciman  jej-eon  mihce.  Bed.  578,  20. 
Sum  bsel  o'Spef  peo]iCef  co  pypcanne, 
D.G.  23  b. 

Deaye,  gen.  -e,  fem. .'  deafness,  surditas,  Lb. 
L  iii.  2,  5.     Cf.  Isl.  Deyfa,  fem.  id.  (B.H.) 

Dile,  gen.  -es,  masc,  dill,  anethum  graveo- 
lens.  Lib.  I.  i.  8  ;  II.  xxxiii.  Leechd. 
vol.  I.  p.  374,  where  haepene  is  for 
hsepenne  by  suppression  of  consonant; 
Pref.  vol.  I.  p.  c.  ci. 


Dile — cont. 

Haej'en  dile  ;  perhaps  Achillea  tomen- 
tosa ;  for  Cotgrave  explains  Anet  as 
secondly,  "  little  or  yellow  harrow,"  for 
which  I  read  yaiTow,  the  finely  divided 
leaves  of  which  might  obtain  it  this 

Dylsta  ?  mucus ;  pi.  dylscan.  Lb.  I. 
xxxi.  5.     Cf.  II.  xxix. 

Dylstihc,  mucous,  slimij.      Lb.  I.  xxix.  1. 

Dynige,  it  seems,  an  herb.     Lb.  III.  viii. 
\/^  Eead  pynige  ? 

DyJ'homaji,  papyrus.  GI.  Somn.  p.  64  a, 
39.     Lb,  L  xli. 

Docce,  gen.  -an,  fern.,  dock,  rumex ; 
commonly  H.  obtusi/oHus,  but  often  in 
medicine  for  Supbocce.  Lb.  I.  xxxviii.  9, 
probably  also  R.  pulcer,  which  is  drawn 
in  MS.  T. ;  fern,  in  Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  71  c. 

Fallow  dock.  Lb.  I.  xhx.  ;  perhaps 
Zi.  maritimus,  and  H.  palustris. 

Red  dock.  Lb.  I.  xlix.  JR.  sanguineus, 
and  perhaps  for  Sujibocce. 

The  dock  that  will  swun  frequently 
occurs.  Lb.  II.  Ixv.  1  ;  I.  xxxvi  ;  also 
the  Ompre  that  will  swim,  which  is  the 
same  plant.  Lb.  III.  xxvi.  Gerarde 
calls  "  swimming  hei'be,"  duckesmeat  = 
D uckweed= Lemna,  which  is  doubtful. 

Supbocce,  sorrel,  Rumex  Acetosa  is  the 
gl.  in  MS.  T.  Hb.  art.  xxxiv.,  and  a  bad 
sorrel  is  drawn. 

The  Saxons  did  not  botanize  on  modern 
principles,  and  it  easily  follows  that 
their  genus  Dock  is  not  of  the  same  reach 
as  the  modem  Rumex.  Thus  Ci'ousope, 
which  is  Saponaria  officinalis,  is  glossed 
fomedok,    Gl.   Harl.    3388.      The   word 

\  "  foam  "  shows  that  the  writer  knew  his 
plant,  which  he  calls  a  dock.  As  in 
this  instance,  and  in  Cammock  whin,  and 
many  others,  similarity  of  leaves  seems 
to  have  been  the  chief  guide  to  Saxon 
nomenclature.  I  cannot  therefore  believe 
that  eabocce  (spelt  bocca)  is  Nymphsea, 
GI.  Somn.  p.  64  a,  61.  The  word  Nym- 
phffia,  like  many  others,  must  have  been 
misunderstood  ;  I  therefore  believe  that. 

Docce — cont. 

Cabocce  is  the  great  water  dock,  rumex 
aquaticus  of  Smith,  and  R.  hydrolapa- 
thum  of  Hudson. 

Dockenkraut  in  German  is  Arctium 
lappa,  and  dockcresses  are  Lapsana 

Dolh,  gen.  -cs,  mostly  neuter,  rarely  masc, 
wound,  scar,  vulnus,  cicatrix.  Hb.  x.  3. 
Lb.  I.  xxxi.  7,  xxxviii.  9, 10;  UI.  xxxiii. 
xxxiv.  C.E.  p.  68,  24,  p.  89,  10.  SyS- 
'5an  |-e  dolh  psej-  geopenod.     M.H.  93  b. 

Dolhjiune,  gen.  -an,  fern.?  pellitory, parie- 
tartu  officinalis.  Hb.  Ixxxiii.,  as  perdi- 
calis,  which  is  the  same  herb  ;  Lb.  often. 

Dopa,  masc,  gen.  -an,  the  humble  bee,  bum- 
ble bee,  dumble  dore,  bombus  generically. 
The  mediaeval  glosses  Burdo,  Pucus, 
Attacus,  mean  this  insect  or  some  nearly 
allied.  The  commonest  is  Bombus  ter- 
restris,  which  stores  honey.  "Bourdon, 
"  a  drone  or  dorr  bee,"  Cotgrave.  Lb. 

Djiacentj-e,  gen.  -an,  fem.  ?  Dragons,  arum 
dracunculus,  Hb.  xv.  Dragons  was  a 
name  applied  by  English  herbalists,  1. 
to  Polygo7ium  bistorta,  which  is,  I  think, 
the  herb  figured  in  the  Latin  Apuleius, 
MS.  Bodley,  130,  as  dracontea  ;  2.  to 
ojioglossum  vulgatum,  Hb.  art.  vi.  ;  and 
3.  to  arum  maculatum.  All  these  three 
have  a  resemblance  to  a  snakes  erected 
head  and  neck.  The  figure  in  MS.  V., 
art.  XV.  is  intended  for  arum  dracunculus, 
and,  this  being  so,  it  is  impossible  not  to 
concede  the  name.  That  plant  is  not  of 
English  birth,  but  neither  is  the  name. 

Djiacontjan,  gum  dragon;  Lb.  II.  Ixiv. 

Dpige,  bpyje,  dry,  siccus,  aridus,  Bed.  478, 
14.  Andreas,  1581.  Lb.  IL  xlvi.  (In 
C.E.  426,  22,  yorum  bpije  is  y.  bpigum). 

Dpmce,  gen.  -an,  fem.,  a  drink,  potus.  Lb. 
I.  li,  1.  ;  L  xlii.     Horn.  IL  180. 

Dpopa,  -an,  masc,  palsy  of  a  limb.  Lacn. 
9.  The  Saxon  interpreter  was  wide  of 
hi$  original  in  Hb.  lix.  1,  where  "Ad 
"  hecmata  intercidenda,"  in  cxxiv.  "tussi 



Djiopa — cont. 

"  medcndo  "  (so).  Drop,  droppe,  para- 
lysis (Kilian);  Troppf,  gout  (Wachter). 
The  original  sense  remains  in  the  "drop- 
"  ped  hands,"  "  wrist  drop  "  of  painters, 
paralysis  of  the  extensor  muscles  of  the 
■wrist.  Root  Drapan,  to  strike,  p.  part. 
Dropen,  Bw.  5955,  MS. 

2.  A  drop,  gjiita.  Lb.  L  ii.  21.  Hence 
"  colera  "  meaning  lymph,  in  Sc.  30  b. 

Dujr,  neut,  dust,  pulvis,  powder.  Neuter 
everywhere  ;  Mark  vi.  11,  Luke  x.  11, 
Psalm  1.  5,  Matth.  x,  14. 

Dpeopge  bpo)-tle,  bpeojiije  bpojie,  penny 
royal,  vientha  pulegium.  Hb,  xciv.  clvi.  2, 
as  pulegiiun.  So  Gl.  Dun.  So  Ai5ct|. 
.30,  51.  "  Pulegium  regale,  puliole 
"  reale,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388.  "  Pulegio, 
"  peniroyall,"  Florio ;  so  Cotgrave. 
"  The  smallest  of  its  genus,"  Sir  J.  E. 
Smith,  and  therefore  well  called  "dwarf." 
"  Much  used  in  medicine,"  (All).  Penny 
royal  is  only  puliole  royale.  Plea  bane 
is  not  this  plant,  nor  is  the  reading 

Mentha  pulegium  is  called,  Hb.  xciv.  a 
male  and  female  plant,  but  this  has  no 
reference  to  the  sexual  system  of  Linno, 
■which  make  it  didynamous  not  dioecous. 
Some  notion  of  strength  influenced  Theo- 
frastos  and  Dioskorides  in  giving  these 
names.  The  drawing  in  MS.  V.  is  like 
the  herb  intended.  The  flowers  are  some- 
times white. 

D])oj-le  seems  in  the  German  glos- 
saries to  be  Origanum. 


CaSpypc,  fem.,  gen.  -c,  eyehright,  cvfrasia 
officinalis.  Lb.  IH,  xxx.  Germ.,  au- 
gentrost ;  Dutch,  oogentrost ;  Dansk, 
"oientrost;"  Swed.,  "ogontrost." 

Cala^,  ealo^,  ealo,  ealu,  eala,  neut.  un  de- 
clined in  sing.,  ale,  cerevisia;  gen.  eala'S, 

CalaS — cont. 
DD.  G3;0.T.  256,  5 ;  Lb.  T.  xiv.  and  often ; 
dat.  eala'S,  DD.  357  d;  Lb.  often;  gen. 
pi.  eale'Sa,  DD.  487,  where  it  is  used  of 
fermented  liquor  generally.  Gen.  Al'Ses, 
D.R.  116,  but  the  forms  of  D.R.  are  ab- 
normal, or  late. 

Some  interesting  information  on  ale 
and  beer  is  collected  by  that  learned  and 
accurate  antiquary,  Mr.  Albert  Way,  in 
the  Prompt.  Parv.  p.  245.  The  frequent 
mention  of  Wort  (asLxxxvi),  that  is,the 
warm  malt  infusion  in  the  mash  tub, 
prepared  for  fermentation,  shows  plainly 
enough  that  the  Saxons  brewed  for  them- 
selves. The  Alevat  (I.  Ixvii.)  is  the  vessel 
in  which  the  ale  was  left  to  ferment. 
Double  brewed  ale  (I.  xlvii.  3.)  was 
brewed  on  ale,  instead  of  on  water,  and 
gave  them  then  a  very  Strong  ale  (III. 
xii.  p.  314,  twice).  Even  without  hops 
such  ale  would  keep  till  it  became  Old 
ale  (n.  Ixv.  1,  p.  292,  line  12).  Keeping 
and  careful  treatment  would  secure  its 
being  Clear  (L  Ixiii,;  H.  Ixv.  2,  etc.). 
Sweet  ale  is  opposed  to  the  clear  (II. 
Ixv.  2),  and  so  was  thick.  j7ilipc  ealu, 
foreign  ale,  is  often  mentioned  (I.  Ixx., 
etc.).  Ale  is  much  more  frequently 
named  than  beer ;  strong  beer  is  opposed 
to  strong  ale  (IH.  xii.).  Hopping  diinks 
is  mentioned,  Hb.  Ixviii. ;  further,  see 

eahpep,  eileher,  alliaria,  sauce  alone 
(Gerarde).  Erysimum  alliaria.  Lb.  IT. 
xxiv.,  etc.     But  Callitrichum,  Gl.  Dun. 

Galla,  gall,  fel.  Of.  Gealla.  So  Euang. 
Nicod.,  xxvi. 

€a)iban,  pi.  tares,  ervum  and  orohus.  Well 
made  out  by  Somner.  "  Rolon,"  in  Gl. 
Mone,  is  doubtless  a  corruption  of  orobus, 
opofios,  which,  though  divided  by  Bot., 
is  every  way  the  same  as  ervum.  Lb.  I. 

Cajijucga,  -an,  masc,  earwig,  forjicula  au- 
ricularis.     Lb.  I.  iii.  j2,  followed  by  he. 

Cpelapce,  fem.,  gen.  in  -an,  Gnaphalium. 
Somner  found  some  authority  for  *'  Mer- 



Gyelaf-e — ccwt. 

*'  curialis,  the  herb  mercury,  D.,"  nnd  so 
Gl.  Harl.  978,  yet  all  the  gnaphaliums 
have  very  lasting  blooms,  retaining  their 
colour  when  dry  ;  the  G.  margaritaceum 
is  specially  our  modern  Everlasting,  and 
found  "  near  Bocking,  on  the  banks  of 
"  the  Rhymney,  in  Wire  forest,  and  near 
"  Lichfield."  Skinner  also,  Gnaphalium 
Americanum,  which  is  a  misnomer  by 
Ray.  The  genus  is  in  Dausk,  Evigheds- 

Cjopyeapn,  neut.,  gen.  -ey,  polypody,  poli/- 
poditim  vuJgare.  Hb.  Ixxxvi.,  where  it 
=  Radiolus  ;  "  Alii  filicinam  dicunt, 
"  similis  est  filici,  qum  fere  in  lapidetis 
"  nascitur  vel  in  parietinis,  habens  in 
"  foliis  singulis  binos  ordines  puncto- 
"  rum  aureormn,"  Lat.  In  MS.  Bodley, 
130,  a  fern,  as  polypodium  is  drawn  and 
a  Gloss,  in  a  hand  of  the  12th  century 
gives  "wilde  brake."  "Felix  (read 
"  Filix)  queirciua  poUipodium  .  i .  ewer- 
"  wan,"  Gl.  M.  ">e  iii.d  is  ouerfern, 
"  and  t-at  groys  on  walles,"  MS.  Bodley, 
536.  "  Polypodyn  .  i .  ouerferne  't  it 
"  grewitj  on  okys  \>is  is  lest,"  id.  "  Poly- 
"  podium  murale,  euerfern,"  MS.  Raw- 
linson,  c.  506.  To  the  entry,  "  Polypo- 
"  dium  arborale,  pollipodie  ;  PoUipodium 
"  murale,  euerferne,"  MS.  Harl.  3388,  has 
been  added  a  cross,  so  as  to  invert  the  in- 
terpretations. "  Polypodium  rubeas  ma- 
"  culas  habet  et  uocatur  filix  quercina  . 
"  i .  euerferne,"  id.  "  ffilex  quercina  pol- 
*'  lopodium,  euerferne  idem  (sunt),"  id. 
"  Filix  a[r]boratica,  ejojijreapn,"  Gl. 
Somn.  p.  64  a,  14.  Culpeper,  under 
polypody  of  the  oak,  describes  at  length 
and  cleverly,  pol.  vulg.  (H.),  and  his 
mention  is  one  link  in  a  long  medicinal 
tradition.  "And  why,  I  pray,  must 
"  polypodium  of  the  oak  only  be  used, 
"  gentle  college  of  physicians  ?  Can 
"  you  give  me  but  a  glimpse  of  reason 
*'  for  it  ?  It  is  only  because  it  is 
"  dearest."  Culpeper.  Polypodium  vul- 
gare  is  "very  frequent  on  the  tops  of 

ej-op]-ea]in—  cont. 

"  walls,  old  thatched  roofs,  shady  banks 
"  and  the  mossy  trunks  of  rotten  trees." 
(Sir  J.  E.  Smith.)  Its  fructification 
forms  a  double  row  of  golden  spots  on 
each  frondlet.  See  also  his  allusion  to 
tradition  in  English  Botany,  1 149.  The 
older  names  were,  "polypodium  quer- 
"  cinum  ;  filix  arborum  ;  filicula  ;  herba 
"  radioli."  (Nemnich.)  Italian,  felce- 
quercina.  The  figure  in  MS.  V.  "  would 
"  do  very  well  for  plantago  lanceolata, 
"  (H.),  it  is  not  a  fern  at  all."  The 
gender  neuter,  Boet.  p.  48,  1.  31  ;  Lb. 
L  Ivi. 

ehheolo>e,  heahheolo)'e,  gen.  -an,  fem.  ? 
elecampane,  inula  heleninm;  from  eh, 
horse,  equus,  =  heah,  horse,  "ttttos.  "Ele- 
"  campana  ys  an  erbe  \>at  som  men 
"  callej>  horshele,  he  beryth  grene  levis 
"  and  longe  stalkys  and  berith  yelowe 
"  fioures."  Gl.  Sloane,  5,  fol.  22  c  ;  so 
Gl.  Bodley,  178.  Lb.  I.  xxxii.  2  ;  L  i. 
5,  etc. 

eicpa,  latter,  comp.  adj.  Lb.  II.  i.  1,  re- 
lated to  elcian,  be  late  ;  Clcung,  late- 
7iess  ;  elcop,  later,  adverb. 

elehrpe,  gen.  -an,  lupin,  the  cultivated 
sort  of  course,  lupinut)  albus;  so  trans- 
lated, Hb.  cii.  3.  Given  for  dian-hoea, 
Lb.  III.  xxii.  "  Electrum  multos  habet 
"  stipites  folia  virid[i]a  et  fiores  cro- 
"  ceos,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388.  "  Syluestres 
'•  lupini  Candida  habent  folia.  Sativi 
"  foliis  non  adeo  albicant,"  Dorsten. 
"  Lypinus  .  i .  lyponys,  ]>m  erbe  has 
"  leuys  lyke  to  t^e  v.  levyd  grass,  bote 
"  }>e  erbe  fore  the  more  party  has  v. 
"  leues  and  a  whyt  floure,  etc.,"  MS. 
Bodley,  536.  "  Clehtpe,  maura,"  MS. 
in  Somner.  "Walupia,  electre,"  GL 

elhygb,  strange  thought,  distraction.  Lb. 
n.  xlvi.     ?>ysb  is  found  fem.  neut. 

elm,  masc,  gen  -ef,  elm,  ulmus  campestris; 
perhaps  also  u.  sativa.  Gen.  elmef,  Lbv 
I.  vi.  8,  therefore  like  old  Dansk,  Almr, 
elm,  masc. 



Coyophpocu,  also  -e,  fem.,  gen.  in  -an ; 
carlina  acaulis,  Eberwurtz,  carlina  acau- 
lis  (Adelung).  "The  Carline  thistle, 
"  formerly  used  in  medicine,  is  not  this 
"  (carlina  vulgaris),  but  carlina  acaulis 
"  of  Linnseus.  It  was  reported  to  have 
"  been  pointed  out  by  an  angel  to  Charle- 
"  magne,  to  cure  his  army  of  the  plague. 
"  His  name  is  the  origin  of  the  generic 
"  one."  (SirJ.E.Smith,English Botany, 
plate  1144).  Everwortel,  chameleon, 
Kilian ;  that  is  xa,"«'^f '>"'  (A.«vk:us),  -which 
■was  identified,  rightly  or  not,  by  Spren- 
gel,  as  carlina  acaulis.  "  Eberwurz, 
"  cardo  [read  carduus']  rotunda.  Euer- 
"  -wurz,  cardo  pana,  al.  chamEeleon,"  Gl. 
Hoffm.  "  Scissa,"  a  gl.  in  Lye,  perhaps 
a  genuine  name.  "  Scasa,  ebop)=poC8e," 
Gl.  M.M.  p.  162  b.  "  Colucus,"  Gl.  Erux. 
"  Colicus,"  Gl.  Cleop.  "  Colitus  vel  Colo- 
"  cus,"  Gl.  Dun. ;  -which  I  take  to  be  mis- 
readings  of  Co,  for  Cardo,  and  that  for 
Carduus,  \evK6s.  "Scasa  vel  scafa  vel 
"  sisca,"  further,  Gl.  Dun.  ;  these  are 
attempts  to  read  a  crabbed  MS.  Also 
"  Anta,"  also  "  Borotium,"  Gl.  Dun., 
the  last  being  the  English  -word  eoj:op, 
boar,  -with  a  Latin  termination.  Lb. 
Li.  6;    xxxviii.  10. 

The  x"M"'^^'^''>  "which,  by  its  name 
must  have  hugged  the  ground,  is  wrongly 
interpreted  in  Hb.  xxvi.,  cliii.,  as  a  teazle, 
•which  has  a  strong  long  stem. 

Colone,  elene,  gen.  -an  ;  fem.,  elecampane, 
inula  helenium.  Lb.  I.  xxxiv.  2,  and 

Colone  Isefpe,  flea  hane,  pulicaria  dysen- 
<er«ca,  doubtless.     Lb.  ILlii.  1. 

Copnlice,  earnestly,  "  diligenter."  Hb. 
Ixxxvii.  2. 

Gop'Ssealla,  masc,  gen.  -an,  Erythraa 
centaureum,  Bot.  This  is  made  the 
same  as  Centaurea  maior,  Hb.  xxxv., 
and  the  drawings  in  MSS.  V.  G.  T.  A. 
represent  ErythrcBa  centaureum,  which 
is  "  intensely  bitter."  It  is,  however, 
C.  minor,  not  maior.  In  the  pictorial 
Apuleius,   MS.  Bodley,   130,  Se  mape 

Cop'Sgealla — cont. 

curmelle,  is  intended  for  feverfue, 
Pyrethrum  Parthenium,  which  is  "  herba 
"  amara,  aromatica,"  Elor.  Brit.  "  Cen- 
"  taurya  maior .  i .  }>e  more  centore  or 
"  erthe  galle,  his  flowrs  ben  ^olow  in  be 
"  tope,  etc."  MS.  Bodley,  536.  Dorsten 
agrees  with  us.  He  figures  Eryth.  cent., 
and  says  the  greater  centaury  has  leaves 
like  the  walnut,  green  as  the  cabbage, 
and  serrated.  "  Eel  terrse  .  centaurea  . 
"  idem,  muliebria educit .. habet  in  sum- 
"  mitate  plures  flores  rubros,"  MS. 
Rawlinson,  c.  607,  which  describes 
Erythrssa.  "  Centauria,  cop's  gealle  [a], 
Gl.  Somn.  p.  64  a,  5.     Lb.  II.  viii.,  etc. 

Cop'Snafola,  masc,  gen.  -an,  earth  navel, 
asparagus  officinalis.  Hb.  xcvii.  1, 
"asparagi."  So  cxxvi.  2,  masc.  Oros. 
iv.  l=p.  380,  30. 

Cop^pima,  gen.  -an  ?  masc.  Lb.  III.  xli. 
conjecturallypoteniiV/areptows,  since  pima 
stands  for  peoma  masc,  as  in  co'Spima, 
gl.  for  ro^peoma,  cf  Germ.  Riem,  masc, 
a  thong,  a  strap.  The  signification  is 
therefore  '^ Earth  cord;"  this  is  not  ap- 
plicable to  the  dodder,  which  does  not 
touch  the  earth,  and  has  its  own  Saxon 
name  bobbep,  Mone,  287  a  ;  the  straw- 
berry, which  is  almost  a  potentilla,  has 
also  its  old  English  name  ;  the  com- 
mon jjofen^i'Z/a  re/j  tons  is  therefore  most 

Gop'S  yps,neut.,gen.  -ej*,  ground  ivy,  glecho- 
ma  hederacea,  the  equivalent  is  Hedera 
nigra,  Hb.  c,  according  to  our  botanists, 
our  common  climbing  Ivy  is  Hedera 
helix,  which  name,  however,  in  Plinius, 
lib.  xvi.  62,  is  given  to  a  sort  which  has 
no  berries,  "  fructum  non  gignit."  The 
plant  coil's  yps  would  not  be  ground 
ivy,  for  its  cpoppaf  or  corjniibi  are 
mentioned,  Hb.  c.  3,  but  there  is  no 
getting  over  the  common  voice  of 
England,  which  calls  by  the  name 
ground  ivy,  what  is  not  ivy  at  all. 
Hedera  is  of  constant  occurrence  as  ipj;, 
and  to  be  correct,  the  interpreter  should 



Cop's  yps — cont. 

have  added  nothing.  Glechoma  is  Ger- 
man Erd  epheu  ;  French,  le  lierre  ter- 
restre ;  Italian,  ellera  ten'estre  ;  Spanish, 
hiedra  terrestre  ;  Portuguese,  hera  ter- 
restre.  The  errors  lie  perhaps  in  our 
misunderstanding  of  the  words  Kiffads, 
Hedera,  -when  used  for  that  which  is  not 

Cop,  Ip,  masc,  gen.  -ef,  the  yew,  taxus 
baccata.  Masc,  C.E.  p.  437,  line  18. 
"  Ornus  eoji,"  Gl.  Somner,  p.  65  a,  40, 
only  proves  that  the  glossator  did  not 
understand  the  word  ornus  as  we  do  ; 
whether  current  notions  are  correct 
appears  questionable ;  but  at  any  rate 
the  old  folk  of  England  know  the  yew 
out  of  which  they  made  their  victory 
giving  bows.  Cf.  ohg.  Iwa ;  mod.  g. 
Eibe,  fern.,  the  yew ;  Fr.  If,  masc. ;  Ip  is 
masc,  CD.  652. 

Coji  bejige,  yew  berry.    Lb.  III.  Ixiii. 

Copohumele.  Lb.  III.  Ix.,  the  female  hop 
plant.     See  )>ymele. 


Esep,  Eep,  gen.  -es,  masc,  fever,  febris, 

Lb.  I.  contents,  Ixii.,  a  contraction  of 

Fsetelpian,  — obe,   -ob,  put   into   a   vessel, 

bottle  off.     Quad.  i.  3. 
Eeapn,  neut.,  fern,  Boet.  p.  48,  line  31. 
paefc    micle    peapn,    the   mickle  fern, 

bracken,  aspidiumftlix.     Lb.  I.  Ivi. 
Eeaj>,  Lb.  I.  xxxv.,  as  opposed  to  micel,  is 

paucus,pauculus, paidlus,  little,Vike  Goth. 

Eaws,  1  Timoth.  iv.  8.     Hence,  perhaps, 

its  construction  with  a  genitive,  Feapa 

pxa,  Matth.  xv.  34,  a  few  of  fishes,  like  a 

Few  of  us. 
Feban,  Lb.  I.  Ixiii.,  see  Pref.  vol.  1.  p.  xl. 

Matter  for  conjecture.      8e  beopa  pea^ 
,    bpeopse  pebe'S,  C.E.  94,  25,  the  deep  pit 
feedeth  or  keepeth  them  dreary. 

Fepe]ipuse,  gen.  -ean  ;  fem.  ?  erythrcra 
centaureum.  Hb.  xxxvi.  Gl.  Harl.  585. 
Any  wholesome  bitter  might  be  called 
feverfue,  serving  the  purpose  now  sers-ed 
by  quinine. 

Felbmopu,  "  fieldmore,"  carrot  or  parsnep, 
daucus  cariota,  or  pastinaca  sativa. 
Though  pastinaca,  lib.  Ixxxii.,  is  now 
decided  to  be  a  parsnep,  yet  the  weight 
of  nearly  cotemporary  authority  stands 
for  carot.  In  MS.  Bodley,  130,  the 
glosses  are  "a  carott,"  "flFeldmore." 
"  Daucus,  wildmoren,"  Hortus  Sanitatis, 
and  figures  a  carot.  The  Gl.  Somn. 
p.  64  a,  32,  distinguishes  "pastinaca, 
"  pelbmopa,"  (read  -pu,  as  Gl.  Dun.), 
"  Daucus,  pealmopa  [-pu]  cariota  palb- 
"  mopa  ; "  but  the  distinction  between 
a  field  root  and  a  weald  root  is  over 
fine.  "  Pastinaca,  imallimojiae,"  Gl. 
M.M.  The  words  should  include  both. 
"  Pastinaca  domestica  .  i .  parsnep."  Gl. 
Bodl.  536.  The  p.  silvatica  has  been 
improved  by  cultivation  into  p.  sativa. 

Felbpypc,  gen.  -e,  fem.,  gentian,  gentiana, 
Hb.  xvii.,  where  the  marginal  note, 
erythraea  pulcella,  describes  the  drawing 
in  MS.  V.  The  reading  pelpyjic  of 
Skinner  and  others,  from  Fel,  gall,  gives 
us  a  hibrid  word.  Probably,  as  in 
Esthonian,  the  earliest  name  was  pelb- 
hymele,  field  hop,  the  plant  being  em- 
ployed as  a  substitute  for  hops  in  embit- 
tering ale.  Then  as  the  appearance  and 
leaves  negatived  this  name,  it  was  ex- 
changed for  pelbpypc. 

Fellepaepc,  pyllepsepc,  masc,  epileptic  con- 
vulsions. Lb.  II.  i.  1.  The  word  must 
be  interpreted  in  harmony  with  jylle- 
seoc,  pylleseocnyp.  I  had  written  so 
much  before  I  detected  the  equivalent 
dpxojJ-^vas  iiTi\n)y\/ias  in  Alex.  Trallianus. 

Felrjjypc,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e,  feltwort,  verbas- 
cum  thapsus.  Hb.  Ixxiii.  The  reading 
pelbpypc  is  a  mistake,  the  felty  leaves 
give  it  the  name,  whence  it  is  also 
called  in  German  Wollkraut  ;  mullein 
also  is  supposed  to  be  woollen.     Felc 



Felrpypr — cont. 

■was  Latinised  (Gl.  Somn.  p.  59  a,  58) 
as  feltrum,  filtrum  (John  de  Garlond, 
p.  124);  Dansk,  filt,  felt;  Swedish,  filt, 
mase.  feU;  Germ.,  filz,  masc.  felt.  The 
drawing  in  MS.  V.  fol.  37  d,  represents 
the  plant.  "  Filtrum  terre,  anglice  lelt- 
"  wort  vel  molayn  idem."  Gl.  Rawl. 
c.  607.  "  Thapsus  barbastus  [read  bar- 
"  hatus],  G.  moleyn,  A.  felwort."  Gl. 
Sloane,  5  ;  so  Gl.  Sloane,  405.  In  Gl. 
Somn.  63  b,  38,  read  Anadonia,  yelr- 
pypt.  Teltwort  yel  hegetaper,  Gl. 
Arund.  42. 

Fepbjiypt,  fem.,  gen.  in  -e.  Lb.  I. 

Fep>e,  masc,  sound  part?  Lb.  L  i.  15. 
"  Probus  ferth,"  Gl.  M.M.  p.  160  b,  20. 
Leasyep'Snes,  false  probity,  P.A.  59  b. 
Sec  yepe,  Chron.  1016,  and  Layamon, 
1052,  1075,  1055.  But  there  is  also  a 
syllable  yep'Sin  "  j-eoluj-eja-S,  tor  ax."  Gl. 
C,  that  is,  Oupa^,  from  perhaps  Lorica, 
p.  Ixxii.  Cf  Gl.  Cleop.  fol.  85  b,  and 
yelufejiiS,  ceniumpellio,  Gl.  Cleop.  fol. 
26  b,  which  appears  to  be  an  altered 
form  of  centipedem.  In  these  two  words 
it  is  possible  that  yeji-Se  may  signify 
ring,  which  would  suit  Lb.  well.  So, 
Fleoreubpa  yep'S,  C.E.  289,  line  26,  a 
ring  of  floating  ones.  ?  =  ferci  firci,^/,^^.^ 

Fic,  Geps,  masc,  a  disease  known  as  ficus, 
IvKri,  '2,vKov,  'S.vKoiixa,  'S.vkuktis.  In  the 
Lb.  I.  ii.  22,  the  disease  "  fig  "  is  said  to 
be  x^h'-^'^'-^^  ^  moisture  in  the  skin  en- 
closing the  eyes  (Florio),  but  without 
exactly  negativing  that  statement  we 
must  bend  to  an  overwhelming  weight 
of  testimony,  and  accept  it  as  an  excre- 
scence like  a  fig  with  an  ulcer,  so  called 
from  a  fig  bursting  with  fatness,  "  ficus 
"  hians  prte  pinguedine."  It  affects  all 
parts  of  the  body  which  have  hair,  espe- 
cially the  eyebrows,  beard,  head,  and 
anus ;  and  it  was  sometimes  called 
marisca.  Dioskor.  i.  100  ;  Pollux  from 
Apsyrtus,  iv.  203  ;  Celsus,  vi.  3  ;  Paulus 
^gineta,  iii.  3  ;  Psellus  in  Ideleri  Phys., 

Fic — cont. 

vol.  i.  p.  223,  704 ;  Pollux,  iv.  200 ; 
Aetius;  Martialls;  Hippokrates,  p.  1085 
H.  ;  Oribasius  ap.  Phot,  p.  176,  3  ; 
Schol.  Aristoph.  Pan.,  1247.  These 
references  I  have  taken  from  the  Paris 
ed.  of  Etienne.  The  name  was  in  con- 
stant technical  use  among  mediaeval 
medical  writers.  '•  Contra  ficum  arden- 
"  tem,"  "Contra  ficum  sanguinolen- 
"  tum,"  "  Contra  ficum  corrodentem," 
"  Contra  ficum  nomere  facientem."  MS. 
Sloane,  146,  fol.  28.  Haemorrhoids  are 
ficblattern  in  the  [H]ortus  Sanitatis.  In 
Florios  time  (1611)  fico  in  Italian  had 
been  reduced  to  "  a  disease  in  a  horses 
"foot."  Cotgrave  (1673)  has  "fie,  a 
"  certain  scab,  or  hard,  round,  and  red 
"  sore,  in  the  fundament."  "  Fijck, 
"  tuberculum  acutum  cum  dolore  et 
"  inflammatione,"  (Kilian).  It  was  a 
running  sore,  Lb.  I.  xxxix.  ;  it  was 
equivalent  to  J^eopabl,  Lb.  I.  ii.  22. 
Written  Uic,  and  masc,  Lacn.  6 ;  44, 
following  the  Latin  usage. 

"  Dicemus  ficus  quas  scimus  in  arbore 
"  nasci, 
"  Dicemus  ficos,  Cseciliane,  tuos." 
Martialis,  I.  66. 
Hie  fygus,  the  fyge.     Wrights  Gl.  p.  224. 
Filb,  Lb.  I.  Ixvii.,  with  Filbcimib,  Lb.  III. 
liii.,  may  be   taken   to   mean  the   milk 
drawn  at  one  milking  from  how  many  cows 
soever;   commonly  called   the   mornings 
milk,  the  evenings  milk.     In  a  dairy  every 
several  milking  is  kept  separate.  ^ 
FiUe,  an  apocopate  form  of  cepplle,  chervil, 
anthriscus  cerefolium,  as  clearly  appears 
from  a  comparison  of  the  poetical  names, 
Lacn.  46,  with  the  same  in  prose.    "  Cer- 
"  folium  .  i .  cerfoil .  i .  villen,"  Gl.  Harl. 
978  (A.D.  1240). 
FleaJ'e,  )leo)?e,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  tvater  lily, 
Nymphcea  alba,  N.  lutea.     Lb.  II.  Ii.  i.  3. 
"  Nimfea,  1 ,  fleaperr,"    MS.  Ashmole, 
1431,  fol.  19.    *'  Nympha,  fleathorvyrt," 
Gl.  Dun.     But  "  flatter  dock,  pondweed, 
"  potamogeiton,"  Gl.  Chesh. 



Fleosan,j^ow,  not  "  fly."     Lb.  III.  xxii. 

Fleocpypc,  fern.,  gen.  -e,  "  floatwort,"  Lb. 

IL  lii.  1.     "  Algea,  flotvyrt,"  GL  Dun, 

"  Alga,"  Gl.  M.     I  fear  the  description 

,  is    too    vague,    Potamogeitun  Jluitans '/ 

Sparganiiwi  nutans?     Lemna? 

Flecan,  yliecan.  1.  Found  only  in  T^\.,fleet- 
ings,  Jiasty  curds,  skimmed,  but  yet  not 
cream,  Lb.  IIL  x.  ;  I.  ii.  23.  "  After  the 
"  curd  for  making  new  milk  cheese  is 
"  separated  from  the  whey,  it  is  set  over 
"  tiie  fire,  aud  when  it  almost  boils,  a 
"  quantity  of  sour  butter  milk  is  poured 
"  into  the  pan,  and  the  mixture  is  gently 
"  stirred.  In  a  few  minutes  the  curd 
"  rises  to  the  surface,  and  is  carefully 
"  skimmed  off  with  a  fleeting  dish  into 
"  a  seive,  to  drain."  (Carrs  Craven  Gl.) 
"  Sarrasson,  fleetings  or  hasty  curds, 
"  scumd  from  the  whey  of  a  new  milk 
"  cheese,"  (Cotgrave.)  Of.  Wilbraham 
and  Mr.  Ways  Promptorium. 

2.  In  singular,  cream,  as  Lye  ;  used 
in  this  sense,  Lb.  I.  xliv.  2.  The  com- 
mon notion  of  these  two  senses,  is 

Fnccj-tia'S,  Lib.  II.  xxxvi.  If  the  passage 
be  without  en-oi',  which  is  hardly  to  be 
supposed,  ynsej-cia'S  must  be  a  plural. 
Fnajsc  is  masc,  and  makes  ace.  I'one 
ynaesr,  Ai5a|.  28,51 ;  therefore  we  should 
perhaps  read  ynsesras. 

Fojibejian,  prast.  bseji,  p.  part,  bojien,  re- 
strain, cohihere,  continere.  Hb.  iv.  9. 
Lib.  I.  xlv.  6,  in  a  special  sense,  conti- 
nere, render  continent,  tie  with  a  knot  of 
poison.  See  preface,  on  knots.  To  this 
binding  down  the  instincts  by  herbs, 
allude  the  glosses,  "  obligamentum,  lyb- 
"  lyjefn  ;"  "  Obligamentum,  lyb,"  Gl. 
Cleop.  fol.  69  a,  fol.  71  b;  Gl.  M.M. 
p.  IGO  a,  22,  where  lib  is  (papjxaKov  and 
liyesn,  (pvKaKTrjpiov,  an  amulet;  galbo]! 
oSiSe  hyej-ne,  Beda,  p.  604,  9.  In  the 
Njal  saga,  Una,  virgin  wife  of  Ilrut, 
thus  tells  her  tale,  attributing  the  mis- 
fortune to  something  that  had  poisoned 
him  : 


Fopbejian — ront. 

Vist  hefir  hringa  hristir 

Hrutr  likama  I'rutinn 

eitrs  ]>a.  en  linbe'Ss  leitar 

lundygr  munu'5  dryia. 

Known  has  Hrut, 

the  ring  bestower, 

his  body  bloat 

with  venom  vile, 

when  he  would,  with  all  goodwill, 

in  linen  white, 

in  bleached  bed, 

the  bliss  enjoy 

of  loves  delights 

with  me  the  lass 

he  wooed  and  wed. 
Cf.  pypcyopbojie.    Lb.  III.  i.    Fo])beiian 
is  restrain,  Bw.  3748. 
Fopcuuolfcan,    to  swallow.     Lb.   I.   iv.  6. 

Cf.  Qvolk,  gullet,  ^iroat  (Molbech). 

Fojinesey  yolm,    "  Fornjots   palm,"  sonic 

herb  ;  Lb.  I.  Ixx.  Ixxi.     Gl.  Cleop.  fol. 

65  b,   which   gl.  only  translates    ]olni, 

riiamis.    Cf.  Gorfaers  na;gler,  pihrmsciie)- 

]iy]it,  SigniDsrts  cruyt  =  Signiunds  kraut. 

Fopjieaxen  ;    that    this    word    has    been 

rightly  read  overgrown,  appears  by  lib. 

ii.  4,  and  by  'Sy  Iedj-  hie  ~o  'Sfcm  j'op- 

peoxen    ^sec    hie     yopyeapoben    -j    "Sy 

un])ce)-'5mb8e]J]iau   jjsejien,   P.A.    .54    b. 

Lest  they  overgrew  to  that   degree   that 

they  withered  and  were  thus  less  fertile. 

Fopt>ylmian.     See  pelma. 

Foe,  masc,  foot,  pi.  j:er,  as  Mark  ix.  45  ; 

but  yocas,  G'S.  114.    Lb. 
Foxej-  clace,  fem.,   gen.  -an,  "  fox  clote," 
Arctium  lappa.     Lb.  I.  Ixix.     iSee  Clate. 
Foxey  j:oc,  bur  reed,  Sparganinm  simplex. 
In  Hb.  xlvii.  is  ^i(j>iov.     By  the  drawing 
in   MS.    G.   this   seems   to    have  been 
understood   as  the   German  Schwertel- 
riei  =  Sparga7iiu7n  simplex,  the  burs  on 
which  may  account  for  the   name  foxes 
foot.     Hares  foot  is  a  name  similarly 
given.     The  drawing  in  MS.  V.  is  much 
eaten  out.     "  Xifion,  foxes  fot,"  Gl.  Dun., 
copied  from  Hb.     So  Gl.  Laud.  507. 
B   B 



Fo^ojin,  masc,  gen.  -ty,  tenaculum,  in  a 

surgeons  case  of  instruments.     Lb.  I. 

vi.  7.     Taken  as  a  compound  of  yon,  to 

catch,  and  )>opn. 
Fpampeapbej-,  in   a  direction  away  from, 

Lb.  I.  Ixviii.  1. 
Fulbeam,  fulanbeam,  masc,  gen.  -ej-,  the 

black  alder,  rhamnus  franyula.     Lb.  I. 

xxxii.  4. 


Gasel,  Lb.  I.  xxxvi.  ;  Gazelle,  Gagille, 
fern.  ?  gen.  -an.  Lb.  II.  li.  1  ;  11.  liii. ; 
III.  xiv.,  sweet  gale,  Myrica  Gale. 
But  sageles,  Lacn.  4. 

Galluc,  masc,  comfrey,  Symphytum  offi- 
cinale. "Simphitone,  the  hearbe  Alo, 
"  Confrey  or  wallwort  of  the  rocke," 
(Florio).  So  Hb.  Ix.,  Gl.  Dun.  copy- 
ing Hb.  "Cumfiria,"  Gl.  Harl.  978 
(A.D.  1240).  "  Adriatica  vel  malum 
"  teiTS!,  salluc,"  Gl.  Somn.p.  66  [63], 
1.  9.  If  tbis  means  that  the  earth  apple, 
-whether  Cyclamen  or  Bunium,  is  galluc, 
the  statements  above  must  be  preferred. 
Copied  into  Gl.  Dun,  Occ.  Lb.  1. 
xxvii.  1,  masc. 

Gapclij-e,  agrimony,  agrimonia  eupatoria. 
Hb.  xxxii.  Gapcliye  is  also  the  gloss  of 
Agrimonia  in  Gl.  Dun.  and  Lb.  II.  viii. 
Gl.  Sloane,  146.  MS.  G.  draws  a  rude 
likeness  of  agrimony,  and  MS.  T.  at- 
tempts apyefjiwvT],  papaver  argemone. 
The  word  Agrimonia  is  said  to  be  a 
corruption  of  Argemone,  Plinius, 
xxvi.  .59,  but  those  who  choose  to  enter 
into  the  subject  of  the  Latin  names  had 
better  compare  Dioskor.  ii.  108,  who 
speaks  of  a  poppy.  Gap,  a  spear,  is 
evidently  the  first  element  in  the  name 
of  the  plant,  the  spike  of  which  rises 
like  a  narrow  dagger  above  the  grass : 
clije  is,  perhaps,  connected  with  our 
ClifiF,  and  with  Hhjrian,  to  tower. 

Gacerjieo]>,  neut.,  gen.  -ev,  the  nettle  tree, 
the  tree  lotus,  celtis  australis.  Lb.  I. 
xxxvi.  Somners  conjectiire  is  wholly 
an  error,  his  tree  is  the  Gattridge  tree. 
"  Geizpoum,  lothon  ;  [AwrtJs,  genus 
"  arboris,  latine  mella],"  Gl.  Hoffin. 

Geacej"  yxxyie,  gen.  -an,  cuckoo  sorrel,  wood 
sorrel,  oxalis  Acetosella.  Proofs  abound. 
Lb.  I.  ii.  13,  22.;  III.  xlviii. 

Geagl,  neut.  and  masc,  gen.  -ej-,  the  jowl, 
the  fleshy  parts  attached  below  the  lower 
jaw.    Lb.  I.  i.  16,  17.;  iv.  3. 

Gealla,  masc,  gen. -an.  1.  Gall,  bile.  2.  A 
gall,  a  fretted  place  on  the  skin,  intertrigo. 
Lb.  1.  Ixxxviii. 

Gea]iu]'e,  gaapujie,  gajijie,  fem.,  gen.  -an, 
yarrow,  Achillea  millefolium. 

Seo  jieabe  gappe,  red  yarrow,  Achillea 
tomentosa.     Lb.  III.  Ixv. 

Gebjiaeceo,  cough,  tiissis,  Hb.  cxxiv.,  cxxvi. 
Gl.  in  MS.  H.  Hose,  cough,  SH.  p.  26. 

Gebjiocum,  with  fragments,  Lb.  II.  Ivi.  3. 
Cf.  Scipsebpoc,  Lye. 

Gecypnab,  granulated,  Lb.  I.  Ixxv.  Cf. 
ohg.  Kirnjan,  nucleare  ;  Isl.  at  Kyrna,  to 

Gec]ij-pau,  prset.  -pee,  p.p.  -pc,  contract  = 
Old  Dansk  Kreppa,  contrahere.  Lb.  II. 
Ivi.    Hence  Cripple. 

Geps,  Geyeh,  neut.  1.  a  joining,  a  joint, 
coynmissura,  compago,  (Lye,  etc.,  JEG. 

2.  glue.  Lb,  I.  ii.  2.  Cf  Umbifangida, 
glutinum,  in  GraflF.,  and  Kauahsa  (  = 
gefahsa),  purgamenta,  the  parings  of 
hides  and  hoofs  from  which  glue  is 
made,  id.  HI.  421 .  Cf  also  many  entries 
in  422. 

Genii)jeb,  dense  with  boughs,  from  ITU'S, 
forest,  opacus,  Hb.  i.  1,  where  the 
Saxon  made  no  error,  pa  jiaef  an  pm-  ^ 
rpeop  PI'S  t  cempl  sejin'Seb,  M.H.  183 
b.  There  loas  then  a  pine  tree  opposite 
the  temple  thick  icith  foliage. 

Gesyman,  prset.  -«*e,  p.  part.  -eb.  to  over- 
look. Lb.  IIL  Ixv.  A  man  is  overlooked 
when  one  having  the  power  of  witch- 



Gej;yman — cuiif. 

craft  has  set  designs  against  him.  An  ap- 
proach to  this  sense  of  the  Saxon  -word 
is  found  in  )>e  eobe  on  j-umey  Fajiipea 
ealbiie)"  huy  on  p8efteb8ej;e  "p  he  hla)' 
ajce .  T  his  besymbon  hyne.  Luke  xiv. 
1 .  Warlock  hatred  has  a  blasting  effect. 
This  faith  is  strong  in  Devonshire  ;  they 
say  that  the  witch  has  no  power  over  the 

Geheinan,  to  extol,  laudibus  ampliarc.  lib. 
Ivii.  2.     Simple  vb.  in  diett. 

Gehlenceb,  linked.  Lb.  III.  Iv.  Sec  the 
-  passage.  )>lencan,  links,  found  as  yet  in 
pi.  only;  Elene,  47,  Csedm.  ?  MS.,  p. 
154,  line  9,  but  probably  masc,  as  old 
Dansk,  Hlekkr,  a  c/iaiH,  masc. ;  Dansk, 
Lasnke,  not  neuter  ;  Swed.,  La;nk,  masc. 
Translate  in  Ccedm.?  have  their  linked 
mail  coats. 

Gehnaican,  praet.  -ce,  p.  part.  -j;b,  to  twitch. 
lib.  cxlviii.  1.,  clxiii.  6.  Paris  Ps.  ci. 
8,  allidere.  Of.  Hnykkja  in  Egilsson, 
prose  sense,  vellere. 

Gehjieo]!]',  gen.  -es,  a  turning,  also  a  ver- 
tebra. Lb.  II.  xxxvi.,  so  Laws  of 
iEJpelstan,  10,  var.  lect.  Cf.  Hpiop):ban, 
Lorica,  Ixxi. 

Gelejeh,  corrupted.  Lb.  11.  xxxvi.  p.  244. 
Hoot  Ley,  mischief. 

Gehclic,  proper,  consentaneus.  Lb.  II. 
xvi.  1. 

Gelobj'ypc,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  silver  weed,  jwten- 
tiUa  anserina.  Its  leaves  resemble  the 
human  spine,  gelobjie,  with  the  ribs. 
"  Ileptaphyllon,"  Gl.  in  Lye.  Gl.  Dun. 
Lb  I.  xxxii.  3  ;   xxxviii.  11. 

Genifebla,  masc,  gen.  -an,  talk.  Lb.  III. 
Ivii.,  from  mseblan,  to  talk,  C.E.  82, 
14,  MS.  reading, 

GenaeSa,  pi.  ephippia,  a  packsaddle.  0 
clerice,  p.  Ix.  Visibly  related  to  ohg. 
Ginait,  consutus.  That  Ge  signifies  and 
is  identical  with  Con,  together,  see  SSpp. 
art.  261,  a  large  induction.  The  Gemian 
Niihen,  to  sew,  exhibits  the  remainder  of 
the  root.  But,  as  Wachter  truly  says, 
it  is  sufficiently  manifest,  that  the  word 

Genae'Sa — cont. 

has  suffered  sincopation,  and  that  in  its 
original  form  it  had  a  D  or  T,  as  Neten, 
or  Neden.  So  that  it  is  related  to  Nfcbel, 
needle.  "  Ouh  sih  tharzua  ni  nahit  ] 
"  uuiht  thes  ist  ginait."  Et  se  ad  hoc 
non  approximat  quicquam  eius,  quod  est 
netum.  Otfrid  Euangel.  IV.  xxix.  17, 
ed.  Schilter ;  "  ioh|  unginaten  redinou  ; 
et  inconsutili  arte.     Ibid.  64. 

Geo]iman  leay,  all  the  gll.  interpret  ma/hur, 
but  gl.  C.  writes  geajipan  leay,  yarrow- 
leaf,  or  leaves ;  explaining  the  word 
j^eojiman,  but  rendering  the  tradition 
doubtful,  for  no  mallow  has  leaves  like 
yarrow.  Ld.  vol.  I.  p.  380.  Lb.  I. 
xxvii.  I.  ;  xxxiii.  1.,  etc. 

Geycabpypc,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  an  herb  un- 
certain. "Berbescum  [^readVcrhascum'], 
"  gescadvyrt,"  Gl.  Dun.,  Gl.  Sloane,  140. 
"  Ilerbescum,"  id.  "  Talumbus,  gej-calb- 
"  j'ypt)"  Gl.  Cleop.  ;  j;ej-cabjiy]ic,  Gl. 
M.M.,  p.  164  a,  4.,  read  fio\i<pOaKfxoi', 
^eycabjiyjic,  that  is  to  say,  Oxeyc, 
whether  Anthemis  tinctoria,  as  in  Hb. 
clxi.,  or  Chrysanthemum  leucanthcmum, 
not  distinguished  from  the  other  by  our 
folk.  Lb.  II.  liii. 

Gej-ceopy,  neut.,  abrasion.  Lb.  II.  i.  xxxv. 

Geyeap,  juicy.  Lb.  II.  xliii.,  as  ^ebea]', 

Gespset,  see  Spaec,  Lb.  I.  i.  15. 

Gesjiac,  sweaty.  Lb.  I.  xxvi.     Cf.  Gej-ea]). 

Gej-jieopy,  gej-]'y]i):,  gen.  -ey,  filings,  lima- 
tura,  Hb.  ci.  3.  See  Sjiypyan,  also  Aji-. 

Gej-j)0]'un5,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  swooning,  Lb.  II. 
i.  1,  in  Trallianus  crvyKOTrr],  the  syncope 
of  modern  medical  phraseology.  Lb.  II. 
xvi.  1.  Geswogen  betwux  Sam  of- 
slegenum,  Horn.  II.  356,  m  a  swoon 
among  the  slain.     From  this  form  comes 


Getajia,  pi.  only  (as  yet),  tools,  instruments, 
DD.  p.  470,  2.  Lb.  I.  xxix.,  where  it  is 
instrumenta  virilia. 

Geceab,  prepared,  paratus.  Lb.  II.  xxix. 
See  Teagan. 

B   B   2 



Gecenge,  incident,  contingent,  which  is 
of  the  same  component  parts  ;  so  also 
Ti/7xdj'6ij',  where  the  ng  sound  is  radical. 

Getpi)ulan,  to  ruh  down,  triturare,  Lb.  I. 
i.  9,  etc.     C£  TpiHiiv. 

Gejiealb,  nent.,  the  natura,  inyuen,  lib.  civ. 
2,  pi.,  Hb.  V.  5  ;  GL  Priid.  p.  140  b. 
The  devil  got  a  horn  of  an  ox,  -]  mib 
l>am  hojine  hme  Ji}'be  on  'p  jepealb  fjn'Se, 
MH.  190  a,  a7id  with  it  struck  a  monk  of 
St.  Martins  in  the  private  part  severely. 

Gepune,  as  a  pi.  adj.,  customai-y.  lib.  Ixviii. 

Gejjpepan,  praBt.  se>]'eo)i,p.part.  sejjjmjien, 
Sejnijien,  to  turn,  as  cream  to  butter,  milk 
to  curd,  to  alter,  converter e,  Lb.  I.  xliv.  2. 
Bu-e]i5el)j>eo]i  translates  "  butyrura  "  in 
the  Colloquium  M.,  p.  28,  but  not  quite 
correctly.  liamejie  gej'ujien,  Beowulf, 
2.5G4,  poetically  consolidated  by  the  ham- 
mer.    C.E.  497,  16. 

GicJ'a,  masc.  ?  hicket,  hiccup,  Lb.  contents, 

I.  xviii.,  answering  to  geocsa,  geohsa,  in 
the  text ;  coxing  for  hicketing  is  fre- 
quent in  English,  in  a  later  stage.  Hick, 
hickse,  singultus,  convulsio  vcntriculi 

2.  Masc,  itch,  prurigo.  Lb.  II.  xli.  ult.  ; 

II.  Ixv,  5  ;  Hom.  I.  86,  where  the  true 
translation  is  ascertainable  from  tiie 
original  passage  of  Josephus,  Kvr\an6s. 
Translates  prwr/^o.     P. A.  15  b. 

Gillijreji,  5eolh)-co]i,  neut.,  ratten,  pus, 
matter,  sanies.  Lb.  Li.  17  ;  Beda,  p.  .'589, 
line  3,  var.  lect.  Virus,  geolrep  (so),  Gl. 
Mone,  p.  430  a.  Dansk,  Qualster,  thich 
moist  slime,     pa  gilscjie.  Lacn.  1. 

Gillijtpe,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  ratten,  etc.  Lb.  I. 
i.  3.  Virus,  ^eolrtpc,  Gl.  Mone,  p.  432  b. 
"  Pituita,"  Gl.  M.M. 

G^yc,va^%(i.,  yeast,  fermentum  ex  cerevisia. 
Lb.  II.  li.  1.     lib.  xxi.  6. 

Girpije,  syShjioye,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  cockle, 
Agiustemma  githago.  The  syllable  jnje, 
as  in  Iledgeriffe,  refers  to  the  roughness 
of  the  plant.  "  The  whole  is  rough, 
"  with  hoary  upright  bristles,"  (Sir 
J.  E.   Smith),      "Gith,   cokkell,"   Gl. 

GirjMj'e,  l^ycihjioje — cont. 

Ilarl.  3388.  But  in  Gl.  Cleop.  Lassar 
vel  jEsdre  ;  where  Laser  is  Fenda  assa- 
fcetida.     Lb.  I.  i.  5  ;  xxxviii.  4,  5,  etc. 

Git-e,  an  herb,  probably  Gi'S.  Lb.  II. 

(ii'Scopn,  the  seeds  of  daphne  laureola,  the 
spurge  laurel.  Hb.  cxiii.  ;  Plinius,  xiii. 
35.  They  are  taken  medicinally,  and  are 
like  poppy  seeds  (Theofrastos,  ix.  24). 
They  are  so  hot  they  were  wrapped  in 
fat  or  crumb.  Ibid.  More  exactly  the 
seeds  of  D.  Gnidium ;  see  the  Latin  of 
Apuleius  ;  but  that  is  not  English,  and 
I  have  not  supposed  it  imported.  The 
name  kSkkoi  KvlSwi  refers  to  their  em- 
ployment as  purgatives  by  the  early 
Knidian  school  of  medicine. 

2.  Agrostemma  githago,  drawn  to  Hb. 
cxiii.  in  MS.  V,  fol.  49  a,  and  in  MS. 
A.  A  plant  is  mentioned.  Lb.  II.  Ixv., 
not  a  grain.  MS.  Bodley,  130,  glosses 
"  Lathyris,  febecorn,"  sieve  corn. 

Glrebene,  gen.  -an,  gladden.  Iris  pseuda- 
corus.  As  a  Latinism  I  would  have 
passed  by  this  word  ;  but  Sir  J.  E. 
Smith  in  Flora  Britannica  has  made 
"  Gladwyn  "  Iris  fatidissima  :  hence 
I  quote.  "  Gladiolus  .  i .  .  .  .  habet  cro- 
"  ceum  florem  .  yris .  purpureum  florem 
"  gerit .  alia  alba.  Gladiolus  croceum 
"  sed  spatula  ftetida  nullum,"  MS.  Eaw- 
linson,  c.  607.  "  Gladiolus  florem  habet 
"  croceum  spatula  fcetida  nvillum,"  MS. 
Harl.  3388.  "  Gladiolus  Acorns .  gla- 
"  dene,"  id.  I  observe,  however,  that 
if  we  take  Sir  J.  E.  Smiths  words, 
"  stinking  iris  or  gladwyn,"  as  the  same 
words  were  understood  in  the  old  her- 
bals,  they  mean  stinking  iris  or  stinking 

Glappan,  perhaps  from  glappe,  as  herbs 
commonly  are  feminine  in  the  an  declen- 
sion: perhaps  buckbean,  mcnyanlhes  tri- 
foliata,  Germ.  Klappen,  vol.  I.,  p.  399, 
where  the  construction  may  be  plural. 
Cf.  slasppan,  CD.  057.  Thorpe  compared 
Lappa,  but  that  is  elate,  everywhere.       n; 



Glojpypr,  fern.,  gen,  -e  ;  1.  convallnria 
maialis,  It/i/  of  the  raUe]/  :  drawn,  hut 
without  the  hlooms,  at  Hb.  art.  xxiii.,  in 
MSS.  A.,  G.,  T.  glossed  "  clofwort"  in 
a  hand  of  the  14th  century,  MS.  Ilarl. 
1585,  a  copy  of  Apuleius.  The  blooms 
are  drawn  MS.  Bodley,  130,  and  glossed 
"  foxes  glove,"  but  it  is  convallaria,  not 
digitalis,  that  is  drawn.  "  Apollinaris, 
"  goldwort,"  Gl.  Rawl.  c.  500.  "  Apol- 
"  linaris,  golewort,"  Gl.  Ilarl.  3388. 
"  Apollinaris,  glofwert,"  Gl.  M. 

2.  Biighssa,  Hb.  xlii.  1,  the  same  as 
"  houndstongue,"  cijnoghssum  officinale, 
or  perhaps  h/copsis  arve?isis. 

Gonian,  pi.  1.  the  fauces,  the  bach  of  the 
mouth  :  it  translates  (pdpvyya,  Hb.  clxxxi. 
2.  Paris  Ps.  Ixviii.  3,  cxviii.  103.  C.E.  p, 
303,  31  ;  p.  364,  26.  Luporum  faucihus, 
j'ulja  jomum,  Reg.  Concord.  Fauces, 
?;oman,  Gl.  Cleop. 

2.  the  (junis ;  see  Lye.  The  gums  are 
mostly  to'5)ieoman,  tooth  straps. 

Gonj;e]'ac}iie,  gen.  -an,  o.  gavgicay  veavcr, 
a  spider,  aranea  viatica.     Lb.  III.  xxxv. 

Giieacepyjic,  fern.,  gen.  -e,  meadoio  saffron, 
culchicum  autumnale.  In  Hb.  xxii.  Hieri- 
bulbus,  which  according  to  Zedler  is 
colchicum  ;  and  this  plant  is  drawn  in 
MS.  G.  ;  with  broader  leaves  in  MSS. 
V.  T.  :  the  artist  in  MS.  A,  has  taken 
the  liberty  of  turning  the  bulb  into  a 
costly  flower  pot.  "  Hieribulbura,  greate 
"  vyrt.  Hierebulbum,  cusloppe,"  that  is, 
cowslipl  Gl.  Dun.  " Hierobulbus,  col- 
"  chicum,'''  Humelberg,  an  editor  of  Apu- 
leius. If  the  Saxon  translator  put  the 
name  on  the  sight  of  the  drawing  only, 
he  may  have  meant  by  grcatwort,  man- 
gold wiirzel.  Some  make  Hieribulbus, 
allium  Ascalonicum,  eschallot,  hut  that 
will  not  pass  for  greatwort.  See 

In  Lb.  II.  Hi.  1,  greatwort  has  a  rind 
to  be  scraped  off:   it  is  to  be  dug  up  too. 

Gjiunberj'yliSe,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  groundsel, 
seriecio  vulgaris,  Lb.  I.  ii.  13  ;  I.  xxii. 
lib.  Ixxvii.  etc. 

Gput,  fem.  neut.,  Boeth.,  p.  94,  3,  indecl., 
(jrout,  the  vet  residuarj/  materials  of  malt 
liquor,  condimentum  cerenisifc.  Dutch, 
grauwt  (Kilian).  Lb.  HI.  lix.  The  term 
is  now  applied  also  to  the  settlings  in  a 
tea  or  coffee  cup.  "  Wort  of  the  last 
"  running,"  Carr. 

Gunb,  masc,  ratten,  virus,  viridcvt  waller. 
Lb.  I.  iv.  2,  3, 


)>ae)e]in,  l^aebejin,  masc,  gen.  -ej-,  a  crab 
(cancer),  masc.     Lb.  I.  iv.  2. 

Ilseyte,  neut.,  a  haft,  manubrium.  Lb.  II. 
Ixv.     Somner  cited  it  right. 

]>8e)i)-cea]ab,  neut.,  hairlip.     Lb.  I.  xiii. 

Ilaesel,  gen.  -es,  -les,  masc,  the  hazic, 
cort/lus,  C.D.  624.  Lb.  I.  xxxviii.  8 ; 
IL  lii.=p.  270. 

Ilseslen,  ofhazle,  colurnus;  Lb.  I.  xxxix.  3. 

Hfepen  hybele  ;  Hb.  xxx.  The  various 
reading  is  instructive  ;  Ilnybele,  which 
is  close  akin,  apparently,  to  Netele,  and 
Kavvajiis  :  and  the  Brittanica  of  the 
A^ienna  drawings  (See  pref.  Vol.  I.,  p. 
Ixxxi.)  is  so\\\<i.Q  Lamium  purpu- 
rcum,  the  red  dead  nettle,  that  there  arises 
11  fair  presumption  this  is  the  true  identi- 
fication. Lacn.  2.  The  gU.  support 
Cochlearia  Anglica.  (Lyte,  index) 
Plora  Britannica,  by  Sir  J.  E.  Smith, 
riorio.  Fig.  in  MS.  V.  There  were 
other  Brittanicas.  Sprengcl  holds  that 
the  BperovviKT]  of  Dioskorides  is  Rumcx 

l^se^bejisean  pi)-e,  gen.  -an,  fem.,  heath 
berry  plant,  bilberry  plant,  vacciniam. 
Lb.  III.  Ixi. 

Ijajocpyjic,  fem.,  gen.  -e  ;  perhaps  hawh- 
iveed,  Hieracium.  Lb.  I.  xiv.  In  all 
Teutonic  languages, 

Jialan,  "  secundaj,"  secundina;,  the  after- 
birth. Quad.  vi.  25.  The  analogies 
require  )>amlan.  "  Inluvies  secundarum, 
"  hama,"  Gl.  C.  "  Hamme,  sectmda:," 
(Kilian).  "  Ileara,  secundince,"  Nemnich. 
Germ.  Ham  en  :  etc.,  etc 



J>alrj'yjic  must  have  been  Campanula 
trachelium,  which  in  Danslc  is  Halsurt; 
iu  German,  Ilalswurz,  Halskraut ;  in 
Dutch,  Ilalskruid.  It  is  said  to  have 
obtained  these  names  from  being  used 
for  inflammations  in  the  throat.  In 
English  it  is  Throatwort. 

2.  Bupleiirwn  tenuissimum,  Haresear, 
"  auris  leporis,  haiyvyV^"  Gri.  Somn. 
p.  63  b,  line  48.  "  Auricula  leporina, 
"  halswort,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388.  "  Auri- 
"  cula  leporina,  halswort,"  MS.  M.  So 
Gl.  Dun. 

3.  Scilla  autumnalis,  MS.  G.  figure, 
fol.  1 8  b.  =  Narcissus,  Herb.  Ivi.  =  Bulbus, 
text  of  lib.  cix.  Narcissus,  Gl.  Dun., 
probably  from  Hb. 

4.  Symphytum  album,  Hb.  cxxviii., 
seems  unsupported.  Epicosium,  GL 

The  figure  in  MS.  V.  Ivi.  to  my  sense 
is  C.  Trachelium,  with  the  bell  flowers 
spoiled  ;  to  Dr.  H.  "  a  boraginaceous 
"  plant." 
))amoji)iyi)t;,  fem.,  gen.  -e,  parietaria 
officinalis  ?  as  appears  by  a  gl.  in  MS. 
II.  on  Herb,  art  Ixxxiii.  So  Gl.  Brux., 
and  Gerarde.  Grimm  Mythol.  speculates 
(12G),  thinking  that  perhaps  Thors  ham- 
mer is  alluded  to  in  the  name.  Lb.  I. 
xxxi.  9.  Since  hamojipyjic  and  bol- 
j;)iune  are  mentioned  together  in  Lb.  I. 
xxv.  1,  there  is  much  doubt  in  the 
interpretation.  Leechdoms,  Vol.  I.  p. 
374.     Lacn.  1,  2,  6. 

Is  not  hamo)i)'ypc  the  same  as  Hem- 
briswort,  hellis  perennis,  and  derived 
from  Ilamoji,  a  bird,  such  as  the  Yellow- 
hammer,  Emberiza?  See  Secg. 
)>anbpypm,  masc,  gen.  -er,  an  insect  sup- 
posed to  produce  disease  in  the  hand ; 
\_cirio'],  curio,  cirus.  Wrights  vocab.  p. 
177,  p.  190., from  x«'V-  "  Surio  velbrien- 
"  sis  vel  sirineus,  hanbpyjmi,"  Gl.  Somn. 
p.  GO  a,  25,  which  is  to  read  by  the 
preceding,  the  hissing  sound  being  given 
to  the  letter  C.  So  Gl.  Harl.  1002. 
Prompt.  Parv.,  vol.  I.  p.  225. 

liapan  hyge,  "■  haresfoot"  (trefoil),  Tri- 
foliiim  arvense.  In  Hb.  Ixii.,  Leporis 
pes,  haresfoot;  the  connexion  of  hy?;e 
with  the  verb  "  to  hie  "  is  plain.  Gl. 
Dun.  copies.  The  artist  in  V.  has 
omitted,  as  was  the  manner,  the  third 
leaflet  of  the  trefoil,  and  the  heads  are 
eaten  up.  MS.  A.  has  clover  heads. 
MS.  G.  draws  Geum  urbanum,  another 
harefoot,  and  glosses  it,  "  Hasin  uuohh  " 
"  Benedicta,"  herb  bennet.  The  later 
hand  in  B.  also  glosses  Avens.  But 
Fuchsius,  the  link  between  us  and  the 
middle  ages,  is  clear  as  to  the  trefoil 
both  by  name  and  figure. 

)>apanj"pecel,  -j-ppecel,  vipers  bvgloss, 
Echium  vulgare.  Speckle  in  our  usage, 
the  verb  frequentative,  in  this  case  the 
frequentative  adjective  of  speck,  j-pecca, 
masc,  (as  MS.)  is  very  applicable  to  this 
herb  :  hare  only  means  that  where  hares 
live,  it  lives.  Lb.  I.  xxxii.  2, 4  ;  Ixxxvii. 
Spreckle  is  now  a  Scotch  and  Suffitlk 
form  for  Speckle.  "  Eicios,  hai'au- 
"  speccel,"  Gl.  Mone,  p.  321  a.  "Echius, 
"  Echiimi,"  Gl.  in  Lye.  "  Ecios,  haran- 
"  sveccel,"  Gl.  Dun.  Eicios,  hajiau 
)-peccel,  Gl.  Brux. 

l^ajianjiyjic,  JJapepypc,  fem.,  gen.  -e.  The 
little  harewort  oftenest  groweth  in  gar- 
dens, and  hath  a  white  flower.  Lb. 
I.  Ixi.  1  ;  I.  Ixxxviii.  ;  IH.  Ix.  ;  II. 
Ixv.  5. 

)>a]>bbeam,  masc.,  gen.  -ef,  sycomore, 
acer  pseudoplatanus.  The  translation  of 
sycomore  in  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels, 
Luke  xix.  4.  The  true  sycomore  is  not 
English.  Vol.  I.,  p.  398,  where  the 
saparation  of  the  elements  makes  no 

Hares  lettuce,  Prenanthes  muralis.  lib. 
cxiv.  Lactuca  or  Lactuca  siluatica, 
MS.  T.  The  prenanthes  m.  is  drawn  in 
MS.  T.,  and  it  is  equivalent  in  German 
to  Hasenlattich,  in  Dansk  to  Vild  latuk. 
It  is  also  drawn  in  MS.  Bodley,  130,  and 
glossed  "  slepwert."  "Lactuca  leporina 
"  i .  wyld  Ictys,    and  he  has  leues  like 



Hares  lettuce — cont. 

"  sowthestyU,"  MS.  Bodley,  53G.  Tlie 
figures  in  MSS.  V.,  G.,  A.  are  of  no 

Ilatian,  translates  graoari.  Lb.  II.  xxv. 

]>a)>oh))e  ?  fem.  ?  declined  in  -an ;  pro- 
bably elbow  joint.  The  word  is  com- 
pounded of  the  syllable  ha}>,  which  is 
found  in  )>ea'5ejiian,  cohihere  (Boet. 
xxxix.  5  ;  Beda,  iv.  27  ;  C.E.p.  401,  17, 
where  the  fac  simile  of  the  MS.  reads 
mec  not  me,  p.  482,  5,  and  in  Umbe- 
hathlichiu,  nexilis,  in  Graflf.  iv.  805,) 
and  ofJA\>,ajoint;  it  signifies,  therefore, 
the  nex'ile  joint,  or  the  fast  tied  joint. 
The  patient  was  to  be  bled  on  it.  The 
fastest  tied  joint  on  which  a  patient  can 
well  be  bled  is  the  elbow.  Somner 
conjectured,  probably  from  knowledge  of 
the  Latin,  vena  axillaris;  that  is  the  same 
vein,  t)\v  iv  ayKccvi,  r^v  virh  /xaffX^^^Wj 
says  Trallianus  (p.  127,  ed.  1548). 

)>eahheale}>e,  )ieahhiolo)>e,  itiula  helenium ; 
See  eh.  Lb.  I.  xxxix.  2,  etc.  "  Hiunula 
"  campana,  ho'?^fellen,"  Gl.  Laud,  567, 
i.e.,  Horse  Helenium. 

iJealebe,  belly  bursted,  hertiiosus,  Gl.  Somn. 
p.  71  b,  60.  Hb.  Ixxviii.  2,  where  ad 
ramicem  pneri,  Lat.  ;  "  Ponderosus,"  in 
Lye,  which  means  not  "  weighty,"  but 
bursted;  "  Ponderosus,  hernia  laborans  " 
(verba  improbata  in  Bailey)  ;  Haull, 
masc,  hernia  (Islandic) ;  i>  cilb  bilS 
hoppobe  T  healebe  (MS.  Cott.  Tiber. 
A.  iii.  fol.  41),  the  child  shall  be  hump- 
backed and  bursted.     SH.  23. 

)>eal}:,  neut.,  the  half,  dimidium,  pars 
dimidia.  Lb.  II.  ii.  2.  )>eal}:,  side, 
quarter  is  fem. 

Healy  heapb,  half  head;  JE.G.  14,  line  24, 
distinctly  defines  as  the  sinciput,  the  for- 
ward half;  (hoc  sinciput),  heal}:  lieayob  ; 
hoc  occiput,  ]-e  fcjxpa  bsel  i'sej'  heaybej-. 

)>eal):  pubu,  masc,  gen.  -bej-,  field  balm, 
calamintha  nepeta,  Lb.  I.  xlvii.  2. 

"  jZidebalme .  i .  halue  pude,"  Gl. 
Harl.  978.  This  plant  was  placed  by 
Linnaeus  as  Melissa  ;  it  is  perennial. 

Dealm,  neut.,  halm,  calamus.  Gabjiion 
himj-ylfe  -p  healm.  Exod.  v.  7.  Lb.  1. 

Heap,  Lb.  I.  ii.  21,  austere.  Cf  Ileojio, 
sword,  C.E.  346,  and  its  senses  as  a 

HebcIaS,  a  coarse  upper  garment.  Quad.  iv. 
1 7.  "  Heben,  casla,"  gl.  C,  that  is,  a 
chasuble.  "  Heben  gunna,"  gl.  C.  gunny 
cloth.  Ne  haibbe  he  on  heben  ne  caeppan, 
DD.  348,  ix.  Let  him  have  oji  neither 
chasuble  nor  cope ;  the  English  rite.  Cf. 
IleSinn,  a  kirtle  or  cape  of  skiii,  in 
Islandic.  (Jonsson.) 

Deseclije,  fem.,  gen.  -an,  hedge  clivers, 
cleavers,  clivers,  Galium  wparme,  Lb.  I.  ix. 

liej^epiye,  gen.  -an,  fem.  ?  "  hedgeruff," 
''  hayreve,"  Galium  aparine.  "  Rubia 
"  minor,  HayreflF  oJ>er  aron  \i-ead  Ilay- 
"  renn  ?]  is  like  to  wodruff,  and  \>q  sed 
"  tuchid  will  honge  in  oneis  cloj'is," 
MS.  Sloane,  5,  fol.  29  a.  "  Rubia  minor 
"  cleuer  heyreue,"  Gl.  Harl.  3388.  Lb. 
I,  xxxii.  4;  I.  Ixiv. 

)>elbe,  tansy,  tanacetum  vidgare,  "  Tana- 
"  ceta,"  Gl.  Somn.  p.  66  [63]  b,  22.  So 
Gl.  Jul.,  Gl.  Dun.,  Gl.  Harl.  978  (A.D. 
1240);  Tenedisse,Gl.  Brux.,  also  "  Arti- 
"  mesia  hilde,"  Gl.  Dun.,  but  the  tansy 
is  generically  akin  to  the  mugwort. 
Lb.  L  xxvi.     Ai5a|.  58. 

l>emlic,  gen.  -e,  also  -an  ;  hemlock,  co- 
nium  maculatum.  Other  plants  may  be 
sometimes  called  hemlock,  for  the  um- 
bellate herbs  require  educated  eyes,  but 
this  is  the  starting  point  for  English 
notions.  Cicuta  virosa  is  water  hem- 
lock (Sir  J.  E.  Smith) ;  "  Cicuta," 
Gl.  Somn.  p.  64  a,  47,  classically  right, 
though  botanically  wrong  ;  for  it  fol- 
lows from  Plinius,  xxv.  95,  that  Kwveiuv 
=  cicuta.  Ace.  Hymlican.  Lb.  I.  i.  6. 
Has  a  masc.  adj.  Lacn.  71;  dat.  hym- 
lice.     Lb.  I.lviii.  1. 

)>eopocbpembel,  masc,  gen.  -ey,  the  buck- 
thorn, rkamnus.  "  Ranno,  Christs  thorne, 
"  Harts  thorne.  Way  thorne,  Bucke 
"  thorne,  or  Rainberry  thorne,"  Florio 



)>eo)iocb]jembel — cont. 
Lb.  III.  xxix.  1.  The  berries  are  exceed- 
ingly loved  by  stags,  Cotgrave,  v.  Eour- 
daine.      Gerarde. 

lieojiofc  cjiop,  Lb.  I.  vi.  3,  probably  a 
bunch  of  the  flowers  of  hart  wort,  or 
seseli.     (Nemn